Table of contents for Principles of public international law / by Ian Brownlie.

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OUTLINE CONTENTS
1 Sources of the Law 3
2 The Relation of Municipal and International Law 31
3 Subjects of the Law 57
4 Incidence and Continuity of Statehood 69
5 Recognition of States and Governments 85
6 Territorial Sovereignty 105
7 The Creation and Transfer of Territorial Sovereignty 123
8 Status of Territory: Further Problems 163
9 Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zones, and Exclusive Economic Zones 173
10 The Continental Shelf: Delimitation of Shelf Areas and Exclusive Economic Zones 205
11 The Regime of the High Seas 223
12 Common Amenities and Co-operation in the Use of Resources 249
13 Legal Aspects of the Protection of the Environment 275
14 Sovereignty and Equality of States 289
15 Jurisdictional Competence 299
16 Privileges and Immunities of Foreign States 323
17 Diplomatic and Consular Relations 349
18 Reservations from Territorial Sovereignty 369
19 The Relations of Nationality 383
20 Some Rules of Attribution: Corporations and Specific Assets 419
21 The Responsibility of States 433
22 The Admissibility of State Claims 475
23 A System of Multilateral Public Order: Some Incidents of Illegality and the Concept of Jus Cogens 507
24 Injury to the Persons and Property of Aliens on State Territory 519
25 The Protection of Individuals and Groups: Human Rights and Self-Determination 553
26 International Criminal Justice 587
27 The Law of Treaties 607
28 Other Transactions Including Agency and Pepresentation 639
29 State Succession 649
30 Other Cases of Transmission of Rights and Duties 669
31 International Organizations 673
32 The Judicial Settlement of International Disputes 701
33 The Use or Threat of Force by States 729
CONTENTS
Abbreviations xxvii
Glossary xxix
Table of cases xxxiii
PART I PRELIMINARY TOPICS
1 SOURCES OF THE LAW 3
1. Introduction 3
2. The Statute of the International Court of Justice 4
3. International Custom 6
4. 'Law-Making' Treaties and Other Material Sources 12
5. General Principles of Law 16
6. General Principles of International Law 19
7. Judicial Decisions 19
8. The Writings of Publicists 24
9. Equity in Judgments and Advisory Opinions of the International Court 25
10. Considerations of Humanity 27
11. Legitimate Interests 28
 Note on Comity 28
 Note on Codification 29
2 THE RELATION OF MUNICIPAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW 31
1. Theoretical Problems 31
2. Theories of Co-ordination 33
3. The Relation between Obligations of States and Municipal Law 34
4. The Position of the Individual 35
5. Issues of Municipal Law before International Tribunals 36
6. Municipal Laws as 'Facts' before International Tribunals 38
7. Issues of International Law before Municipal Courts 40
8. The Doctrine of Incorporation in British and Commonwealth Courts 41
9. Treaties and the Interpretation of Statutes in the United Kingdom 45
10. Treaties and the Determination of Common Law 47
11. The Reception of International Law in Other States 47
12. Relation of Executive and Judiciary and Issues of Non-Justiciability 49
13. Res Judicata and the Two Systems 51
14. Relation to the Sources of International Law 52
15. Conclusion 53
PART II PERSONALITY AND RECOGNITION
3 SUBJECTS OF THE LAW 57
1. Introduction 57
2. Established Legal Persons 58
3. Special Types of Personality 62
4. Controversial Candidatures 65
5. Some Consequences 67
4 INCIDENCE AND CONTINUITY OF STATEHOOD 69
1. Introduction 69
2. Legal Criteria of Statehood 70
3. States in Statu Nascendi 77
4. Illegal Occupation and the Influence of Jus Cogens 78
5. Necessary Legal Constructions 78
6. Membership of International Organizations and Agencies 79
7. Identity and Continuity of States 80
8. Micro-States 83
5 RECOGNITION OF STATES AND GOVERNMENTS 85
1. Recognition as a General Category 85
2. States and Governments in Relation to Recognition 86
3. The Varied Legal Consequences of Acts of Recognition and Policies of Non-Recognition 88
4. Is there a Duty of Recognition? 89
