Table of contents for Religion among the folk in Egypt / Hasan M. El-Shamy.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgments	0
Alphabet and Note on Transliteraton	0
Abbreviations and Signs	0
INTRODUCTION	1
I. CREATION AND COSMOLOGY
CHARACTERS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
I.	God, Creation and Worship	11
I.A.	'Allâh (i.e., God)	11
I.A.1.	zìkr (Remembrance [of God])	21
I.B.	Cosmology	26
I.B.1.	Creation of al-qadàr, el-qismah/en-naÃîb (Destiny, Kismet): al-qalàm (the Pen), al-làwà al-maÃfûà (The Safeguarded Tablet)	26
I.B.1a.	al-¿arsh (The Throne), al-Ãayyah (The Viper), es-samâwât (the Skies, Heavens), Nûn-the Whale	27
I.B.1b.	Creation of Time: Establishment of Night, Day, and Related Temporal Phenomena	29
I.B.2	Paradise, Hell, Isthus-The Straight-path	31
I.C.	Heavenly Bodies	39
I.D.	el-'Arà (Earth)	40
I.E.	el-Ãigâb (The Veil, Barrier)	43
I.F.	al-bàrzàkh (The Isthmus, Purgatory)	44
I.G.	Sìdràt al-Mùntahâ (The Lote-tree of the Extremity)	45
II. SUPERNATURAL BEINGS
II.	Supernatural Beings	48
II.A.	malâykah/malâ'ikàh (Angels)	48
II.A.1.	Other Categories of Angels	54
II.A.1a.	Angels as Components of a Person (Self/Psyche, etc.)	54
II.A.1b.	Nâkir and Nakîr, The Two Interrogative Angels	55
II.A.2.	Eblis and Other Fallen Angels	56
II.A.2a.	Hârût and Mârût	59
II.B.	el-gìn (The Jinn, Fairies)	60
II.B.1.	gìnnìyyât (Female Jinn)	68
II.B.1a.	Unstratified Female Jinn	69
II.B.2.	Harnessing the Jinn and Minor Angels	70
II.B.2a.	fàtà el-màndàl (Oracle, Detective-divination via Jinn)	79
II.B.3.	sìÃr (Magic): sìÃr-sùflî (Nether Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery): Ãàlb-en-nugûm (Milking-the-stars); shàbshabàh ([Sorcery Via] Use of Slipper); ràbà (Induced Impotence)	81
II.B.3a.	Magic (sìÃr) or Folk Para-religious Ritual?	86
II.C.	Jinn as Components of the Individual: Supernatural Counter-spirits and Siblings	87
II.C.1.	The Qarîn and Qarînàh: A Human's Counter-spirit, Correlative, or Spouse	88
II.C.1a.	The 'Ukht (Sister), and 'Akhkh (Brother)	91
II.C.2.	The Cult of Supernatural Illness, Possession, and Healing	96
II.C.2a.	'asyâd ez-zâr (zâr spirits/possessing-jinn)	99
II.C.2b.	'asyâd ez-zâr Pantheon	106
II.D.	Zoological Supernatural Beings	115
II.D.1.	ghîlân (Ogres) and Similar Creatures	116
II.D.2.	Supernatural Animals: The Mare and the Stallion	119
II.D.2a.	"Dâbbàt al-'àrÃ" (The "Earth's Animal")	121
II.D.3.	Supernatural Reptiles	122
II.D.4.	Supernatural Birds	124
II.D.5.	The Cat and other Creatures with Ties to the Supernatural-(Ant, Bee, Mantis)	127
II.E.	er-roaà (The Soul), and en-nàfs (The Self)	130
II.E.1.	¿àfrît (Ghost, cf. spook/revenant)	145
II.E.2.	Summoning the Soul (Seance, "(Ouija board")	146
III. AL-'INCE (Humans)
III.	al-'ince (Humans)	150
III.A.	Social Stratification in 'ince Society	157
III.B.	Specific Classes	159
III.B.1.	rusùl (God's Messengers) and anbiyâ (Prophets)	160
III.B.2.	ÃaÃâbah (The Prophet's Companions)	162
III.B.3.	Saints: Moslem 'awliyâ ("God's Favorites") and Coptic shuhadâ ("Martyrs")	163
