Table of contents for Introduction to law for paralegals : a critical thinking approach / Katherine A. Currier, Thomas E. Eimermann.

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Contents
List of Illustrations	XXX
Preface	XXX
Acknowledgments	XXX
PART 1 Paralegals and the American Legal System	1
Chapter 1 Introduction to the Study of Law 3
Introduction 3
A. Legal Analysis 4
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 4
Case 2: The Harassed Student 5
1.Analyzing the Facts 5
2.Identifying the Appropriate Legal Rules 6
Practice Tip 6
3.Applying the Legal Rules to the Facts 6
Discussion Question 1 7
Discussion Question 2 8
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 8
4.Reporting the Results 8
B.Taking Actions on Behalf of the Client 9
Practice Tip 9
Ethics Alert 10
Legal Reasoning Exercises 2 10
Summary 12
Review Questions 12
Chapter2
Paralegals in the Legal System 13
Introduction 13
A.The Definition of Paralegal 14
1.Traditional Paralegals and Legal Assistants 15
Discussion Questions 1-3 17
2.Freelance Paralegals 17
Paralegal Profile: Jennifer Lerner 18
3.Legal Technicians, Lay Advocates, and Document Preparers 18
4.Independent Paralegals 19
5.Law Clerks and Document Clerks Working under the Supervision of an Attorney 19
Discussion Questions 4-7 19
B.Paralegal Education 20
1.Basic Qualifications 21
2.Formal Paralegal Education 21
3.The ABA Approval Process 22
4.American Association for Paralegal Education 22
C.Paralegal Professional Associations 22
Practice Tip 23
Paralegal Profile: Laurie Roselle 23
D.Registration, Certification, and Licensure 24
1.Registration 24
2.Certification 25
Ethics Alert 27
3.Licensing: Paralegals Who Work under the Supervision of an Attorney 27
4.Licensing: Legal Technicians and Paralegals Who Do Not Work under the Supervision of an Attorney 28
5.Indirect Regulation through Approval of Billing for Paralegal Time 29
6.Conclusion 30
Discussion Questions 8-9 30
E.What Paralegals Do 30
 Ethics Alert 31
1.Communications with Clients 31
2.Research 31
Practice Tip 32
3.Drafting 32
4.Case Management 32
F.Where Paralegals Work and Law Office Personnel 32
1.The Law Office Environment 33
a.Types of Private Practice Arrangements 33
 (1)Traditional Partnership 33
 (2)Professional Corporation (PC) 34
 (3)Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) 34
 (4)Sole Proprietorship 34
 (5)Office-Sharing Arrangements 35
b.Law Office Personnel 35
 (1)Law Clerks, Investigators, and Librarians 35
 (2)Clerical Support 35
 (3)Managers and Administrators 36
c.Office Procedures Manual 36
d.Areas of Specialization 36
2.Other Forms of Practice 36
a.Legal Department of a Business 37
b.Legal Department in Government Agencies 37
Paralegal Profile: Maryann K. Burton 38
c.Other Variations 38
Discussion Questions 10-11 39
Summary 39
Review Questions 39
Chapter 3
Functions and Sources of Law 41
Introduction 41
Case 3: The Pregnant Waitress 41
A. Functions and Theories of Law 42
1. Definition of Law 42
2. Functions of Law 42
3. Theories of Jurisprudence 43
Discussion Questions 1-6 46
B. Sources of Law 46
1. Constitutional Law 46
2. Statutory Law 48
 Practice Tip 49
3. Administrative Law 50
Practice Tip 51
4. Judicial Interpretation and the Common Law 53
Discussion Questions 7-9 55
Summary 56
Review Questions 56
Chapter 4
Classification of the Law 59
Introduction 59
A. Federal versus State Law 61
1. Federal Law 61
 Discussion Questions 1-2 64 
2. State Law 65
Discussion Question 3-6 66 
B. Criminal versus Civil Law 66
1. A Comparison of Criminal and Civil Law 66
a. Type of Harm 66
b. Names of the Parties and the ¿Prosecutor¿ of the Claim 67
c. Standard of Proof 67
d. Judgment 68
e. Sanctions/Remedies 68
Practice Tip 68
f. Sources of Law 69
2. Criminal Law 69
a. Types of Crimes 70
b. Establishing a Prima Facie Case 70
Discussion Questions 7-8 70 
c. Defenses 71
3. Civil Law 71
a. Establishing a Prima Facie Case 71
b. Defenses 72