5. Recognition of Governments 90
6. De Jure and De Facto Recognition 91
7. Retroactivity 92
8. Implied Recognition 93
9. Collective Recognition: Membership of Organizations 93
10. Non-recognition and Sanctions 95
11. Issues of Recognition before National Courts 95
12. British Policy on Recognition of Governments 101
PART III TERRITORIAL SOVEREIGNTY
6 TERRITORIAL SOVEREIGNTY 105
1. The Concept of Territory 105
2. Sovereignty and Jurisdiction 105
3. Sovereignty and Ownership 106
4. Administration and Sovereignty 106
5. Sovereignty and Responsibility. The Ownership of Rights 107
6. Administration Divorced from State Sovereignty 107
7. Territory the Sovereignty of which is Indeterminate 108
8. Terminable and Reversionary Rights 109
9. Residual Sovereignty 109
10. International Leases 110
11. Use and Possession Granted in Perpetuity 111
12. Demilitarized and Neutralized Territory 112
13. The Concept of Territory: the Principle of Effective Control Applied by National Courts 112
14. Condominia 113
15. Vassalage, Suzerainty, and Protection 114
16. Parts of State Territory 115
17. Restrictions on Disposition of Territory 117
18. Capacity to Transfer or Acquire Territory 118
19. The Concept of Title 119
20. The Determination of Frontiers 120
21. Nemo dat quod non habet 120
7 THE CREATION AND TRANSFER OF TERRITORIAL SOVEREIGNTY 123
1. Introduction 123
2. Historical Changes in Concepts of Law 124
3. The Doctrine of Inter-temporal Law 124
4. Critical Dates 125
5. The Modes of Acquisition 127
6. Original and Derivative Title 127
7. Roots of Title 128
8. Effective Occupation 133
9. Abandonment or Derelictio 139
10. Discovery 139
11. Symbolic Annexation 141
12. Original or Historic Title 142
13. Extent of Sovereignty: Geographical Doctrines 142
14. Arctic and Antarctic Sectors 144
15. Accretion, Erosion, and Avulsion 145
16. Acquisitive Prescription 146
17. Acquiescence and Recognition 151
18. Estoppel 153
19. Novation 154
20. Doctrine of Reversion 154
21. Relative Title 154
22. Historical Consolidation of Title 156
23. Acquisition of Maritime Territory and Other Topics 158
24. Problems of Alienability 161
8 STATUS OF TERRITORY: FURTHER PROBLEMS 163
1. International Procedures Relating to Territorial Dispositions 163
2. Capacity of the United Nations to Administer Territory 167
3. Legal Regimes apart from State Sovereignty 167
PART IV LAW OF THE SEA
9 TERRITORIAL SEA, CONTIGUOUS ZONES, AND EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONES 173
A. Territorial Sea 173
1. Introduction 173
2. Baseline for Measurement of the Territorial Sea 176
3. Straight Baselines: Recent Developments 179
4. Breadth of the Territorial Sea 180
5. Baselines: Further Problems 181
6. Legal Regime of the Territorial Sea 186
B. Specialized Rights 192
1. Introduction 192
2. The Concept of the Contiguous Zone 192
3. Permissible Types of Zone 193
4. Delimitation of the Contiguous Zone 195
5. Problems of Enforcement 196
6. Other Zones for Special Purposes 197
10 THE CONTINENTAL SHELF: DELIMITATION OF SHELF AREAS AND EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONES 205
1. Introduction 205
2. Continental Shelf: Background 205
3. Sources of the Law 208
4. Rights of the Coastal State in the Shelf 208
5. Natural Resources of the Shelf 209
6. Artificial Islands and Installations on the Shelf 210
7. Regime of the Subsoil 211
8. Outer Limit of the Shelf 211
9. The Continental Shelf and the Exclusive Economic Zone Compared 214
10. Shelf Delimitation between Opposite or Adjacent States 214
11. Exclusive Economic Zone Delimitation between Opposite or Adjacent States 220
12. The Regime of Islands 221
11 THE REGIME OF THE HIGH SEAS 223
1. Introduction 223
2. The Freedom of the High Seas 224
3. The Maintenance of Order on the High Seas 228
4. Exceptions to the Principle of the Freedom of the High Seas 229
5. Jurisdiction over Ships on the High Seas 239
6. Oil Pollution Casualties, 'Pirate' Radio and Terrorism 240
7. The Seabed and Ocean Floor beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction 242