III.B.3a.	Ãûfî Brotherhoods and Other Religious Organizations	173
III.C.	en-nâs (People), and Folk Theories of Personality	176
IV. DEIFIED HUMANS
IV.	The Arch-saints	183
IV.A.	el-'arba¿ah el-'aqÃâb (The Four Axes [of Earth])	183
IV.B.	el-KhiÃr (The Green-one), St. George, Elijah	185
IV.C.	Imam ¿Alî	186
IV.D.	Organization Among Arch-Saints	188
IV.D.1.	The Concept of Power and the Right to Rule: the Parallel Government	188
IV.D.2.	ed-dîwân (the Divan/Council), and the Cult of Martyrdom	190
IV.E.	jihâd: Righteous-struggle and Greater Martyrdom	194
V. POWERS AND ABSTRACTS
V.A.	Sacred Powers	197
V.A.1.	God's Power	197
V.B.	al-¿ìlm, (Gnosis, Knowledge)	198
V.B.1.	Sources of Knowledge and Truth	200
V.B.2.	Instructive Dreams (Sleeper's Vision, manâm)	201
V.C.	Concepts and Abstract Forces	204
V.C.1.	barakàh, (Blessing/Grace/Benediction)	205
V.C.2.	la¿nàh, ghaÃàb/sùkhÃ, niqmàh: ([God's] Curse, Anger/Wrath, Vengeance)	209
VI. NONSACRED FORCES AND CONCEPTS
VI.A.	Temporal Forces, Quasi Powers of Fate: ez-zamàn/ez-zamân (Time), ed-dàhr (Time-epochs), el-'ayyâm (Days), el-¿îshah (Life), 
ed-dùnyâ/dìnya (World, Life)	212
VI.B.	Chance: ÃaÃÃ/bàkht (Luck), zàhr (Dice), el-yâ-naÃîb/lutariyyah (Lottery), Ãùdfah (Accident, Chance), and Ãâli¿ (One's place in the horoscope)	212
VI.C.	Learning of the Unknown: el-kàff (Reading the palm of the hand); el-fìngân/fìngâl (Reading the residuals in a coffee cup); Divination through er-ràml ("[Cutting] sand"); el-wadà¿ (Sea shells), and eÃ-Ãâlì¿ (One's horoscope)	213
VI.Ca.	Soliciting God's Choice ('ìstikhâràh), and Bibliomancy (fàtà el-kitâb)	213
VI.D.	Risks and Gambles: miqaysah/muqâyasah (Risk-taking, Venturing), muqâmarah (Gambling, or taking a gamble), 'istibyâ¿ (Venturing everything out of desperation)	214
VII. ANTI-SACRED FORCES
VII.	shàrr (Evil) khair (Goodness)	215
VII.A.	Eblis (Satan), Other "satans." Cf. shàrr (Evil)	216
VIII. MECHANICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITHIN THE SUPERNATURAL
VIII.A.	khuzà¿balât (Superstitions)	218
VIII.B.	mushâhràh, kàbsàh or sàkt (Induced Loss of Fecundity, Barrenness, Infertility)	219
VIII.C.	el-Ãasad ([Malicious] Envy) and el-¿ain (The [Evil] Eye)	226
VIII.C.1.	el-¿ain (The Eye)	229
VIII.C.2.	el-kelmàh (The Word)	232
IX. APPENDIXES
God/Allâh and Creation
APPENDIX 1 	The Ninety-Nine Names of God	237
APPENDIX 2 	Reasons for Creation	238
APPENDIX 3 	The Tablet and the Pen (Reed) of Destiny	239
APPENDIX 4 	Creation of Earth and the Mountains	240
APPENDIX 5 	Resuscitation in Answer to Prayer: Image of the Universe	 240
APPENDIX 6 	Tour of Sky-worlds	 242
Angels
APPENDIX 7 	Love Song for a Dead Sweetheart	 247
APPENDIX 8 	A Turk is Introduced to the Two Angels	 247
APPENDIX 9 	Chain of Command Among Archangels	 248
APPENDIX 10 	Crumbs as Fee for Admission into Paradise	248
Jinn and Familiars
APPENDIX 11 	How Shâkir Became a Shaman-shaikh: "Working from the Books"	 249