c. Damages 72
d. Areas of Civil Law 73
 (1) Contracts 73
 (2) Property 73
 (3) Torts 74
Ethics Alert 74
Case 4: Mr. Whipple 74
Discussion Questions 9-10 76
C. Substantive versus Procedural Law 76
Discussion Question 11 77
Summary 77
Review Questions 77
Chapter 5
Structure of the Court System 79
Introduction 79
A. Trial versus Appellate Courts 79
Case 5: Alibi to a Murder 81
Discussion Questions 1-3 83
B. Federal and State Court Systems 84 
1. The Federal System 84
a. The Primary Federal Courts 87
Discussion Questions 4-5 88
b. Other Federal Courts 88
2. State Court Systems 88
Practice Tip 90
3. Exclusive and Concurrent Jurisdiction 91
Discussion Question 6 93
C. Court Personnel 93
1. Judges 93
2. Jurors 96
3. Attorneys 96
4. Support Personnel 96
Practice Tip 96
Summary 96
Review Questions 97
Chapter 6
Civil Litigation and Its Alternatives 99
Introduction 99
 Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 100
 Case 3: The Pregnant Waitress 100
C. Alternative Dispute Resolution 101
 Practice Tip 101 
1. Arbitration 102
 Case 3: The Pregnant Waitress 103
2. Mediation 103
a. Cases Most Suitable for Mediation 103
b. Mediation Process 104
c. Mediation Training 105
3. Summary Jury Trials 105
 Ethics Alert 105 
4. Role of Paralegals in ADR 106
5. Evaluation of ADR Techniques 106
 Discussion Questions 1-3 106
 Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 107
A. Litigation 107
 Practice Tip 107
1. The Pretrial Stage 107 
a. Preliminary Matters 109
 (1) Legal Grounds for the Suit 109
 Practice Tip 110
 Discussion Questions 4-5 110
 Ethics Alert 111
 (2) Parties to the Suit 111
 (3) Selection of the Court 113
 Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 114
 (4) Statutes of Limitations 115
 (5) Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies 115
 Case 3: The Pregnant Waitress 115
Practice Tip 115
Case 3: The Pregnant Waitress 116 
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 116
Discussion Questions 6-7 116
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 116
b. Pleadings 116
 (1) The Complaint 117
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 118
Practice Tip 118
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 119
Discussion Question 8 119
Ethics Alert 119
 (2) The Summons 119
(3) The Answer 121
Practice Tip 121
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 121
 (3) The Answer 121
 Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 123
c. Pretrial Motions to End Part or All of the Litigation 124 
 (1) Rule 12 Motions to Dismiss 124
 (2) Rule 56 motions for summary judgment 126
 (3) Appealing a summary judgment or motion to 
Dismiss 127
 Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 127
d. Discovery 128
 (1) Interrogatories 128
Practice Tip 128
 (2) Depositions 129
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 129 
 (3) Requests for Admissions 130
 Practice Tip 131
 (4) Requests for Documents and Physical Examinations 131
 (5) Enforcing Discovery Rights 132
Discussion Questions 9-11 132
e. Settlement or Pretrial Conference 132
2. The Trial 133
Practice Tip 133
a. The Right to a Jury Trial 133
Ethics Alert 133
b. Jury Selection 134
Practice Tip 134
Discussion Questions 12-13 135
c. Opening Statements 135
 Practice Tip 135
d. Presentation of Evidence 136
Case 1: The Distressed Grandfather 137
Discussion Questions 14-15 137
e. Closing Arguments 138
f. Jury Instructions 138
g. Jury Deliberations, Verdict, and Judgment 138
h. Post-Trial Motions 139
3. The Appeal 139
a. The Timing of the Appeal 139
b. The Scope of the Review 140
c. Oral Arguments 141
d. The Decision and Its Publication 141
e. Further Appeals 141
Summary 142
Review Questions 143
PART 2 Finding and Analyzing the Law 145
Chapter 7
Finding and Interpreting Statutory Law 147
Introduction 147
A. Locating the Appropriate Statute 148
Practice Tip 149
B. The Format of Statutes 150
C. Ambiguity in Statutes 152
