Table of contents for Early Christian remains of Inner Mongolia : discovery, reconstruction and appropriation / by Tjalling H.F. Halbertsma.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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CONTENTS 
List of maps, ?gures and plates ................................................. xiii 
List of appendices ....................................................................... xix 
Acknowledgements ..................................................................... xxi 
Note on names, spelling and illustrations .................................. xxiii 
Introduction ................................................................................ xxv 
PART ONE 
TIME AND PLACE 
Chapter One On the term 'Nestorianism' and the early Chinese terms for Christianity 
............................................... 3 
1.1 Origin and early use of the term 'Nestorian' ............... 4 
1.2 The Tang dynasty terms for Christianity ..................... 6 
1.3 The Yuan dynasty term for Christians ......................... 9 
1.4 Conclusions .................................................................... 11 
Chapter Two Medieval envoys connecting Europe and the Mongol empire 
....................................................................... 13 
2.1 Prester John and the Christened East ........................... 13 
2.2 William of Rubruck ....................................................... 15 
2.3 Enter Rabban Sauma .................................................... 17 
2.4 Marco Polo ..................................................................... 22 
2.5 John of Montecorvino ................................................... 24 
2.6 Conclusions .................................................................... 26 
Chapter Three Nestorian Christians in Central Asia and China in the Mongol era 
....................................................... 29 
3.1 Nestorian Christians among the Central Asian tribes .... 29 
3.2 Nestorian Christians among the Ongut ........................ 35 
3.3 King George of the Ongut ........................................... 38 
3.4 The Ongut realm ........................................................... 46 
3.5 Nestorian Christians among the Mongols .................... 48 
3.6 The Mongol rulers' approach towards Christianity ..... 52 
3.7 	Nestorian Christians in China proper ......................... 57 
3.8 	Organization of the Church of the East in Central Asia and China 
............................................................ 63 
3.9 	The decline and disappearance of Nestorian Christianity in Central Asia and China ...................... 67 
3.10 	Conclusions .................................................................. 69 
PART TWO 
DISCOVERY AND DOCUMENTATION OF 
NESTORIAN REMAINS IN INNER MONGOLIA 
Chapter Four Foreign discovery and documentation of Nestorian remains in Inner Mongolia before 1949 
............... 73 
4.1 	Cesar de Brabander (1857-1919) and Charles Pieters (1884-1926) 
.................................................................. 73 
4.2 	Henning Haslund-Christensen (1896-1948) ............... 79 
4.3 	Huang Wenbi (1893-1966) .......................................... 82 
4.4 	Owen Lattimore (1900-1989) ..................................... 84 
4.5 	Henry Desmond Martin (1908-1973) ......................... 88 
4.6 	Bettina Lum (1911-1983) ............................................ 93 
4.7 	Egami Namio (1906-2002) .......................................... 97 
4.7.1 Egami collection ................................................ 102 
4.8 	Inoo Tentaro ................................................................ 105 
4.9 	Carl Barkman (1919-2006) ......................................... 106 
4.10 	Other foreign researchers before 1949 ....................... 107 
 4.11 	Conclusions .................................................................. 108 
Chapter Five Discovery and documentation of Nestorian remains in Inner Mongolia after 1949 
.................................. 111 
5.1 	Gai Shanlin (1936-) ..................................................... 112 
5.2 	Further Chinese ? eld research .................................... 116 
5.3 	Accidental Nestorian ?nd by a Chinese farmer around 1984 
.............................................................................. 118 
5.4 	Foreign ?eld research from 1997 onwards .................. 121 
5.5 	Author's ? eld research ................................................. 123 
5.6 	Conclusions .................................................................. 130 
PART THREE 
RECONSTRUCTION AND CONTEXTUALIZATION 
OF NESTORIAN REMAINS IN INNER MONGOLIA 
Chapter Six Nestorian city remains from Inner Mongolia .... 135 
6.1 Olon Sume-in Tor (Olon Sume) ................................... 135 
6.2 Ulan Baishing (Chengbuzi) ............................................ 146 
6.3 Boro Baishing ................................................................. 147 
6.4 	Mukhor Soborghan ........................................................ 149 
 6.5 	Derriseng Khutug .......................................................... 150 
 6.6 	Identi?cation of Ongut cities north of Daqingshan mountains 
....................................................................... 150
 6.7 	Conclusions .................................................................... 157 
Chapter Seven Nestorian grave sites and grave material from Inner Mongolia 
....................................................................... 159 
7.1 Turkic-style rock graves and Nestorian steles ................ 160 
7.2 Graves with Nestorian gravestones ................................ 175 
7.3 Nestorian horizontal gravestones ................................... 190 
7.4 	Tomb sculptures at Nestorian sites ................................ 200 
7.5 	Other Nestorian stones from Olon Sume ..................... 205 
7.6 Ongut cof?n and pagoda at Zhaohe and cof?n slab at Bailingmiao 
..................................................................... 207 
7.7 	Graves with stone columns at Shizhuziliang ................. 208 
7.8 Chifeng brick .................................................................. 213 
7.9 Conclusions ..................................................................... 216 
Chapter Eight Characteristics of Nestorian grave material from Inner Mongolia 
.............................................................. 219 
8.1 Nestorian inscriptions .................................................... 220 
8.2 The cross of the Church of the East ............................ 232 
8.3 Design and decoration of grave material ..................... 240 
8.4 Idiosyncrasies of Nestorian grave material ................... 241 
8.5 Conclusions .................................................................... 244 
PART FOUR 
APPROPRIATION OF NESTORIAN HERITAGE 
FROM INNER MONGOLIA 
Chapter Nine Physical appropriation of Nestorian heritage by settlers 
................................................................................ 251 
9.1 	Early appropriation of Nestorian objects by Buddhist settlers 
............................................................................. 251 
9.2 	Appropriation of Nestorian objects by Han Chinese settlers 
............................................................................. 253 
9.3 	Appropriation of Nestorian sites by Han Chinese settlers 
............................................................................. 257 
9.4 	Grave looting and treasure seeking at Nestorian sites .... 259 
9.5 	Appropriation of sites and objects by tourism developers 
....................................................................... 266
 9.6 	Conclusions .................................................................... 268 
Chapter Ten Mongolian appropriation of Nestorian sites and objects 
.............................................................................. 271 
10.1 	Mongolian oral history of Nestorian sites .................... 271 
10.2 	Contemporary Mongolian attitudes regarding Nestorian sites and objects ............................................ 
278 
10.3 Mongolian attitudes regarding Nestorian sites and objects after settling 
....................................................... 282 
10.4 	Mongolian anecdotes on the origin of Olon Sume ..... 285 
10.5 Loss of Mongolian legends, oral history and anecdotes on Nestorian heritage ................................... 
289
 10.6 Conclusions .................................................................... 290 
Chapter Eleven Appropriation of Nestorian heritage by missionaries and ? eld researchers 
.......................................... 293 
11.1 Early appropriation of Nestorian heritage by missionaries .................................................................... 
293 
11.2 Twentieth century appropriation of Nestorian heritage by researchers 
................................................................. 299 
11.3 Conclusions ..................................................................... 303 
Conclusion .................................................................................. 305 
Summary ..................................................................................... 308 
Appendices .................................................................................. 311 
Bibliography ................................................................................ 337 
Index ........................................................................................... 353 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Christianity -- China -- Inner Mongolia.