APPENDIX 12 	How Shaman-shaikhah 'Âmnah Acquired Her Supernatural Powers: Working with a Familiar	 256
APPENDIX 13 	How the Temperamental Father Was Handled: A Psychodrama	 258
APPENDIX 14 	The Value of Dying in the Holy Land	 263
APPENDIX 15 	Why it is Preferable to Seek Reconciliation with the Jinn	 264
APPENDIX 16 	Pregnancy Via Artificial Insemination	 265
APPENDIX 17 	How Shâkir Cured a Case the Medical Doctor Couldn't	 266
APPENDIX 18 	Miscarriage: a Problem of a Young Bride Addressed	 269
APPENDIX 19 	Detective-divination by màndàl: A Successful Case	 271
APPENDIX 20 	Detective-divination via Pottery-water-bottle: A Failure	 279
APPENDIX 21 	A Case of Missing Jewelry	 282
APPENDIX 22 	A Jinni-woman Pays an 'încî/Human Friend a Visit	 283
Illness
APPENDIX 23 	The Thigh of the Duck	 284
APPENDIX 24 	"Mari" Girgis The Devil Slayer	 286
Zâr
APPENDIX 25 	Zâr 'asyâd: A Pantheon (I, II, III)	287
APPENDIX 26 	How the Zâr-ritual Solved a Woman's Problem of Childlessness	 290
APPENDIX 27 	Marûma's nidâ	 292
APPENDIX 27A 	Safînah's nidâ	 293
APPENDIX 28 	Saints in Zâr-like Ritual ("The Love for el-Ãasan and al-Ãusain")	 294
APPENDIX 29 	The Possessed Husband and His Zar	296
APPENDIX 30 	Moslem woman possessed by Christian zâr-spirit	297
Zikr and Worship
APPENDIX 31 	dhikr Worship: "O MoÃammad, you are my beloved"	298
Martyrdom: Advantageous Death
APPENDIX 32 	 "In Order Not to Gain Martyrdom"	300
Suffering
APPENDIX 33 	The Blind Man and Satan	300
Nether Magic
APPENDIX 34 	How Za¿zû¿ Can Be Summoned to Perform a Task: A Case of Nether-magic 	302
APPENDIX 35 	How Shâkir Was Pressured into Leaving his Village and Giving up his Craft	304
APPENDIX 36 	Magic Fix Written on a Catfish	308
Prophets and Saints
APPENDIX 37 	God's Messengers (Apostles)	309
APPENDIX 38 	The Generating of a Saint for a `Saint-less' Community: A Dead Person Demands Recognition	309
APPENDIX 39 	The Death of shaikhah Shafîqah's Brother	310
APPENDIX 40 	The Shaman-shaikh's barakàh Produces the Lost Wallet	311
APPENDIX 41 	Can a Woman Be More beautiful than the Moon? Ibrâhîm ed-Disûqî and the Ulama	313
APPENDIX 42 	Arch-saint as Deity: ed-Disûqî's Power Display	315
APPENDIX 43 	Bes, El-Badawî, and St. Nicholas 	317
The Evil Eye
APPENDIX 44 	el-¿Ain (The Eye): Incantaation (ràqwàh)	320
APPENDIX 45 	The Source of Illness Was the Eye	322
APPENDIX 46 	The New Car	323
APPENDIX 47 	The Stone in Bed	323
Instructive Dreams and Other Visions
APPENDIX 48 	A Widow's Dream-Sayyidah's Dream	324
APPENDIX 49 	Es-Sayyid el-Badawî Cures a Case of Heart-ailment	325
APPENDIX 50 	A Utopia and Mental Illness	326
APPENDIX 51 	Unfulfilled nàdhr (Pledge) to Saint	327
APPENDIX 52 	The Benefit of Friday	328
Luck
APPENDIX 53 	Playing the Dice (Luck)	329
NOTES TO APPENDIXES	331
REGISTER OF TALE-TYPES	347
REGISTER OF MOTIFS	351[??]
BIBLIOGRAPHY	385[??]
GENERAL INDEX	395[??]

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Islam -- Egypt -- History.
Folk religion -- Egypt.
Islam -- Egypt -- Customs and practices.