Table of contents for Advertising and promotion : an integrated marketing communications perspective / George E. Belch & Michael A. Belch.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Part One
Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications	2
 
Chapter One
An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications	
The Growth of Advertising and Promotion	5
What Is Marketing?	7
Marketing Focuses on Relationships and Value	8
The Marketing Mix	9
Integrated Marketing Communications	9
The Evolution of IMC	9
A Contemporary Perspective of IMC	11
Reasons for the Growing Importance of IMC	11
The Role of IMC in Branding	15
The Promotional Mix: The Tools for IMC	15
Advertising	17
Direct Marketing	18
Interactive/Internet Marketing	20
Sales Promotion	22
Publicity/Public Relations	22
Personal Selling	23
IMC Involves Audience Contacts	24
The IMC Planning Process	24
Review of the Marketing Plan	26
Promotional Program Situation Analysis	26
Analysis of the Communications Process	31
Budget Determination	31
Developing the Integrated Marketing Communications Program	31
Monitoring, Evaluation, and Control	32
Perspective and Organization of This Text	32
Chapter Two
The Role of IMC in the Marketing Process	
Marketing Strategy and Analysis	41
Opportunity Analysis	41
Competitive Analysis	42
Target Market Selection	43
The Target Marketing Process	44
Identifying Markets	44
Market Segmentation	45
Selecting a Target Market	51
Market Positioning	52
Developing the Marketing Planning Program	58
Product Decisions	59
Price Decisions	60
Distribution Channel Decisions	61
Developing Promotional Strategies: Push or Pull?	62
The Role of Advertising and Promotion	63
Part Two
Integrated Marketing Program Situation Analysis	66
Chapter Three
Organizing for Advertising and Promotion: The Role of Ad Agencies and 
Other Marketing Communication Organizations	
Participants in the Integrated Marketing Communications Process: An Overview	69
Organizing for Advertising and Promotion 
in the Firm: The Client?s Role	71
The Centralized System	71
The Decentralized System	73
In-House Agencies	75
Advertising Agencies	78
The Ad Agency?s Role	81
Types of Ad Agencies	82
Other Types of Agencies and Services	86
Agency Compensation	88
Commissions from Media	88
Fee, Cost, and Incentive-Based Systems	89
Percentage Charges	90
The Future of Agency Compensation	90
Evaluating Agencies	92
Gaining and Losing Clients	93
Specialized Services	96
Direct-Marketing Agencies	96
Sales Promotion Agencies	96
Public Relations Firms	97
Interactive Agencies	97
Collateral Services	98
Marketing Research Companies	98
Integrated Marketing Communications Services	98
Pros and Cons of Integrated Services	98
Responsibility for IMC: Agency versus Client	99
Chapter Four
Perspectives on Consumer Behavior	
An Overview of Consumer Behavior	105
The Consumer Decision-Making Process	107
Problem Recognition	107
Examining Consumer Motivations	108
Information Search	112
Perception	112
Alternative Evaluation	114
Attitudes	117
Integration Processes and Decision Rules	119
Purchase Decision	119
Postpurchase Evaluation	120
Variations in Consumer Decision Making	121
The Consumer Learning Process	122
Behavioral Learning Theory	122
Cognitive Learning Theory	126
Environmental Influences on Consumer Behavior	126
Culture	126
Subcultures	127
Reference Groups	128
Situational Determinants	129
Alternative Approaches to Consumer Behavior	130
New Methodologies	130
New Insights	130
Part Three
Analyzing the Communication Process	134
Chapter Five
The Communication Process	
The Nature of Communication	137
A Basic Model of Communication	139
Source Encoding	139
Message	140
Channel	140
Receiver/Decoding	142
Noise	142
Response/Feedback	142
Analyzing the Receiver	144
Identifying the Target Audience	144
The Response Process	145
Traditional Response Hierarchy Models	146
Alternative Response Hierarchies	148
Implications of the Alternative Response Models	151
