Table of contents for The Tuskegee airmen : the men who changed a nation / by Charles E. Francis ; edited, revised, up-dated and enlarged by Adolph Caso.

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Contents
Abbreviations	 7
Acknowledgement	14
Two Phases of Tuskegee Airmen History	16
A Word from the Editor	 16
Preface 	18
Prologue¿The Roads to the War and the American Conflict 	 20
Chapter 1 The Fight For The Right To Fight	 36
Chapter 2 A Dream Comes True	 55
Chapter 3 The Road to War	 63
Chapter 4 A Taste of Combat	 69
Chapter 5 The Sicilian Campaign	 76
Chapter 6 The Dark Days	 82
Chapter 7 From Failure To Success	 95
Chapter 8 The 99th XE "99th" Fighter Squadron and Operation Strangle XE "Operation Strangle" 	106
Chapter 9 The 332nd XE "332nd" Fighter Group The Red Tails XE "Red Tails" 	115
Chapter 10 The 332nd XE "332nd" Fighter Group Enters Combat	120
Chapter 11 The 332nd XE "332nd" and the Fifteenth Air Force	129
Chapter 12 The 99th XE "99th" Joins the 332nd XE "332nd" Fighter Group	139
Chapter 13 Striking Oil	148
Chapter 14 The Invasion of Southern France XE "France" 	158
Chapter 15 Striking Around The Clock	165
Chapter 16 The Battle of Greece XE "Greece" 	172
Chapter 17 The Balkan XE "Balkan" Campaign	177
Chapter 18 The Collapse of Germany XE "Germany" 	190
Chapter 19 The Organization of the 477th XE "477th" 	204
Chapter 20 Drawing The Battle Line At Freeman Field XE "Freeman Field" 	231
Chapter 21 Integrating the Air Forces	256
Chapter 22 They Changed A Nation	275
Chapter 23 Stories of Prisoners of War	294
Chapter 24 Leaders of Men	304
Chapter 25 The Unsung Heroes	329
Chapter 26 To do Battle	345
Chapter 27 The Enlisted Men	364
Chapter 28 A Forgotten Lonely Eagle	379
Appendices	384
Footnotes	385
References	390
COMBAT RECORD OF NEGRO AIRMEN	394
RECORD OF ENEMY AIRCRAFT SHOT DOWN
	BY NEGRO PILOTS	399
PILOTS AWARDED THE DISTINGUISHED FLYING CROSS Unofficial List	399
TUSKEGEE HONOR ROLL Men Lost in Training, Combat, and on Routine Missions	405
SPECIAL ORDERS NO. 85, 1 April 1943 E-X-T-R-A- XE "A" C-T	414
THE MEN(THE RECORDS THE ORIGINAL 99th XE "99th" FIGHTER SQUADRON	420
ENLISTED MEN Airplane Mechanics:	422
ORIGINAL 332nd XE "332nd" FIGHTER GROUP	423
ROSTER OF GRADUATES Advanced Flying School 1942¿1946 (Extracted from official Army Air Force documents).	430
THE TUSKEGEE AIRMEN 1939¿1949	457
AAF BLACK MILITARY PERSONNEL
SEPTEMBER 1942¿MARCH 1946	458
LIST OF FIRST 19 OFFICERS ARRESTED AT FREEMAN	461
LIST OF 101 OFFICERS ARRESTED AT FREEMAN	462
TUSKEGEE AIRMEN HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY	464
PHOTO SECTION	
CLASS PICTURES	471
INDEX	
	
	ILLUSTRATIONS
	
	Photos in front of book:
