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Contents in Brief 1 Principles of Animal Behavior 2 The Evolution of Behavior 3 Proximate Factors 4 Learning 5 Cultural Transmission 6 Sexual Selection 7 Mating Systems 8 Kinship 9 Cooperation 10 Foraging 11 Antipredator Behavior 12 Communication 13 Habitat Selection, Territoriality, and Migration 14 Aggression 15 Play 16 Aging and Disease 17 Animal Personalities Contents 1 PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Types of Questions and Levels of Analysis Three Foundations Foundation 1-Natural Selection Foundation 2-Individual Learning Foundation 3-Cultural Transmission Conceptual, Theoretical, and Empirical Approaches Conceptual Approaches Theoretical Approaches Empirical Approaches An Overview of What Is to Follow Interview with Dr. E. O. Wilson 2 THE EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIOR Artificial Selection Natural Selection Selective Advantage of a Trait How Natural Selection Operates Behavioral Genetics Mendel's Laws Locating Genes for Polygenic Traits Dissecting Behavioral Variation The Modern Theoretical Framework for Animal Behavior Sociobiology and Selfish Genes Antipredator Behavior in Guppies Adaptation Genetic Techniques to Test Hypotheses in Animal Behavior Kinship and Naked Mole Rat Behavior Coalition Formation Phylogeny and the Study of Animal Behavior Phylogenetic Trees Phylogeny and Parental Care Phylogeny, Mating Systems, and Male Aggression Interview with Dr. Alan Grafen 3 PROXIMATE FACTORS Ultimate and Proximate Perspectives Hormones and Proximate Causation The Long-Term Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Hormones Stress Hormones and Spatial Memory in Rats Neurobiological Underpinnings of Behavior The Nervous Impulse Neurobiology and Learning in Voles Vocalizations in Plainfin Midshipman Fish Sleep and Predation in Mallard Ducks Molecular Genetics and Animal Behavior Ultraviolet Vision in Birds Song Acquisition in Birds Development and Animal Behavior Early Development and Its Effect on Parental Behavior in the Oldfield Mouse Development, Temperature, and Ovipositing Behavior in Wasps Foraging in Honeybees: An Integrated Proximate Analysis Mushroom Bodies and Honeybee Foraging Genes, mRNA and Honeybee Foraging Hormones and Honeybee Foraging Interview with Dr. Geoffrey Hill 4 LEARNING What Is Individual Learning? How Animals Learn Learning from a Single-Stimulus Experience Pavlovian (Classical) Conditioning Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning Why Animals Learn Within-Species Studies and the Evolution of Learning Population-Comparisons and the Evolution of Learning A Model of the Evolution of Learning What Animals Learn Learning Where Home Is Located Learning about Your Mate Learning about Familial Relationships Learning about Aggression Molecular Genetics and Endocrinology of Learning Molecular Genetics of Learning in Rats Endocrinology of Learning in Rats Phylogeny and the Neurobiology of Learning Interview with Dr. Sara Shettleworth 5 CULTURAL TRANSMISSION What Is Cultural Transmission? What's So Important about Cultural Transmission? Effects of Others on Behavior Social Learning Teaching in Animals Modes of Cultural Transmission Vertical Cultural Transmission Horizontal Cultural Transmission Oblique Cultural Transmission The Interaction of Genetic and Cultural Transmission The Grants' Finches Guppy Mate Choice Cultural Transmission and Brain Size Interview with Dr. Cecilia Heyes 6 SEXUAL SELECTION Intersexual and Intrasexual Selection Evolutionary Models of Mate Choice Direct Benefits and Mate Choice Good Genes and Mate Choice Runaway Sexual Selection Sensory Bias and the Emergence of Mate Choice Learning and Mate Choice Sexual Imprinting Learning and Mate Choice in Japanese Quail Cultural Transmission and Mate Choice Mate-Choice Copying Song Learning and Mate Choice in Cowbirds Male-Male Competition and Sexual Selection Red Deer Roars and Male-Male Competition Male-Male Competition by Interference Male-Male Competition by Cuckoldry Interview with Dr. Anne Houde 7 MATING SYSTEMS Different Mating Systems Monogamous Mating Systems Polygamous Mating Systems Promiscuous Mating