The FCB Planning Model	152
Cognitive Processing of Communications	155
The Cognitive Response Approach	155
The Elaboration Likelihood Model 	157
Summarizing the Response Process and the Effects of Advertising	159
Chapter Six
Source, Message, and Channel Factors	
Promotional Planning through the Persuasion Matrix	165
Source Factors	166
Source Credibility	166
Source Attractiveness	170
Source Power	178
Message Factors	179
Message Structure	179
Message Appeals	181
Channel Factors	186
Personal versus Nonpersonal Channels	186
Effects of Alternative Mass Media	187
Effects of Context and Environment	187
Clutter	188
Part Four
Objectives and Budgeting for Integrated Marketing Communications 
Programs	190
Chapter Seven
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program	
The Value of Objectives	193
Communications	193
Planning and Decision Making	193
Measurement and Evaluation of Results	194
Determining Promotional Objectives	194
Marketing versus Communications Objectives	194
Sales versus Communications Objectives	195
Sales-Oriented Objectives	195
Communications Objectives	199
DAGMAR: An Approach to Setting Objectives	203
Characteristics of Objectives	203
Assessment of DAGMAR	206
Problems in Setting Objectives	207
Improving Promotional Planners? Use of Objectives	207
Setting Objectives for the IMC Program	208
Establishing and Allocating the Promotional Budget	209
Establishing the Budget	209
Budgeting Approaches	215
Allocating the Budget	226
Part Five
Developing the Integrated Marketing Communications Program	234
Chapter Eight
Creative Strategy: Planning and Development	
The Importance of Creativity in Advertising	238
Advertising Creativity	240
What Is Creativity?	240
Different Perspectives on Advertising Creativity	240
Planning Creative Strategy	241
The Creative Challenge	241
Taking Creative Risks	243
Creative Personnel	245
The Creative Process	245
Account Planning	246
Inputs to the Creative Process: Preparation, Incubation, 
Illumination	247
Inputs to the Creative Process: Verification, Revision	249
Creative Strategy Development	252
Advertising Campaigns	252
Copy Platform	252
The Search for the Major Selling Idea	254
Chapter Nine
Creative Strategy: Implementation and Evaluation	
Appeals and Execution Styles	266
Advertising Appeals	267
Advertising Execution	275
Creative Tactics	282
Creative Tactics for Print Advertising	282
Creative Tactics for Television	285
Client Evaluation and Approval of Creative Work	290
Guidelines for Evaluating Creative Output	291
Chapter Ten
Media Planning and Strategy	
An Overview of Media Planning	300
Some Basic Terms and Concepts	301
The Media Plan	303
Problems in Media Planning	303
Developing the Media Plan	306
Market Analysis and Target Market Identification	306
To Whom Shall We Advertise?	307
What Internal and External Factors Are Operating?	309
Where to Promote?	309
Establishing Media Objectives	313
Developing and Implementing Media Strategies	314
The Media Mix	314
Target Market Coverage	314
Geographic Coverage	315
Scheduling	315
Reach versus Frequency	317
Creative Aspects and Mood	322
Flexibility	324
Budget Considerations	324
Evaluation and Follow-Up	327
Characteristics of Media	327
APPENDIX A: Sources of Media Information	333
Chapter Eleven
Evaluation of Broadcast Media	
Television	338
Advantages of Television	338
Limitations of Television	340
Buying Television Time	344
Network versus Spot	344
Methods of Buying Time	349
Selecting Time Periods and Programs	350
Cable Television	351
Measuring the TV Audience	357
Radio	362
Advantages of Radio	363
Limitations of Radio	366
Buying Radio Time	367
Time Classifications	369
Audience Information	369
Chapter Twelve
Evaluation of Print Media	
The Role of Magazines and Newspapers	377
Magazines	377
Classifications of Magazines	377
Advantages of Magazines	380
Disadvantages of Magazines	387
Magazine Circulation and Readership	389
Audience Information and Research for Magazines	391