PART V COMMON AMENITIES AND CO-OPERATION IN THE USE OF RESOURCES
12 COMMON AMENITIES AND CO-OPERATION IN THE USE OF RESOURCES 249
1. Introduction 249
2. Economic Aid 250
3. Access to Resources: The Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy 251
4. Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas 252
5. Antarctica 254
6. Outer Space 255
7. International Rivers 260
8. Canals 264
9. Straits 267
10. Land-locked States and Enclaves 271
13 LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 275
1. Introduction: the Relevant Legal Categories 275
2. The Relevance of Existing Principles of General International Law 276
3. Deficiencies in the Use of the Adversarial System of State Responsibility 276
4. Emergent Legal Principles: the Precautionary Principle 277
5. Emergent Legal Principles: the Concept of Sustainable Development 278
6. Emergent Legal Principles: the Polluter-pays Principle 279
7. Risk Management: the Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities 280
8. The Importance and Role of Multilateral Standard-Setting Conventions 283
9. Evaluation 285
PART VI STATE JURISDICTION
14 SOVEREIGNTY AND EQUALITY OF STATES 289
1. General 289
2. Sovereignty and the Application of Rules 290
3. Sovereignty and Competence 291
4. Membership of Organizations 291
5. The Reserved Domain of Domestic Jurisdiction 292
6. Article 2, Paragraph 7, of the United Nations Charter 294
7. International Tribunals and the Plea of Domestic Jurisdiction 296
15 JURISDICTIONAL COMPETENCE 299
1. General 299
2. Civil Jurisdiction 300
3. Criminal Jurisdiction 300
4. The Relations of the Separate Principles 308
5. Extra-territorial Enforcement Measures 309
6. A General View of the Law 311
7. Cognate Questions, Including Extradition 316
8. Special Cases of Concurrent Jurisdiction 318
16 PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES OF FOREIGN STATES 323
1. Introduction 323
2. The Distinction between Non-justiciability and Immunity as a Jurisdictional Bar 324
3. The Rationale of Jurisdictional Immunity 326
4. State Immunity: Controversy over its Extent 327
5. The Current Legal Position 330
6. The Modalities of Restrictive Immunity 332
7. The European Convention on State Immunity 336
8. The United Kingdom State Immunity Act 337
9. Waiver of Immunity 340
10. Political Subdivisions and State Agencies 340
11. Attachment and Seizure in Execution 342
12. Treaty Provisions 344
13. Specialized Privileges and Immunities 347
17 DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR RELATIONS 349
1. Diplomatic Relations: Introduction 349
2. General Legal Aspects of Diplomatic Relations 350
3. Staff, Premises, and Facilities of Missions 352
4. Inviolability of Missions 356
5. Inviolability of Diplomatic Agents 358
6. Personal Immunities from Local Jurisdiction 359
7. Immunity from Jurisdiction for Official Acts Ratione Materiae 361
8. Immunities from Application of Certain Local Laws 361
9. Some other Aspects of Immunity 362
10. Consular Relations 364
11. Special Missions 366
12. The Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons 367
18 RESERVATIONS FROM TERRITORIAL SOVEREIGNTY 369
1. Territorial Privileges by Concession 369
2. Other Restrictions on Territorial Supremacy 379
3. External Imposition of Governmental Functions without the Consent of the Sovereign 379
PART VII RULES OF ATTRIBUTION (APART FROM TERRITORIAL SOVEREIGNTY AND STATE JURISDICTION)
19 THE RELATIONS OF NATIONALITY 383
1. The Doctrine of the Freedom of States in Matters of Nationality 383
2. Opinions of Governments on the Issue of Autonomy 385
3. The Convention Concerning Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws 387
4. Nationality Rules Commonly Adopted by States 388
5. Legal Status of the 'General Principles' 394
6. The Logical Application of Rules of International Law 396
7. State Responsibility and the Doctrine of the Genuine Link 398
8. Nationality of Claims 399
9. Diplomatic Protection 402
10. Nationality by Estoppel 403
11. Compulsory Change of Nationality 405
12. The Functional Approach to Nationality 406