	 1. Charles XE "Charles" E. Francis XE "Francis" 
	 2. Colonel Benjamin XE "Benjamin" O. Davis, Jr.
	 3, Hall of Black Achievement Reception Honoring Tuskegee Airmen. Left to right: Ronald XE "Ronald" Lucas, National President XE "President" Tuskegee Airmen, William XE "William" E. Broadwater, Jack XE "Jack" Bryant, Luther XE "Luther" McIlwain, John XE "John" Roach, Thomas XE "Thomas" Ross XE "Ross" , Edward XE "Edward" Hartgrove, Willis XE "Willis" Saunders, Daniel Keel, Enoch O-Woodhouse, Howard XE "Howard" Carter, Milton XE "Milton" Hopkins, Francis XE "Francis" Hector. (Photo, courtesy of D. Confar/Images Photography)
	Photo section back of book:
	 4. Eugene XE "Eugene" Bullard
	 5. Bessie Coleman XE "Coleman" 
	 6. Chief Anderson and Colonel Adolph Caso XE "Caso" 
	 7. Roscoe XE "Roscoe" Draper, Fred XE "Fred" Witherspoon, Philip XE "Philip" Lee, Edward XE "Edward" Gibbs, Ernest XE "Ernest" Henderson Sr., Joseph XE "Joseph" Ramos, James XE "James" Hill
	 8. Civilian Primary Instructors: Bob Terry, John XE "John" Young, Stevens, Charles XE "Charles" Fox, Roscoe XE "Roscoe" Draper, Sherman XE "Sherman" Rose, James XE "James" A. Hill, Adolph Moret, Ernest XE "Ernest" Henderson, Matthew XE "Matthew" Plummer, Linwood XE "Linwood" Williams XE "Williams" , Daniel C. James, Lewis XE "Lewis" Jackson XE "Jackson" , Milton XE "Milton" Crenshaw, Perry XE "Perry" Young, Charlie Flowers, Claude Platt, "Chief XE "Chip" " Anderson, C.R. Harris, Wendell XE "Wendell" Lipscomb, J. E. XE "J. E." Wright
	9. LTC Hazard with MAJ Boyd
	10. COL Frederick XE "Frederick" V. Kimble, second Commanding Officer
	11. Cadet Color Guards
	12. Post Headquarters, Tuskegee Army Air Field
	13. Cadets in training at Tuskegee
	14. Mechanics check a P-40 XE "P-40" 
	15. First class graduates TAAF: L-R: George XE "George" Roberts, B. O. Davis Jr., Charles XE "Charles" Debow, MAJ Robert XE "Robert" Long (instructor), Mac XE "Mac" Ross XE "Ross" , Lemuel R. Custis
	16. COL Noel Parrish and LTC George XE "George" S. Roberts
	17. LTC Noel F. Parrish flanked by BG Benjamin XE "Benjamin" O. Davis, Sr. LTC Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. visiting at Tuskegee
	18. Members of the original 99th XE "99th" Fighter Squadron
	19. Secretary XE "Secretary" of War Stimson inspects the 99th XE "99th" 
	20. Irene XE "Irene" Turner admiring expert aerial gunnery medal of her son LT Leon XE "Leon" L. Turner
	21. LT Wilmeth W. Sidat Singh, star football player Syracuse XE "Syracuse" U., with mother and fiancée
	22. LT Lloyd XE "Lloyd" R. Radcliffe surrounded by his proud family
	23. LT Surl XE "Surl" Smith XE "Smith" and his proud family
	24. Ground crew of the 99th XE "99th" 
	25. Captain Charles XE "Charles" B. Hall
	26. LT Leo Gray,
	27. LT Leo Gray in his plane.
	28. Elsberry discussing flying with LT M. Rodgers, COL Davis, MAJ Gleed and CPT McDaniels
	29. Navigators Class from Hondo Army Air Field XE "Hondo Army Air Field" . 
	30. BG Benjamin XE "Benjamin" Oliver XE "Oliver" Davis, Sr., First Day of Issue, Washington XE "Washington" , DC, 28 January 1997, 20066
	31. Brigadier General XE "General" Benjamin XE "Benjamin" O. Davis, Sr.
	32. BG Benjamin XE "Benjamin" stamp First Day of Issue, Jan 28, 1997.
	33. Posing with his wife, LT Thomas XE "Thomas" Malone, who was awarded the Purple Heart for combat in Sicily
	34. Greeting nurses, a Colonel Parrish shakes hands with Chief Nurse Della M. Raney
	35. Captain Eldridge XE "Eldridge" J. Williams and the Tuskegee boxing team
	36. Miss Gridiron, Edna B. Bouldin, greeting SGT Jerry XE "Jerry" Williams XE "Williams" and LT Ira XE "Ira" J. O'Neal XE "Neal" of Tuskegee's Warhawks