D. The Four Basic Steps to Statutory Interpretation 153
Case 6: The Clearance Sale 153
1. Get the Facts 154
2. Locate a Relevant Statute 154
3. Analyze the Statute 154
a. Divide the Statute into Its Elements 155
b. Determine the Issues and Develop Arguments for Each Side 155
 (1) Think Creatively 156
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 157
 (2) Understand the Methods Used for 
Interpreting Statutes 157
Legal Reasoning Exercises 2-4 160
Practice Tip 163
 (3) Recognize the Role of Judicial Philosophy 165
4. Conclude 165
E. The Case of the Unhappy Customer 166
Case 7: The Unhappy Customer 166
Legal Reasoning Exercises 5-7 168
F. Written Analysis¿The Use of IRAC 170
Case 8: The Book Battery 170
1. Issue 171
2. Rule 172
3. Analysis 172
4. Conclusion 172
Legal Reasoning Exercises 8-9 174
G. Locating and Interpreting Administrative Regulations 174
H. Locating and Interpreting Constitutions 176
Summary 178
Review Questions 179
Chapter 8
Finding and Interpreting Court Opinions 181
Introduction 181
A. Types of Court Opinions 182
Discussion Questions 1-2 187
B. Locating Court Opinions 188
C. The Elements of a Court Opinion 191
1. Preliminary Material and West Editorial Features 191
2. Facts of the Case 191
3. Law Analyzed 192
4. Issues Raised 192
5. Dissenting Reached 193
6. The Reasoning 193
7. Concurring and Dissenting Opinions 194
D. Case Briefing 194
1. An Overview of Case Briefing 194
2. Format for a Case Brief 194
Jim Jones v. Sam Smith 195
a. Case Citation 195
b. Facts 196
c. Rule 196
d. Issue 197
e. Holding 198
f. Reasoning 199
g. Criticism 200
Practice Tip 201
3. Six Hints for Better Brief Writing 202
a. Read the Case First, Then Brief 202
b. Develop a Workable Style 202
c. Write Based on the Needs of Your Reader 202 
d. Cross-reference 203
e. Paraphrase 203
f. Use a Dictionary 203
4. A Sample Case Brief 203
 People v. Blair 204
5. Briefing Cases Involving Statutes 204
a. Interpreting a Statute 204
McBoyle v. United States 206
 Case Discussion Questions 209
b. Ruling on a Statute¿s Constitutionality 210
Texas v. Johnson 211
 Case Discussion Questions 215
 Discussion Question 3 215
6. Briefing Cases Involving the Common Law 215
a. Applying Established Law 215
Keller v. DeLong 217
 Case Discussion Questions 218 
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 218
b. Creating New Law 219
Callow v. Thomas 220
 Case Discussion Questions 225
Legal Reasoning Exercise 2 225
Lewis v. Lewis 226
 Case Discussion Questions 234
Legal Reasoning Exercise 3 234
E. The Power of the Courts to Make New Law 234
Summary 236
Review Questions 237
Chapter 9
Finding the Law 239
Introduction 239
A. Overview of the Researching Process 240 
B. The Five Steps of Legal Research 241
1. Identify Your Search Terms 241
Practice Tip 241
Practice Tip 242
2. Go to Secondary Authority (Optional) 242
a. National Legal Encyclopedias 242
b. State-Specific Encyclopedias 245
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 251
c. Special Subject Encyclopedias, Treatises, and Restatements 251
d. Legal Periodicals and Newspapers 251
e. American Law Reports Annotated 252
f. Citing Secondary Authority 252
g. Ending Your Secondary Research and Relying on Secondary Sources 252
Practice Tip 253
3. Go to Primary Authority 253
Practice Tip 254
a. A Note on Lawbook Publishers 255
b. Finding Statutes 255
 (1) Starting with the Citation 256
 (2) Starting with an Index 256
Practice Tip 256
 (3) Reading an Annotated Statute 256
 (4) Checking the Pocket Part 260
c. Finding State Agency Regulations 260
Practice Tip 260
d. Finding Court Opinions 260
 (1) Starting with a Citation or Name 263
 (2) Using a Summary Following a Statute 265
 (3) Using a Digest 265
Practice Tip 268
e. Summary of the Steps for Locating Primary Authority 272
4. Update Your Research 272
a. Using the Digest Topics and Key Numbers 273
b. Using Shepard¿s 274
c. Using Both Digests and Shepard¿s 280