13. The Principle of Effective Link and the Judgment in the Nottebohm Case 407
20 SOME RULES OF ATTRIBUTION: CORPORATIONS AND SPECIFIC ASSETS 419
1. General Aspects 419
2. Corporations 419
3. Ships 422
4. Aircraft 425
5. Space Objects 427
6. Property in General 427
7. Assets of International Organizations 428
PART VIII THE LAW OF RESPONSIBILITY
21 THE RESPONSIBILITY OF STATES 433
1. The Relations of the Subject 433
2. The Basis and Nature of State Responsibility 434
3. Boundaries of Responsibility 436
4. Objective Responsibility 437
5. Culpa 440
6. Intention and Motive 441
7. The Individuality of Issues: the Corfu Channel Case 442
8. Liability for Lawful Acts. Abuse of Rights 443
9. Responsibility for the Acts of State Organs, Officials, Revolutionaries, and Others 445
10. Agency and Joint Tortfeasors 456
11. The Types of Damage and the Forms and Functions of Reparation 459
12. Compensation, Damages (Dommages-Interets) 464
13. Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness 465
14. The Nature of a Legal Interest: Locus Standi 467
15. Causes of Action 473
22 THE ADMISSIBILITY OF STATE CLAIMS 475
1. Introduction 475
2. Diplomatic Negotiations 476
3. Legal Disputes 476
4. Absence of a Legal Interest of the Plaintiff 477
5. Diplomatic Protection: The Nationality of Claims 477
6. Exhaustion of Local Remedies 492
7. Extinctive Prescription 501
8. Waiver of Claims 502
9. Other Grounds of Inadmissibility 503
10. Counter-Claims 504
11. Foreign Acts of State in Municipal Courts 504
23 A SYSTEM OF MULTILATERAL PUBLIC ORDER: SOME INCIDENTS OF ILLEGALITY AND THE CONCEPT OF JUS COGENS 507
1. The Varying Content of Illegality 507
2. Objective Consequences of Illegal Events 508
3. General Wrongs: Abuse of State Competence 508
4. Ex Injuria Non Oritur Jus 509
5. Jus Cogens 510
6. The Obligation of Putting an End to an Illegal Situation 513
7. The Emerging System of Multilateral Public Order 514
PART IX THE PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS
24 INJURY TO THE PERSONS AND PROPERTY OF ALIENS ON STATE TERRITORY 519
1. State and Individual 519
2. Admission, Expulsion, and Liabilities of Aliens 520
3. General Principles 522
4. The Standard of National Treatment 524
5. The International Minimum Standard 525
6. The Two Standards in Perspective 525
7. Relevant Forms of Delictual Responsibility 528
8. Denial of Justice 529
9. Expropriation of Foreign Property 531
10. The Compensation Rule 533
11. The Principle of National Treatment 536
12. Control of Major National Resources 536
13. Expropriation Unlawful per se 538
14. The General Assembly Resolution of 1962 on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources 539
15. The Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States 541
16. Conclusions on Expropriation 543
17. Legal Devices Adopted by Investors and Hosts to Foreign Capital 545
18. Breaches and Annulment of State Contracts 546
19. Stabilization Clauses 550
25 THE PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS: HUMAN RIGHTS AND SELF-DETERMINATION 553
1. Introduction: the Applicable Law 553
2. The Historical Perspective 554
3. Human Rights and the Charter of the United Nations 555
4. Action Authorised by the Security Council to Prevent or Ameliorate Humanitarian Crises 558
5. Standard-Setting: Multilateral Non-binding Instruments 559
6. Standard-Setting: Binding Multilateral Conventions 562
7. Customary or General International?Law 562
8. The General Principles of Humanitarian Law 564
9. The Substantive Rights: The International Covenants, 1966 565
10. Third Generation Rights 567
11. Regional Machinery for the Protection of Human Rights 568
12. The Standard of Non-discrimination 572
13. Legal Concepts Relating to the Protection of Individuals by Judicial Supervision 575
14. The Principle of Self-determination 579
15. Other Organs Created to Enhance Compliance with Human Rights Standards 583
16. An Evaluation 584
26 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE 587
1. Introduction 587
2. Crimes under International Law 587
3. Enforcement by National Courts 593