Purchasing Magazine Advertising Space	392
The Future for Magazines	393
Newspapers	396
Types of Newspapers	396
Types of Newspaper Advertising	398
Advantages of Newspapers	399
Limitations of Newspapers	401
The Newspaper Audience	402
Purchasing Newspaper Space	403
Newspaper Rates	404
The Future for Newspapers	405
Chapter Thirteen
Support Media	
The Scope of the Support Media Industry	415
Traditional Support Media	415
Outdoor Advertising	415
Alternative Out-of-Home Media	417
In-Store Media	419
Miscellaneous Outdoor Media	419
Transit Advertising	420
Measurement in Out-of-Home Media	423
Promotional Products Marketing	424
Advantages and Disadvantages of Promotional Products Marketing
	424
Measurement in Promotional Products Marketing	426
Yellow Pages Advertising	427
Other Traditional Support Media	429
Advertising in Movie Theaters	429
In-Flight Advertising	430
Nontraditional Support Media	432
Branded Entertainment	432
Miscellaneous Other Media	439
Chapter Fourteen
Direct Marketing	
Direct Marketing	446
Defining Direct Marketing	447
The Growth of Direct Marketing	447
The Role of Direct Marketing in the IMC Program	449
Direct-Marketing Objectives	450
Developing a Database	450
Direct-Marketing Strategies and Media	456
Direct Selling	461
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Direct Marketing	462
Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Marketing	463
Chapter Fifteen
The Internet and Interactive Media	
A Brief History of the Internet	469
Why the Rapid Adoption of the Internet?	469
Web Objectives	470
Developing and Maintaining a Website	470
Communications Objectives	473
E-Commerce	475
The Internet and Integrated Marketing Communications	476
Advertising on the Internet 	476
Sales Promotion on the Internet	479
Personal Selling on the Internet	481
Public Relations on the Internet	482
Direct Marketing on the Internet	482
Measuring Effectiveness of the Internet	483
Audience Measures and Measures of Effectiveness	484
Sources of Measurement Data	485
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Internet	486
Additional Interactive Media	487
Wireless	488
Chapter Sixteen
Sales Promotion	
The Scope and Role of Sales Promotion	495
The Growth of Sales Promotion	496
Reasons for the Increase in Sales Promotion	497
Concerns about the Increased Role of Sales Promotion	502
Consumer Franchise-Building versus Nonfranchise-Building Promotions
	502
Consumer-Oriented Sales Promotion	503
Objectives of Consumer-Oriented Sales Promotion	503
Consumer-Oriented Sales Promotion Techniques	507
Sampling	507
Couponing	510
Premiums	516
Contests and Sweepstakes	518
Refunds and Rebates	521
Bonus Packs	522
Price-Off Deals	522
Loyalty Programs	522
Event Marketing	523
Summary of Consumer-Oriented Promotions and Marketer Objectives
	524
Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion	525
Objectives of Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion	525
Types of Trade-Oriented Promotions	527
Coordinating Sales Promotion and Advertising	533
Budget Allocation	534
Coordination of Ad and Promotion Themes	534
Media Support and Timing	534
Sales Promotion Abuse	536
Chapter Seventeen
Public Relations, Publicity, and Corporate Advertising	
Public Relations	543
The Traditional Definition of PR	543
The New Role of PR	543
Integrating PR into the Promotional Mix	544
Marketing Public Relations Functions	544
The Process of Public Relations	546
Determining and Evaluating Public Attitudes	546
Establishing a PR Plan	547
Developing and Executing the PR Program	548
Advantages and Disadvantages of PR	553
Measuring the Effectiveness of PR	554
Publicity	556
The Power of Publicity	557
The Control and Dissemination of Publicity	559
Advantages and Disadvantages of Publicity	561
Measuring the Effectiveness of Publicity	561
Corporate Advertising	561
Objectives of Corporate Advertising	563
Types of Corporate Advertising	563
Advantages and Disadvantages of Corporate Advertising	569