5. Decide When to Stop Researching 282
C. Research Involving Federal Statutes and Regulations 282
D. Computer-Assisted Research 286
1. Major On-Line Providers 286
a. The Major Commercial Databases: Lexis, 
Westlaw, and LoisLaw 286
 (1) Lexis 286
 (2) Westlaw 286
 (3) LoisLaw 287
b. Other Internet-Based Resources 287
2. Computer Search Techniques 287
a. Determining Which Database to Use 288
b. Searching within a Database 288
 (1) Terms and Connectors 288
Practice Tip 290
 (2) Natural Language 291
 (3) Variation among Services 291
3. Updating with Lexis, Westlaw, and LoisLaw 291
Practice Tip 291
4. Beyond Researching Primary Authority 292
Ethics Alert 292
Legal Reasoning Exercise 2 292
E. The Interrelationship of Researching Materials 293
Summary 293
Review Questions 294
Chapter 10
Applying the Law 297
Introduction 297
A. Predicting the Outcome in Your Client¿s Case 297
1. Looking for Analogies and Distinctions 297
a. Determine Whether the Governing Rules of Law and Issues Are the Same in Both Cases 298
b. Decide Which Facts Are the Key Facts in the Prior Case 298
c. Decide How Those Facts Are Similar to or Different from the Facts of Your Client¿s Case 298
d. Explain Why Those Similarities or Differences Matter 299
2. Selecting among Precedents 299
Chambers v. Maroney 300
B. A Note on Logic 302
C. The Format for a Written Analysis 305
1. Using IRAC 305
Ethics Alert 306
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 308
Practice Tip 311
2. Synthesizing Cases 312
Legal Reasoning Exercises 2-4 313
D. Internal Office Memoranda 315
1. Format and Content 315
a. Heading 316
b. Question Presented (Issue) 316
c. Brief Answer 316
d. Facts 317
e. Applicable Statutes 317
f. Discussion 317
Practice Tip 318
g. Conclusion 318
2. Sample Law Office Memorandum 319
Summary 321
Review Questions 322
PART 3 Legal Ethics and Substantive Law 323
Chapter 11
Legal Ethics 325
Introduction 325
 Case 9: The Ethically Challenged Paralegal 326
A. Regulation of Attorneys 327
Discussion Questions 1-3 328
B. Regulation of Paralegals 329
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 330
C. The Big Three: Confidentiality, Conflict of Interest, and the Unauthorized Practice of Law 331
1. Client Confidentiality 331
 a. Ethical Rules on Confidentiality 331 
Discussion Questions 4-6 332
 b. Attorney-client privilege 333
 c. Confidentiality Applications Within the Law Office 334
People v. Mitchell 335
 Case Discussion Questions 336
Practice Tip 336
Discussion Questions 7-8 337
2. Conflict of Interest 338
a. Concurrent Representation/Actual Conflict 340
b. Concurrent Representation/Potential Conflict 340
c. Successive Representation 341
d. Vicarious Representation 342
Practice Tip 343
In re Complex Asbestos Litigation 345
 Case Discussion Questions 346
3. The Unauthorized Practice of Law 346
a. Justifications for Restrictions 348
b. Defining the Practice of Law 349
c. Prohibited Tasks 350
 (1) Courtroom and Administrative Agency Representation 350
 (2) Preparation of Legal Documents 351
 (3) Giving Legal Advice 353
d. Appropriate Paralegal Tasks 353
 (1) Contact with Clients and People Outside the Office 354
 (2) Participation in Legal Proceedings 354
 (3) Drafting Legal Documents 354
Louisiana State Bar Association v. Edwins 354
 Case Discussion Questions 356
e. Nature of the Supervision 356
Discussion Question 9 358
D. Money Matters 359
1. The Contingency Fee System 360
 Gagnon v. Shoblom 360
 Case Discussion Questions 362
 Practice Tip 364
2. Client Funds 364
3. Charging Clients for Paralegal Time 365
4. Fee-Splitting 365
5. Avoiding Solicitation 365
E. Overzealous Representation 365
1. Talking to the Opposing Party or Jurors 366
2. Avoiding Deception 366
F. Enforcement 366
G. Tort Law of Negligence 367
Discussion Questions 10-11 368
Legal Reasoning Exercise 2 368
Summary 368
Review Questions 369
Chapter 12
Torts 371
Introduction 371
A. Intentional Torts 373
Case 10: The Abused Spouse 373