	37. Medical Staff of the 99th XE "99th" and 332nd XE "332nd" : MAJ Marchbanks and CPT Allen, Moloney and Waugh
	38. Six pictures: Black nurses "keep them flying"
	39. Major XE "Major" Campbell and Airman before takeoff
	40. Major XE "Major" William XE "William" T. Mattison and Crew Chief, SSgt De With Mottris.
	41. Pilots of the 332nd XE "332nd" Fighter Group: LT Morgan XE "Morgan" , Woods, Nelson XE "Nelson" , CPT Turner, and LT. Lester XE "Lester" 
	42. LT Andrew XE "Andrew" Marshall hit by flak in a strafing mission, Greece
	43. Veterans of the 332nd: XE "332nd" Haywood, Mosely, Robinson, Faulkner and Weathers
	44. Spencer XE "Spencer" , Punch, Houston, Curtis XE "Curtis" , Perry XE "Perry" , Ed Thomas XE "Thomas" , Payne, Blackwell, M. Rodgers, Gene XE "Gene" Brown, Hardy, Gaines
	45. Captain Edward XE "Edward" Toppins
	46. Major XE "Major" Andrew XE "Andrew" D. Jug Turner
	47. BG B.O. Davis, Sr. decorates B.O. Davis, Jr., Joseph XE "Joseph" Elsberry, Jack XE "Jack" Holsclaw, and Clarence XE "Clarence" Lester XE "Lester" 
	48. BG Davis, Sr. decorating pilots of the 332nd XE "332nd" 
	49. Captain Luke Weathers scored two victories in one day
	50. Captain Woodrow XE "Woodrow" Crockett posing on his plane (notice the names of Parks and Fernandez)
	51. Pilot of the 477th XE "477th" Bomber Group warming up plane at Godman Field XE "Godman Field" 
	52. Marcus Ray, Aide to the Secretary XE "Secretary" of War, at Tuskegee with CPT Driver, McDaniel and CPT Friend
	53. The 332nd XE "332nd" returning to the States
	54. Colonel Benjamin XE "Benjamin" O. Davis, Jr., receiving Legion of Merit XE "Legion of Merit" 
	55. Major XE "Major" Fred XE "Fred" Minnis, greatly responsible to the success of the Tuskegee experiment
	56. Leaders of the 332nd XE "332nd" Red Tails XE "Red Tails" : LTC Roberts, LTC Brooks, CPT Lucas, and MAJ Letcher
	57. Members of the first AAF Bombardiers class, Hondo Army Air Field XE "Hondo Army Air Field" , Texas
	58. LT Cyril Burke and F/O Daniel Keel receive their wings at Midland Army Air Field
	59. Formation of Black Cadets at Hondo Army Air Field XE "Hondo Army Air Field" 
	60. Cadets May, Trotter, and Evans at Midland Army Air Field
	61. Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia greeting Hondo Air Field flyers
	62. F/O Levert V. Middleton, Bombardier Navigator; 2LT Eugene XE "Eugene" Henderson, Co-Pilot; 1LT Henry XE "Henry" P. Hervey, Pilot, SGT Charles XE "Charles" Jones, Tail Gunner, PVT Frank XE "Frank" Hector, Radio Operator, Gunner; FFC John XE "John" E. Starks, Engineer, Gunner
	63. Atlanta, GA August 12, 1995, Roger XE "Roger" C. Terry, President XE "President" of the Tuskegee Airmen, is surrounded by Colonel Adolph Caso XE "Adolph Caso" , Frank XE "Frank" Fuzzy Hector, and admirer, celebrating the vindication of over one hundred Tuskegeeans who had held fast against segregation and racism, photo courtesy of Sylvia XE "Sylvia" Freeman
	64.LT George XE "George" G. Turner, LT Clinton E. McIntyre, 2nd LT James XE "James" Williams XE "Williams" , LT George B. Choise, (Unknown), F/O Clifford XE "Clifford" C. Mosley, F/O Harold XE "Harold" B.tc \f O \l 9 "Top\: MAJ Mattison, CPT Temple, LT Stewart, LT Harvey and LT Alexander. Bottom\: LT George G. Turner, LT Clinton E. McIntyre, LT George B. Choise, (Unknown), F/O Clifford C. Mosley, F/O Harold B." Maples, LT Henry XE "Henry" T. Holland.
