Table of contents for Grading / Susan M. Brookhart.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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BRIEF CONTENTS
PART 1: UNDERSTANDING GRADING	
CHAPTER 1:	Introduction	
CHAPTER 2:	Grading in Its Contexts	
CHAPTER 3:	The Educational Psychology of Grading	
PART 1 EXERCISES	
PART 2: INTEGRATING ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTION	
CHAPTER 4:	Designing Assignments That Reflect Intentions for Learning	
CHAPTER 5:	Deciding on the Bases for Grading	
CHAPTER 6:	Providing Grades and Other Feedback to Students	
PART 2 EXERCISES	
PART 3: COMBINING GRADES INTO MARKS FOR REPORT CARDS	
CHAPTER 7:	Grading Policies and Formats	
CHAPTER 8:	Developmental Concerns in Grading	
CHAPTER 9:	Developing Skills at Combining Grades Into Marks for Report Cards	
CHAPTER 10:	Other Ways of Communicating About Student Achievement	
PART 3 EXERCISES	
CONTENTS
PART 1: UNDERSTANDING GRADING	
CHAPTER 1:	Introduction	
Key Concepts 
Why Grading 
Purposes for Grading 
Definitions of Terms 
Grading 
Achievement 
Validity 
Reliability 
Organization 
Self-Reflection: Now and Later 
Exercises 
CHAPTER 2:	Grading in Its Contexts	
Key Concepts 
The Historical Context of Grading 
Grading at Universities, 1640s to 1800s 
Grading in the Common School, 1800s 
1890 to 1920 
1920 to 1930 
1930 to 1960 
1960 to 1980 
1980 to 2000 
2000 to the Present 
Current Context of Grading 
Social Context of Grading 
Legal Context of Grading 
Confidentiality 
Grade Penalties 
Appeals Policies and Due Process 
Educator Responsibilities 
Conclusion 
Exercises 
CHAPTER 3:	The Educational Psychology of Grading	
Key Concepts 
Student Perceptions 
Influence of Grading Practices on Motivation to Learn 
Attribution Theory 
Goal Orientations 
Self-Worth Theory 
Functions of Feedback to Students 
Cognitive Evaluation Theory 
Formative Assessment as Feedback for Learning 
The Classroom Assessment Environment 
Conclusion 
Exercises 
PART 1 EXERCISES	
PART 2: INTEGRATING ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTION	
CHAPTER 4:	Designing Assessments That Reflect Intentions for Learning	
Key Concepts 
Matching Assessment and Instruction 
Paper-and-Pencil Tests 
Novel Applications Are Required to Tap Higher Order Thinking 
Performance Assessments 
Scoring Is Part of the Match 
Tests 
Performance Assessments 
Conclusion 
Exercises 
CHAPTER 5:	Deciding on the Bases for Grading	
Key Concepts 
Formative and Summative Evaluation 
Bases for Grading 
Kinds of Grading Schemes 
Points or Percents 
Rubrics 
Assessment Versus Grading 
Conclusion 
Exercises 
CHAPTER 6:	Providing Grades and Other Feedback to Students	
Key Concepts 
Providing Informative Feedback 
Student Involvement in Assessment 
Creating Grading Criteria 
Applying Criteria to Their Own and Peers' Work 
Going Over Test Results 
Grading Is a Skill 
Exemplars 
More Practice
Fourth-Grade "Dogs and Cats" Essays
High School English Essays
Grading Tests
Grading Projects, Term Papers, and Written Reports 
Final Thoughts 
Exercises 
PART 2 EXERCISES	
PART 3: COMBINING GRADES INTO MARKS FOR REPORT CARDS	
CHAPTER 7:	Grading Policies and Formats	
Key Concepts 
Grades Should Reflect Achievement 
Report Card Formats 
Physical Characteristics 
Administrative Policy 
Instructional Targets 
Grading Policies 
Grade-Point Averages 
Self-Reflection Is Critical 
Conclusion 
Exercises 
CHAPTER 8:	Developmental Concerns in Grading	
Key Concepts 
Grading in Special Education 
Adapting Methods of Arriving at Report Card Grades 
Adapting Reporting Mechanisms for Students with Special Needs 
Adapting Grades for Individual Assignments 
Providing Feedback to Students With Special Needs 
Grading in Early Childhood 
Grading in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms 
Conclusion 
Exercises 
CHAPTER 9:	Developing Skills at Combining Grades Into Marks for Report Cards	
Key Concepts 
Arriving at a Categorical Grade 
Arriving at a Letter Grade via Rubrics 
The Median Method for Calculating Report Card Grades 
Combining Percent Scores and Rubrics or Grades 
Arriving at a Letter Grade via Points 
Letter Grades as Averages of Percentage Grades 
Letter Grades as Percentage of Total Possible Points 
The Influence of Zeros in Point-Based Grading 
Reviewing Borderline Grades 
Electronic Methods: Gradebook Packages, Web-Based Systems 
Final Thoughts 
Exercises 
CHAPTER 10:	Other Ways of Communicating About Student Achievement	
Key Concepts 
Sending Work Home 
A Communication Process 
Portfolios 
Set a Purpose 
Plan the Logistics 
Collect the Evidence 
Interpret the Evidence 
Communicate the Information and Listen to the Response 
Strengths and Weaknesses 
Narratives 
Set a Purpose 
Plan the Logistics and Collect the Evidence 
Interpret the Evidence and Communicate the Information 
Listen to the Response 
Strengths and Weaknesses 
Parent-Teacher, Student-Teacher, or Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences 
Set a Purpose 
Plan the Logistics 
Collect the Evidence 
Interpret the Evidence, Communicate the Information, and Listen to the Response 
Strengths and Weaknesses 
Parent-Teacher Conferences 
Student-Teacher Conferences 
Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences 
Conclusion 
Exercises 
PART 3 EXERCISES	
APPENDIX A: Test Blueprints 
APPENDIX B: Do's and Don'ts for Writing Good Test Items 
APPENDIX C: alternative Assessment Checklist 
APPENDIX D: Key for Sample Papers From Chapter 6 
REFERENCES 
INDEX 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Grading and marking (Students).