1. Harm to a Person¿s Body, Reputation, or Emotional Well-Being 374
a. Assault and Battery 374
 (1) The Elements of Assault and Battery 374 
Knight v. Jewett 375
 Case Discussion Questions 376
 (2) The Defenses to Assault and Battery 376
Katko v. Briney 377
 Case Discussion Questions 378
b. False Imprisonment 379 
 (1) The Elements of False Imprisonment 379
 (2) Defenses to False Imprisonment 379
Coblyn v. Kennedy¿s, Inc. 380
 Case Discussion Questions 382
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 382
Discussion Question 1 383
c. Defamation 383
 (1) The Elements of Defamation 383
 (2) Defamation of Public Figures 384
Ethics Alert 385
 (3) Defenses to Defamation 386
Discussion Question 2 386
d. Invasion of Privacy 386
Practice Tip 387
e. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress 387
Agis v. Howard Johnson Company 388
 Case Discussion Questions 389
Discussion Questions 3-4 390
2. Harm to a Person¿s Property 390
a. Trespass to Land 390 
b. Trespass to Personal Property and Conversion 390
 Practice Tip 391
c. Defenses to Torts against Property 391
3. Other Intentional Torts 391
Legal Reasoning Exercise 2 393
B. Negligence 393
1. The Elements of Negligence 393 
a. Duty 393
Practice Tip 394
Discussion Question 5 396
Woods v. Lancet 397
 Case Discussion Questions 399
Legal Reasoning Exercises 3-6 399
b. Breach 400
Ethics Alert 401
Sauer v. Hebrew Institute of Long Island, Inc. 402
 Case Discussion Questions 402
Discussion Questions 6-7 402
Legal Reasoning Exercise 7 403
c. Cause 403
 (1) Palsgraf v. Long Island Railroad Company 404
Palsgraf v. Long Island Railroad Company 405
 Case Discussion Questions 406
 (2) Intervening Cause 407
Anglin v. State [of Florida] Department of Transportation 407
 Case Discussion Questions 410
Legal Reasoning Exercise 8-9 410
 (3) Duty of Care to Third Parties 410
Legal Reasoning Exercises 10-12 411
d. Harm 412
Discussion Question 8 413
2. Defenses to Negligence 413
a. Contributory Negligence 413
 Paralegal Profile: William R. Matlock 414
b. Assumption of the Risk 415
Legal Reasoning Exercise 13-14 416
c. Comparative Negligence 417
d. Immunities 417
Irwin v. Town of Ware 419
 Case Discussion Questions 420
3. Reckless Behavior 420
Knight v. Jewett 422
 Case Discussion Questions 424
Legal Reasoning Exercises 14-15 424
C. Strict Liability 425
1. Ultrahazardous Activities 427
2. Products Liability 427
Doe v. Miles Labs., Inc. 428
 Case Discussion Questions 431
3. Defenses to Strict Liability Torts 432
D. New Torts 432
Practice Tip 432
1. Wrongful Life or Wrongful Birth 432
2. Battered Woman¿s Syndrome 433
Ethics Alert 434
3. Drug Dealer Liability Act 434
Discussion Questions 9-11 435
E. Remedies 435
Practice Tip 436
Discussion Questions 12-14 439
Summary 439
Review Questions 440
Chapter 13
Contract Law 443
Introduction 443
A. The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) 444
Ethics Alert 446
B. Types of Contracts 446
Discussion Question 1 448
C. The Elements of a Binding Contract 448
Case 11: Who Owns the Watch? 449
1. Offer and Acceptance 450
a. Offer 451 
 (1) Statements of Intent and Preliminary Negotiations 451
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 452
 (2) Terms Definite 453
Lefkowitz v. Great Minneapolis Surplus Store, Inc. 453
 Case Discussion Questions 454
Practice Tip 454
 (3) Termination of an Offer 455
b. Acceptance 456
Practice Tip 456
Legal Reasoning Exercise 2 457
c. Quasi-contract 458
Discussion Question 2 458
2. Consideration 458
a. Detriment to Promisee or Benefit to Promisor 459
Hamer v. Sidway 459
 Case Discussion Questions 461
b. Problems with Consideration 461
Alaska Packers¿ Association v. Domenico 462
 Case Discussion Questions 463
c. Promissory Estoppel 463
D. Contract Interpretation 465
Legal Reasoning Exercises 3-5 465
E. Defenses to a Valid Contract 466
1. Lack of Contractual Capacity 467
a. Minors 467
Quality Motors, Inc. v. Hays 467