4. Temporal Jurisdiction 594
5. The Applicability of Statutory Limitations to International Crimes 595
6. Multilateral Treaty Regimes 595
7. Norms Having the Character of Obligations Erga Omnes 596
8. Criminal Tribunals Established by the Security Council Acting Under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations 597
9. The International Criminal Court (ICC) 600
10. Immunity from Jurisdiction 602
11. Some Reflections on the Rule of Law 604
PART X INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS
27 THE LAW OF TREATIES 607
1. Introduction 607
2. Conclusion of Treaties 609
3. Reservations 612
4. Entry into Force, Deposit, and Registration 616
5. Invalidity of Treaties 617
6. Withdrawal, Termination and Suspension of Treaties 620
7. Invalidity, Termination, and Suspension: General Rules 626
8. Application and Effects of Treaties 626
9. Amendment and Modification of Treaties 629
10. Interpretation of Treaties 630
11. Classification of Treaties 636
12. Participation in General Multilateral Treaties 638
28 OTHER TRANSACTIONS INCLUDING AGENCY AND REPRESENTATION 639
1. Informal Agreements 639
2. Quasi-legislative Acts 639
3. Unilateral Acts 640
4. Estoppel 643
5. Agency and Representation 645
PART XI TRANSMISSION OF RIGHTS AND DUTIES
29 STATE SUCCESSION 649
1. State Succession as a Category 649
2. The Pre-emption of Problems by Treaty, Acquiesence, and Estoppel 650
3. Territorial Sovereignty and Domestic Jurisdiction 651
4. The Interaction of Rules of Law 655
5. Particular Legal Issues 655
6. Relevance of the Political Form of Territorial Change 666
7. The Disintegration of Federal States 667
8. Doctrine of Reversion 668
30 OTHER CASES OF TRANSMISSION OF RIGHTS AND DUTIES 669
1. Succession Between International Organizations 669
2. Cases of Agency 670
3. Assignment 671
PART XII INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND TRIBUNALS
31 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 675
1. Introduction 675
2. Legal Personality 676
3. Performance of Acts in the Law 679
4. Interpretation of the Constituent Instrument: Inherent and Implied Powers 685
5. Relations with Member States 687
6. The Functional Concept of Membership 688
7. Relations with States not Members 689
8. Relation to Municipal Law 690
9. Law-Making by Organizations 691
10. Control of Acts of Organizations 694
32 THE JUDICIAL SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES 701
1. Peaceful Settlement in General 701
2. Arbitration 702
3. Permanent Court of Arbitration 703
4. Codes of Arbitral Procedure 703
5. Judicial Settlement 704
6. The Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice 707
7. Organization of the Court 708
8. Jurisdiction of the Court in Contentious Cases 710
9. Heads of Jurisdiction 712
10. The Advisory Jurisdiction of the Court 721
11. An Evaluation of the Court 723
PART XIII THE USE OR THREAT OF FORCE BY STATES
33 THE USE OR THREAT OF FORCE BY STATES 729
1. Introduction 729
2. The General Treaty for the Renunciation of War (1928) 730
3. The Legal Regime of the United Nations Charter 731
4. The Legality of Anticipatory or Pre-emptive Action by way of Self-defence and the Provisions of the Charter 733
5. The Right of Collective Self-defence (Article 51 of the Charter) 735
6. The Definition of Aggression 735
7. Regional Arrangements: Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter 737
8. The United Nations as a System of Public Order 738
9. The Emergence of Corollaries to the Legal Regime of the United Nations Charter 739
10. Sources of Controversy since 1945 739
11. The Authorisation of the Use of Force by Individual States as Delegated Enforcement Action under the Charter of the United Nations 741
12. The Use of Force to Prevent or Curtail Humanitarian Catastrophes (Humanitarian Intervention) 742
13. Forcible Measures to Occlude Sources of Terrorism 745
14. Reflections on Policy 746
15. Determinations of the Use or Threat of Force by States: the Legal Contexts 747
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

International law.