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Contents List of Figures List of Tables and Boxes Preface List of Symbols 1. Introduction Origins Size matters Universal assumptions Part I: Background 2. Microscopy Invention Eyeglasses Microscopes Observation Structure of tissues Microscopic organisms Brownian motion Bacteria Characterizations Classifications Measurements Sizes Shapes Adaptations 3. Fluids Some History Viscosity Basic Theory Reynolds number Concept Examples Creeping flow Simplicity of flow Flow through tubes Flow around cylinders Slow moving spheres Stokes' law for speed Frictional coefficient Deviations Interactions 4. Molecules The atomic view of matter Gas laws Chance breakthroughs Probability Normal distribution Poisson distribution The Kinetic theory Avogadro's number Diffusion Osmotic pressure Perspective 5. Brownian Motion Observations Theory Experimental tests Random walks A model of diffusion Constrained angles Perspective 6. Ellipsoids Plots of ellipsoidal shape parameters Contours Special plots Calculations Translation Translational friction coefficients Translational diffusion coefficient Rotation Rotational friction coefficient Rotational diffusion coefficient Rotational time constant 7. Information Shannon's concepts Signal-to-noise ratio Noise is ubiquitous What is information? Perspective 8. Energy Energy flows Power density Speed of swimming Part II: Physical consequences 9. Chemical Transport Flow Diffusion faster than flow at small scale Diffusion faster in gas than liquid Diffusion from sources Instantaneous source Steady point source Steady line source Diffusion to sinks Stationary sink Moving sink Distributed sinks Nutrients and waste 10. Signal Detection Time and size are important Light Chemicals Temperature Orientation information Rotational Brownian motion limits time for detection Magnetic bacteria Size for detecting gravity Part III: Consequences for Locomotion 11. Dispersal The importance of Dispersal Dispersal by Diffusion Effect of shape on Brownian motion Dispersal by random swimming Size Shape Dispersal by collimated swimming 12. Sedimentation Speed Composition Size Shape Orientation Inclination Gliding Asymmetric density Rotation Opposing rotational Brownian motion Consequences Enhancing nutrient uptake and waste disposal Loss of light and oxygen 13. Swimming Resistance to movement Propulsion Motion of a propulsive appendage Shape of a propulsive appendage Cilia and flagella of eukaryotes Flagella of Prokaryotes Rotation Mechanical efficiency Helical swimming paths Useful distance to move Part IV: Consequences for Orientation to Stimulus Gradients 14. Gradient Guiding Environmental Gradients Determination of direction Gradient decay length S/N for gradient determination Spatial comparisons Temporal comparisons Response 15. Size Limit for Locomotion Minimum Signal-to-noise Ratio Chemical gradients Light gradients Heat gradients Light direction Comparisons Condensed formulas Plots Conclusion 16. Optimal Shapes Nutrient uptake Locomotion Dispersal Sedimentation Swimming efficiency Orientation Gradient guiding Light direction Comparison Predictions Observations Part V: Consequences for Interactions Between Organisms 17. Encounter Rates Collision theory Search theory Encounter rates in three dimensions Straight movement Diffusion Encounter distances Overview 18. Predation Modifying factors Community structure Maximal predation Minimal predation Combined theory Size of top predator Viruses Waste Flux Size limit Discrete elimination 19. Pheromone Attraction Flux Search rates Pheromone use 20. Gametes The problem The gamete model Density Speed Gamete encounter rates Isogamy & anisogamy: encounter by contact Oogamy: encounter by pheromone Pheromone use Male and female Summary Appendixes Appendix 1. Approximation rules Appendix 2. Calculus Derivatives Integrals Appendix 3. Acceleration of plates Appendix 4. Justifications Criterion of incompressible flow Reynolds number of Brownian motion Appendix 5. Sedimentation equilibrium Appendix 6. Ellipsoid Math Description Curvature Plots Surface area Hydrodynamic calculations Translation Rotation Appendix 7. Bending Beams Appendix 8. Chemical potential energy Water Ions Appendix 9. Calculation of S/N S/N for Chemical gradient Temporal comparison Spatial comparison S/N for Light Light gradients Light direction Appendix 10. Calculating Flow Velocities Flow around point sources and sinks Flow around a solid sphere Flow around a gas bubble Appendix 11. High Reynolds numbers: Navier-Stokes equations Continuity Momentum Viscosity Appendix 12. Drag Notes References Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Microorganisms.

Physics.