 Case Discussion Questions 469
b. Intoxication 469
Lucy v. Zehmer 469
 Case Discussion Questions 471
c. Mental Incompetence 472
2. Illegal Contracts and Those That Violate Public Policy 472
3. Lack of Genuiness of Assent 473
a. Fraud 473
Vokes v. Arthur Murray, Inc. 474
 Case Discussion Questions 475
b. Mistake 475
c. Undue Influence 476
d. Duress 476
4. Breach of Warranty 476
Discussion Question 3 477
Practice Tip 479
Webster v. Blue Ship Tea Room, Inc. 479
 Case Discussion Questions 480
Legal Reasoning Exercise 6 480
5. Lack of Proper Format¿Writing 481
Discussion Questions 4-5 482 
Ethics Alert 482
E. Termination of Contractual Duties 483
1. By Performance 483
Jacob & Youngs, Inc. v. Kent 483
 Case Discussion Questions 485
2. By Agreement 485
3. When Performance Is Impossible 485
4. Due to Commercial Impracticability 486
F. Third-Party Rights 486
1. Assignment 486
2. Delegation 487
3. Third-Party Beneficiaries 488
a. Intended Beneficiaries 488
b. Incidental Beneficiaries 488
G. Damages 488
H. Drafting and Reviewing Contracts 490
Legal Reasoning Exercise 7 493
Summary 494
Review Questions 494
Chapter 14
Property and Estate Law 499
Introduction 499
A. Property Law 499
Paralegal Profile: Deb Monke 501
1. Ownership of Real Property 502
Discussion Questions 1-2 504
2. Rental of Real Property 504
Practice Tip 505
Baiz v. Hoffius 506
 Case Discussion Questions 508
3. Transfer of Real Property 509
Practice Tip 509
a. Sale 509
b. Death of the Owner 510
Ethics Alert 511
Practice Tip 511
c. Gift 511
d. Seizure by a Creditor 511
e. Eminent Domain 512
 (1) Zoning Laws 512
 (2) Use 514
Discussion Question 3 517
f. Adverse Possession 517
4. Transfer of Personal Property 517
B. Estate Planning 518
1. Wills 518
Matter of Lanning 519
 Case Discussion Questions 520
Practice Tips 520 
Ethics Alert 521
2. Living Wills 521
3. Trusts 521
4. Probate Process 522
a. Intestate Succession 523
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 523
b. Probating a Will 526
Practice Tip 527
In the Matter of the Estate of Franklin J. Till 527
 Case Discussion Questions 529
Discussion Question 4 529
Summary 530
Review Questions 530
Chapter 15
Laws Affecting Business 533
Introduction 533
 Case 11: The Four Friends 534
A. The Four Basic Business Forms 535
1. Sole Proprietorship 535
2. Partnership 537
Ethics Alert 539
Van Dyke v. Bixby 539
 Case Discussion Questions 540
3. Corporation 540
4. Limited Liability Company and Limited Liability 
Partnership 542
Legal Reasoning Exercises 1-2 543
B. Borrowing Money 543
1. Commercial Paper 544
2. Secured Transactions 547
C. Agency Law and an Employer¿s Responsibility for an 
Employee¿s Act 549
1. Agency Law 549
Ethics Alert 549
2. Employees versus Independent Contractors 550
3. Employees and Independent Contractors as Agents 550
4. Employer¿s Liability for Acts of Employees 551
Ethics Alert 551
O¿Connor v. McDonald¿s Restaurants of California, Inc. 552
 Case Discussion Questions 554
Legal Reasoning Exercises 3-7 554
D. Employment Law 555
1. Title VII: Discrimination Based on Race, Color, 
Religion, Sex, or National Origin 556
a. Introduction to Title VII 556
Discussion Questions 1-3 559
b. The Three Theories of Discrimination 560
 (1) Overt Intentional Discrimination and the BFOQ Defense 560
Diaz v. Pan American World Airways, Inc. 561
 Case Discussion Questions 564
Discussion Question 4 564
 (2) Intentional Discrimination ¿ Disparate Treatment 564
McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green 565
 Case Discussion Questions 567
Practice Tip 567
 (3)Unintentional Discrimination ¿ Disparate Impact 568
Griggs v. Duke Power Co. 569
 Case Discussion Questions 571
Discussion Question 5 572
c. Sexual Harassment 572
Discussion Questions 6-7 574
d. Affirmative Action 575
Discussion Questions 8-9 579
e. Damage Awards and Other Relief under Title VII 579
2. ADEA: Age Discrimination 581
3. ADA: Disability Discrimination 584
Practice Tip 585