	65. LT Harvey and members of 332nd XE "332nd" Gunnery Team, 1949
	66. Chart, Fifteenth Air Force.	
	67. Major XE "Major" General XE "General" Lucius Theus
	68. General XE "General" Daniel C. James XE "James" .
	 XE "James" 69. Four Astronauts: COL Guion S. Bluford, Dr. Ronald XE "Ronald" E. McNair, COL Frederick XE "Frederick" D. Gregory, and LTC Charles XE "Charles" F. Bolden.
	70. COL McPherson XE "McPhearson" , A. Cisco, L. Jackson XE "Jackson" , H. Baugh, Ace Lawson, Dempsey XE "Dempsey" Morgan XE "Morgan" , and L. Turner
	71. Veteran Tuskegee Pilots attend reunion in Tuskegee, in 1977. Left to right: Alva Temple, Lowell XE "Lowell" Steward, Four Star General XE "General" Daniel Chappie James XE "James" (names of other two gentlemen unknown)
	72. The author, Charles XE "Charles" E. Francis XE "Francis" , with his son, daughter-in-law and grandchildren (1987)
	73. Former pilot with 99th XE "99th" , Dr. Curtis XE "Curtis" C. Robinson and Mrs. Florie XE "Florie" Robinson
	74. Former test pilot for the 99th XE "99th" , Wylie Selden and wife June at a celebration party at Howard XE "Howard" University XE "Howard University" 
	75. COL William XE "William" Campbell, 1987 San Francisco TAAF Convention
	76. 2LT LeRoy XE "LeRoy" A. Battle on leave in Brooklyn, NY with his mother (left) and his aunt. LeRoy is not wearing an Officer's uniform as it had not yet arrived. Photo courtesy of LeRoy Battle, Sr.
	77. Midland Army Air Field, 8 September 1944¿Advanced Bombardier/Navigation Cadets drawing parachutes for a night mission: Robert XE "Robert" S. Lawrence XE "Lawrence" , Benjamin XE "Benjamin" J. Williams XE "Williams" , Ivan G. Bynoe, LeRoy XE "LeRoy" A. Battle, and Robert A. Lee. Photo, courtesy Le Roy XE "Roy" Battle.
	78. Airplane Armorer, SGT Conway Waddy at an air base in Italy XE "Italy" 	79. The author, Charles XE "Charles" E. Francis XE "Francis" , in 1944
	80. Italy XE "Italy" 1944¿Tuskegee Airmen Ground Support
	81. Italy XE "Italy" 1944¿SGT George XE "George" Watson, Sr. with an Italian boy
	82. James XE "James" A. Hurd, Pilot 477th XE "477th" , and Crew
	83. 2LT Leo XE "Leo" Gray
	84. 2LT Leo XE "Leo" Gray in his P-40 XE "P-40" . 
	85. CPT Herbert XE "Herbert" Carter and LT William XE "William" W. (Chubby) Green, veteran combat pilots of the 99th XE "99th" and 100th XE "100th" , standing in front of a B-25 at Lockbourne XE "Lockbourne" .
	86.Dual-rated Pilot-Navigator Officer LT Turner, LT James Williams, LT Choise, LT C.C. Moseley, LT Maples, and LT H.J. Holland (September 1945, by J.S. Mosley). XE "332nd" 
	87. James XE "James" A. Calhoun, "To My Darling" Wife.
	88. The Cross
	89. The Purple Heart
	90. LT James XE "James" L. Warthall
	91. MAJ Gabe XE "Gabe" Hawkins
	92. COL Donald XE "Donald" McPherson XE "McPhearson" 
	93. LT Luther XE "Luther" Davenport
	94. LT Richard XE "Richard" Kraft
	95. LT Owen XE "Owen" Peterson
	96. LT Philip XE "Philip" H. Heard
	97. LT Wayne XE "Wayne" E. Cook
	98. LT William XE "William" Holloman

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

United States. Army Air Forces. Fighter Group, 332nd.
United States. Army Air Forces. Fighter Squadron, 99th.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations, American.
United States. Army Air Forces -- African American troops.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Regimental histories -- United States.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- Europe.
World War, 1939-1945 -- Participation, African American.
African American air pilots -- History.