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Contents Chapter 1 A Long Forgotten Civilization A History of Discovery Perspectives on Civilizations The Indus Civilization: Antecedents and Successors Urbanism, Economy and Society Rethinking Perspectives on the Indus civilization Chapter 2 Geographical and Environmental Settings Assessing the Impact of Differences between Past and Present Today's Geography and Climate Geographical Setting Climate Changes in Geographical Settings and Environmental Conditions Landscape Change and River Regimes - The Upper and Lower Indus The Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers The Ganges-Yamuna Unraveling the Effects of Climate Change New Solutions and Perspectives on Climate Change Conclusions Chapter 3 From Foraging to Farming and Pastoralism From Hunting and Gathering to Farming The Choice of a Site - Mehrgarh A First Village - 7,000 - 4,000 B.C. Subsistence, Architecture, Burials, Material Culture and Technology, Resourcesand External Contacts. Summary - Period I/II A Village at the Cross-Roads (4000-3200 B.C.) Subsistence, Architecture, Burials, Material Culture and Technology, Resources and External Contacts. Summary - Period III A Mosaic of Villages and Towns 3200- 2500 B.C. Subsistence, Architecture, Burials, Material Culture and Technology, Resources and External Contacts. Summary - Period IV/VII Settling Down. The Domestication of Plants and Animals, the Development of a Village Farming Community into a Sizable Town, and Expanded Interaction. Chapter 4 An Expanded World of Peer Polities Expansion and Transformation An Age of Peer Polities Harappa Excavations - pre-urban phases Ravi Phase Early Harappan/Kot Diji Phase Regional Surveys in the Upper Indus near Harappa The Ghaggar-Hakra plains - Cholistan Survey Hakra Phase Early Harappan/Kot Diji Phase Ghaggar-Hakra settlements in northwest India Expansion of Settlements in the Upper Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra plains The Lower Indus Valley Hakra and Kot Diji phases Amri Phase Expansion of Settlements in the Lower Indus Beyond the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Plains - Baluchistan Pre-urban Ecological and Settlement Diversity Chapter 5 Urbanism and States: Cities, Regions and Edge Zones Indus Cities and State - The First Urban Climax Cities and the Greater Indus Valley and Ghaggar-Hakra City Plans and Physical Layouts Non-residential Structures Public Works Walls and Separated Sectors (neighborhoods) City Plans and Physical Layouts. Non-residential structures, public works, walls and neighborhoods. City and Countryside Ganweriwala, Rakhigarhi and the Ghaggar-Hakra Plain - the alluvial plain The Upper and Lower Indus Near Harappa and Mohenjo-daro The Upper Indus near Harappa - the alluvial plain The Lower Indus - the alluvial plain Interpreting the Evidence for Indus Cities and their Countrysides Urbanism at its Margins Gateway Towns and Edge Zones Uniformity and Diversity - Cities, Regions and Edge Zones Chapter 6 Agrarian and Craft Producing Economies - Intensification and Specialization Craft Production Craft Production and Intensification. Craft Production and Specialization Technical Skill and Specialization - Ceramics, Stoneware Bangles and Seals Ceramic Production - Resource Availability, Technical Skill and Specialization Stoneware Bangles - Resource Availability, Technical Skill and Specialization. Seals - Resource Availability, Technical Skill and Specialization Intensification and Specialization of Craft Production Agrarian Production Agriculture and Intensification Specialization of Cropping Patterns and Regional Diversity Pastoralism and Intensification Pastoralism - Specialization and Regional Diversity Continued Use of Wild Plants and Animals - Foraging and Fishing Intensification and Specialization of Farming, Pastoralism, Foraging and Fishing. Intensification and Specialization of the Agrarian and Craft Producing Economy Chapter 7 Agrarian and Craft Producing Economies - Diversification, Organization of Production, and Exchange Diversification and the Organization of Production and Exchange Diversified Crafts and the Organization of Craft Production Diversification and Organization of Seal Production Diversification and Organization of Ceramic Production Diversification and Organization of Stoneware Workshop The Diversification and Organization of Production - Seals, Ceramics and Stoneware Bangles Diversification of Raw Materials and Finished Products - the Organization of Inter-regional Exchange. Chert Lapis Lazuli Carnelian, chalcedony, agate, and jasper Limestone Precious Metals - Copper, gold, lead, silver and tin Shell Steatite Diversification of Crafts -Organization and Distribution Diversification, Land Labor and the Organization of Agrarian Production Diversification of Farming - Multi-cropping, Plough Agriculture, Crop Processing and Aboriculture Diversification of Pastoralism - Specialized breeds, Food and Fiber, Animal Provisioning, Mobility and the Organization of Production Diversification and Inter-regional exchange of Plant and Animal Products Agrarian and Craft Producing Economies - Intensification, Specialization, Diversification and the Organization of Production and Distribution Chapter 8 The Lure of Distant Lands The Lure of Distant Lands - Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha Mapping the Third Millennium B.C. Indus Mesopotamian Contact - By Sea and Overland - Texts and Archaeology Indus Contact beyond Mesopotamia - By Sea and Overland Indus Contact along Maritime Routes Indus Contact along Overland Routes The Indus and An Interconnected Third Millennium World Chapter 9 Landscapes of Order and Difference - The Cultural Construction of Space, Place and Material Access Landscapes as Community Identity Landscapes as Social Order Space and Amenities Interior Spaces and Access to Resources Statuary at Mohenjo-daro Statuary at Other Sites Caches, so-called 'Hoards' Landscape and Memory The R37 Cemetery at Harappa The Cemetery at Kalibangan Human Remains at Mohenjo-daro Death and Memory in the Indus Community Identity, Social Order and Memory Chapter 10 Models for Indus Religious Ideologies Comparative Studies of Civilizations Identifying Ceremonial Places Imagery and Performance-Masks, Figurines, and Narrative Seals Terracotta Masks Terracotta Figurines Narrative Imagery and Indus Seals Narrative Seals - Their Function and Meaning Narrative Seals - Their Formal Properties Indus Image and Myth in the Context of the Greater Near East Shared Imagery and Common Themes Rethinking Indus Religion and World Views - Shared Vocabularies, Parallelism and Interdependency An Indus Pantheon, Elements of Order, and Conceptions of Power and Hierarchy. Chapter 11 The Final Days of urbanism and the Indus Civilization: Decline, transition and transformation. The 'Collapse' of Civilizations Shifting Regional Histories, Transformations, and Decline Causes of a General Nature Environmental Changes Changes in River Courses Massacres and Aryan Invasions Disruptions and Changes in External Trade Relations Causes of a Local Nature Upper Indus (Cemetery H/Late Harappan) Lower Indus (Jhukar) The Ghaggar-Hakra - Cholistan and Northwestern India Late Harappan - Kutch, Gujarat and Sorath Harappan
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