4. Limitations on Employee Lawsuits against State and Local Governmental Employers 585
5. Common Law Approaches: At-Will Employment 587
Legal Reasoning Exercises 8-10 587
Summary 588
Review Questions 589
Chapter 16
Family Law 591
Introduction 591
A. Marriage 592
Discussion Questions 1-4 593
1. Consequences of Marriage 594
Practice Tip 594
Practice Tip 594
2. Same-Sex Marriages and Civil Unions 594
Opinions of the Justices to the Senate 596
 Case Discussion Questions 599
Discussion Questions 5-8 600
3. Premarital Agreements 601
Discussion Questions 9-10 602
Ethics Alert 602
4. Consequences of Broken Engagements 602
Aronow v. Silver 603
 Case Discussion Questions 604
5. Termination of the Marital Relationship 605
a. Annulment 605
Practice Tip 606
Discussion Questions 11-12 606
b. Divorce/Dissolution 606
Ethics Alert 607
Practice Tip 608
 (1) Divorce Procedures 608
 (2) Property Settlements 612
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 613
Practice Tip 614
Practice Tip 615
Woodworth v. Woodworth 615
Case Discussion Questions 1-2 616
 (3) Alimony/Maintenance Agreements 617
Legal Reasoning Exercise 2 618
 (4) Custody, Visitation, and Child Support 618
Carroll v. Carroll 619
 Case Discussion Questions 620
Practice Tip 624
Discussion Questions 13-17 625
B. The Parent-Child Relationship 626
1. Establishing the Relationship 626
a. Paternity Actions 626
Discussion Questions 18-20 627
b. Adoption 628
Discussion Questions 21-22 629
In re Petition of John Doe and Jane Doe, Husband and 
Wife, to Adopt Baby Boy Janikova 629
 Case Discussion Questions 631
 (1) Adoption Records 631
In re Roger B 632
 Case Discussion Questions 633
 (2) Tort of Wrongful Adoption 633
c. Assisted Reproduction 633 
 (1) Sperm Donation 633
 (2) Egg Donation 634
In the Matter of Baby M 635
 Case Discussion Questions 636
Discussion Question 23-25 637
Legal Reasoning Exercise 3 637
2. Parental Rights, Responsibilities, and Liabilities 638
3. Child Neglect and Abuse 638
Discussion Questions 26-27 640
4. Legal Status of Minors 640
Summary 641
Review Questions 641
Chapter 17
Criminal Law and Procedure 643
Introduction 643
Ethics Alert 644
A. Substantive Criminal Law 645
1. Common-Law Heritage and Model Penal Code 645
Ethics Alert 645
Discussion Questions 1-3 646
2. Classification of Crimes 646
a. Severity of Punishment 646
b. Type of Harm 647
Practice Tip 649
c. Federal or State Law 649
3. Elements of the Crime 650
a. Actus Reus 650
Legal Reasoning Exercise 1 651
b. Mens Rea 652
Smallwood v. State [of Maryland] 652
 Case Discussion Questions 654
4. Parties to the Crime 657
Legal Reasoning Exercises 2-4 658
5. Defenses 660
Practice Tip 660
a. Alibi Defense 660
b. Ignorance or Mistake 660
c. Status: Infancy, Insanity, and Intoxication 661
Practice Tip 661
People v. Wolff 663
 Case Discussion Questions 664
Discussion Questions 4-6 666
Legal Reasoning Exercise 5 666
Practice Tip 667
d. Duress and Necessity 667
e. Entrapment 668
f. Reactive Defenses 668
People v. Goetz 669
 Case Discussion Questions 671
Practice Tip 672
g. Statutes of Limitations and Speedy Trial Acts 672
h. Constitutional Defenses 673
Discussion Questions 7-9 675
6. Dynamic Change 676
B. Criminal Procedure 676
Practice Tip 676
1. Investigation of the Crime 677
a. Search and Seizure 679
 (1) Stop and Frisk 679
 (2) Arrest 681
 (3) Searches and Seizures of Evidence 682
Practice Tip 683
Discussion Questions 10-11 684
b. Questioning Suspects 686
Rhode Island v. Innis 688
 Case Discussion Questions 692
Ethics Alert 692
Practice Tip 693
Legal Reasoning Exercise 6 693
2. The Court System 693
a. Formal Charges, Initial Appearances, and Bail 694
b. Preliminary Hearings and Grand Juries 695
c. Arraignments, the Exclusionary Rule, and 
Pretrial Motions 696
Ethics Alert 697
Practice Tip 698
Practice Tip 698
Discussion Question 12 701
Ethics Alert 701
Mapp v. Ohio 702
 Case Discussion Questions 704
Legal Reasoning Exercise 7 704
