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BRIEF CONTENTS PART 1: UNDERSTANDING GRADING CHAPTER 1: Introduction CHAPTER 2: Grading in Its Contexts CHAPTER 3: The Educational Psychology of Grading PART 1 EXERCISES PART 2: INTEGRATING ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTION CHAPTER 4: Designing Assignments That Reflect Intentions for Learning CHAPTER 5: Deciding on the Bases for Grading CHAPTER 6: Providing Grades and Other Feedback to Students PART 2 EXERCISES PART 3: COMBINING GRADES INTO MARKS FOR REPORT CARDS CHAPTER 7: Grading Policies and Formats CHAPTER 8: Developmental Concerns in Grading CHAPTER 9: Developing Skills at Combining Grades Into Marks for Report Cards CHAPTER 10: Other Ways of Communicating About Student Achievement PART 3 EXERCISES CONTENTS PART 1: UNDERSTANDING GRADING CHAPTER 1: Introduction Key Concepts Why Grading Purposes for Grading Definitions of Terms Grading Achievement Validity Reliability Organization Self-Reflection: Now and Later Exercises CHAPTER 2: Grading in Its Contexts Key Concepts The Historical Context of Grading Grading at Universities, 1640s to 1800s Grading in the Common School, 1800s 1890 to 1920 1920 to 1930 1930 to 1960 1960 to 1980 1980 to 2000 2000 to the Present Current Context of Grading Social Context of Grading Legal Context of Grading Confidentiality Grade Penalties Appeals Policies and Due Process Educator Responsibilities Conclusion Exercises CHAPTER 3: The Educational Psychology of Grading Key Concepts Student Perceptions Influence of Grading Practices on Motivation to Learn Attribution Theory Goal Orientations Self-Worth Theory Functions of Feedback to Students Cognitive Evaluation Theory Formative Assessment as Feedback for Learning The Classroom Assessment Environment Conclusion Exercises PART 1 EXERCISES PART 2: INTEGRATING ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTION CHAPTER 4: Designing Assessments That Reflect Intentions for Learning Key Concepts Matching Assessment and Instruction Paper-and-Pencil Tests Novel Applications Are Required to Tap Higher Order Thinking Performance Assessments Scoring Is Part of the Match Tests Performance Assessments Conclusion Exercises CHAPTER 5: Deciding on the Bases for Grading Key Concepts Formative and Summative Evaluation Bases for Grading Kinds of Grading Schemes Points or Percents Rubrics Assessment Versus Grading Conclusion Exercises CHAPTER 6: Providing Grades and Other Feedback to Students Key Concepts Providing Informative Feedback Student Involvement in Assessment Creating Grading Criteria Applying Criteria to Their Own and Peers' Work Going Over Test Results Grading Is a Skill Exemplars More Practice Fourth-Grade "Dogs and Cats" Essays High School English Essays Grading Tests Grading Projects, Term Papers, and Written Reports Final Thoughts Exercises PART 2 EXERCISES PART 3: COMBINING GRADES INTO MARKS FOR REPORT CARDS CHAPTER 7: Grading Policies and Formats Key Concepts Grades Should Reflect Achievement Report Card Formats Physical Characteristics Administrative Policy Instructional Targets Grading Policies Grade-Point Averages Self-Reflection Is Critical Conclusion Exercises CHAPTER 8: Developmental Concerns in Grading Key Concepts Grading in Special Education Adapting Methods of Arriving at Report Card Grades Adapting Reporting Mechanisms for Students with Special Needs Adapting Grades for Individual Assignments Providing Feedback to Students With Special Needs Grading in Early Childhood Grading in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms Conclusion Exercises CHAPTER 9: Developing Skills at Combining Grades Into Marks for Report Cards Key Concepts Arriving at a Categorical Grade Arriving at a Letter Grade via Rubrics The Median Method for Calculating Report Card Grades Combining Percent Scores and Rubrics or Grades Arriving at a Letter Grade via Points Letter Grades as Averages of Percentage Grades Letter Grades as Percentage of Total Possible Points The Influence of Zeros in Point-Based Grading Reviewing Borderline Grades Electronic Methods: Gradebook Packages, Web-Based Systems Final Thoughts Exercises CHAPTER 10: Other Ways of Communicating About Student Achievement Key Concepts Sending Work Home A Communication Process Portfolios Set a Purpose Plan the Logistics Collect the Evidence Interpret the Evidence Communicate the Information and Listen to the Response Strengths and Weaknesses Narratives Set a Purpose Plan the Logistics and Collect the Evidence Interpret the Evidence and Communicate the Information Listen to the Response Strengths and Weaknesses Parent-Teacher, Student-Teacher, or Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences Set a Purpose Plan the Logistics Collect the Evidence Interpret the Evidence, Communicate the Information, and Listen to the Response Strengths and Weaknesses Parent-Teacher Conferences Student-Teacher Conferences Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences Conclusion Exercises PART 3 EXERCISES APPENDIX A: Test Blueprints APPENDIX B: Do's and Don'ts for Writing Good Test Items APPENDIX C: alternative Assessment Checklist APPENDIX D: Key for Sample Papers From Chapter 6 REFERENCES INDEX
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Grading and marking (Students).