Systems The Ecology and Evolution of Polygynous Mating Systems Polygyny and Resources The Polygyny Threshold Model Extrapair Copulations Sperm Competition Multiple Mating Systems in a Single Population? Dunnocks Interview with Dr. Nick Davies 8 KINSHIP Kinship and Animal Behavior Kinship Theory Relatedness and Inclusive Fitness Family Dynamics Conflict within Families Parent-Offspring Conflict Sibling Rivalry Kin Recognition Matching Models Rule-of-Thumb Models of Kin Recognition Interview with Dr. Francis Ratnieks 9 COOPERATION The Range of Cooperative Behaviors Helping in the Birthing Process Social Grooming Paths to Cooperation Path 1: Reciprocity Path 2: Byproduct Mutualism Path 3: Group Selection Coalitions Coalitions in Baboons Alliances and "Herding" Behavior in Cetaceans Phylogeny and Cooperation Phylogeny and Cooperative Breeding in Birds Phylogeny and Cooperation in Social Spiders Interspecific Mutualisms Ants and Butterflies-Mutualism with Communication? Interview with Dr. Hudson Kern Reeve 10 FORAGING Finding Food and the Search Image Optimal Foraging Theory What to Eat Where to Eat Specific Nutrient Constraints Risk-Sensitive Foraging Foraging and Group Size Group Size Groups, Public Information, and Foraging Natural Selection, Phylogeny, and Seed Caching Hippocampal Size and Caching Ability Phylogeny and Caching Ability Learning and Foraging Foraging, Learning, and Brain Size in Birds Planning for the Future Social Learning and Foraging Interview with Dr. John Krebs 11 ANTIPREDATOR BEHAVIOR Avoiding Predators Blending into the Environment Being Quiet Choosing Safe Habitats What to Do When Prey Encounter Predators Fleeing Approaching Predators Feigning Death Signaling to Predators Fighting Back Predation and Foraging Trade-offs Interview with Dr. Anne Magurran 12 COMMUNICATION Communication and Honesty Communication Solves Problems Problem: How to Coordinate Group Foraging Problem: How to Find and Secure a Mate Problem: How to Warn Others about Predators Interview with Dr. Rufus Johnstone 13 HABITAT SELECTION, TERRITORIALITY, AND MIGRATION Models of Habitat Choice The Ideal Free Distribution and Habitat Choice The IFD Model and Foraging Success Territoriality Territoriality and Learning Territory Owners, Satellites, and Sneakers How to Keep Territory in the Family Conflict in Family Territories Migration Migration and Navigation The Heritability of Migratory Restlessness Migration and Defense against Parasites Phylogeny and Migratory Behavior Interview with Dr. Judy Stamps 14 AGGRESSION Fight or Flight? Game Theory Models of Aggression The Hawk-Dove Game The War of Attrition Model The Sequential Assessment Model Winner, Loser, Bystander, and Audience Effects Winner and Loser Effects Bystander Effects Audience Effects Interview with Dr. Karen Hollis 15 PLAY Defining Play Types and Functions of Play Object Play Locomotor Play Social Play A General Theory for the Function of Play Endocrinological and Neurobiological Bases of Play Bases of Play Fighting in Young Male Rodents Basis of Sexual Play in Young Belding's Ground Squirrels A Phylogenetic Approach to Play Interview with Dr. Bernd Heinrich 16 Aging and Disease Senescence in the Wild? Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives on Senescence The Antagonistic Pleiotropy Model of Senescence Disposable Soma Theory and Longevity Hormones, Heat-Shock Proteins, and Aging Glucocorticoids, Stress, and Aging Heat-Shock Proteins and Aging Disease and Animal Behavior Avoidance of Disease-Filled Habitats Avoidance of Diseased Individuals Self-Medication Why Some Like It Hot Interview with Dr. Richard Wrangham 16 Animal Personalities Boldness and Shyness Bold and Shy Pumpkinseeds Guppies, Boldness, and Predator Inspection Some Case Studies Hyena Personalities Octopus and Squid Personalities Ruff Satellites Natural Selection and Personality in Great Tit Birds Chimpanzee Personalities and Cultural Transmission Coping Styles Some Practical Applications of Animal Personality Research Predators and Domesticated Prey Guide Dog Personalities Interview with Dr. Jerome Kagan Glossary References Credits Index
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