d. Plea Bargaining 705
Practice Tip 705
e. The Right to a Jury Trial 706
f. Trial Procedures 707
Practice Tip 708
Discussion Question 13 709
3. Sentencing and Punishment 709
a. Theories of Punishment 709
b. Sentencing Procedures 710
c. Sentencing Guidelines 711
d. Habitual Offender Statutes 712
e. Capital Punishment 713
 Discussion Questions 14-19 714
4. Appeal 715
5. Writ of Habeas Corpus 715
Summary 716
Review Questions 717
Appendix A
Excerpts from the United States Constitution 723
Appendix B
Fundamentals of Good Writing 729
Introduction 729
Part I: Grammar 730
A. Use Proper Sentence Structure 730
1. Use Simple Sentence Construction 730
a. Use Normal Sentence Order 730
b. One Thought per Sentence 730
c. Limit Sentences to Twenty-Five Words 730
d. use Tabulations 731
e. Avoid Intrusive Phrases 731
2. Avoid Sentence Fragments 732
3. Avoid Run-On Sentences (Fused Sentences 
and Comma Splices) 733
4. Use Parallel Construction 734
B. Use the Proper Verb Tense 734
C. Make Sure Pronouns and Antecedents Agree 735
D. Put Modifying Words Close to What They Modify 736
E. Avoid Punctuation Problems 737
1. Use the Serial Comma 737
2. Do Not Use a Comma with Compound Verbs or between a Subject and Its Verb 737
3. Use Commas to Set Off Phrases Containing 
Nonessential Information 738
4. Forming the Possessive 738
5. Combining Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation 739
Part II: Style 740
A. Avoid Long Paragraphs 740
B. Do Not Bury Your Points 741
C. Use Transitions 741 
D. Be Concise 742
1. Eliminate Unnecessary Words 742
2. Remove Unnecessary Introductory Phrases 743
3. Say It Once 743
E. Avoid the Passive Voice 743
F. Special Rules for Legal Writing 745
1. Avoid Legalese 745
2. Make the Court and Not the Court Opinion the Actor 745
3. Avoid Unnecessary Variation 745
4. Do Not Use the First Person 746
5. Do Not Use Contractions 746
6. Do Not Ask Your Reader Questions 746
7. That Case/This Case 747
8. Written Numbers versus Numerals 747
9. Do Not Eliminate the Articles ¿A,¿ ¿An,¿ and ¿The¿ 747
Part III: Correct Word Usage 747
Summary 749
Review Questions 750
Appendix C
The Basics of Citation Form 753
Introduction 753
Part I: Court Opinion Citation Form 755
A. Case Reporters 757
B. The Essentials of Case Citation 758
C. Case Name 760
1. Omit First Names 761
2. Omit Descriptive Terms 761
3. Omit All but the First Parties¿ Names 761
4. Use Abbreviations 761
5. The State as Part of the Citation 762
D. Case Reporter 762
1. The Parallel Citation 763
2. A Special Rule for the U.S. Supreme Court 764
3. Advance Sheets, Westlaw, and Lexis 765
4. Cite to Specific Pages 765
E. Parenthetical 766
F. Case History 767
Part II: Enacted Law Citation Form 768
A. Statutory Citation 769
1. Federal Statutes 769
2. State Statutes 770
B. Local Ordinances 772
C. Administrative Law 773
D. Constitutions 774
Part III: Using Citations in Your Legal Writing 774
A. The Citation as a Sentence or Clause 774
1. String Citations 775
2. Explanatory Parentheticals 775
3. Signals 775
B. Authority Previously Cited¿Short Citing 776
C. Example of Citations Integrated into Text 777
D. Summary of the Most Common Citation Forms 777
Part IV: Citations in the Electronic Era 777
Summary 779
Review Questions 779
Appendix D
Ethical Codes 783
National Association of Legal Assistants Code of 
Ethics and Professional Responsibility 783
NFPA Model Code of Ethics and Professional 
Responsibility 785
Appendix E
Net Notes 791
Business Information 791
Citation Rules 791
Commercial On-Line Providers 791
Court System 792
Criminal Law 792
Government Sites 792
Grammar 792
Legal Ethics 793
Legal News 793
Legal Search Engines 793
Organizations 793
Primary Material 794
Torts 794
Uniform Laws 794
Glossary 797
Table of Cases 821
Index XXX

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Law -- United States.
Legal assistants -- United States -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.