Measuring the Effectiveness of Corporate Advertising	569
Chapter Eighteen
Personal Selling	
The Scope of Personal Selling	574
The Role of Personal Selling in the IMC Program	575
Determining the Role of Personal Selling	575
The Nature of Personal Selling	576
Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Selling	583
Combining Personal Selling with Other Promotional Tools	585
Combining Personal Selling and Advertising	585
Combining Personal Selling and Public Relations	586
Combining Personal Selling and Direct Marketing	586
Combining Personal Selling and Sales Promotion	588
Combining Personal Selling with the Internet	588
Evaluating the Personal Selling Effort	589
Criteria for Evaluating Personal Selling	591
Part Six
Monitoring, Evaluation, and Control	594
Chapter Nineteen
Measuring the Effectiveness of the Promotional Program	
Arguments for and Against Measuring Effectiveness	597
Reasons to Measure Effectiveness	597
Reasons Not to Measure Effectiveness	599
Conducting Research to Measure Advertising Effectiveness	602
What to Test	602
When to Test	603
Where to Test	606
How to Test	606
The Testing Process	607
Concept Generation and Testing	607
Rough Art, Copy, and Commercial Testing	608
Pretesting of Finished Ads	611
Market Testing of Ads	616
Establishing a Program for Measuring Advertising Effects	623
Problems with Current Research Methods	623
Essentials of Effective Testing	624
Measuring the Effectiveness of Other Program Elements	624
Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotions	624
Measuring the Effectiveness of Nontraditional Media	626
Measuring the Effectiveness of Sponsorships	626
Measuring the Effectiveness of Other IMC Program Elements	627
Part Seven
Special Topics and Perspectives	632
Chapter Twenty
International Advertising and Promotion	
The Importance of International Markets	635
The Role of International Advertising and Promotion	637
The International Environment	638
The Economic Environment	638
The Demographic Environment	639
The Cultural Environment	641
The Political/Legal Environment	643
Global versus Localized Advertising	646
Advantages of Global Marketing and Advertising	646
Problems with Global Advertising	647
When Is Globalization Appropriate?	648
Global Products, Local Messages	651
Decision Areas in International Advertising	652
Organizing for International Advertising	652
Agency Selection	655
Advertising Research	658
Creative Decisions	659
Media Selection	660
The Roles of Other Promotional Mix Elements in International Marketing	665
Sales Promotion	665
Personal Selling	668
Public Relations	669
The Internet	670
Chapter Twenty-one
Regulation of Advertising and Promotion	
Self-Regulation	678
Self-Regulation by Advertisers and Agencies	678
Self-Regulation by Trade Associations	679
Self-Regulation by Businesses	681
The National Advertising Review Council and the NAD/NARB	682
Self-Regulation by Media	684
Appraising Self-Regulation	688
Federal Regulation of Advertising	688
Advertising and the First Amendment	688
Background on Federal Regulation of Advertising	689
The Federal Trade Commission	691
The Concept of Unfairness	692
Deceptive Advertising	692
The FTC?s Handling of Deceptive Advertising Cases	697
Current Status of Federal Regulation by the FTC	700
Additional Federal Regulatory Agencies	701
The Lanham Act	704
State Regulation	706
Regulation of Other Promotional Areas	706
Sales Promotion	706
Marketing on the Internet	710
Chapter Twenty-two
Evaluating the Social, Ethical, and Economic Aspects of Advertising and 
Promotion	
Advertising and Promotion Ethics	719
Social and Ethical Criticisms of Advertising	721
Advertising as Untruthful or Deceptive	721
Advertising as Offensive or in Bad Taste	722
Advertising and Children	726
Social and Cultural Consequences	731
Summarizing Social Effects	739
Economic Effects of Advertising	741
Effects on Consumer Choice	742
Effects on Competition	742
Effects on Product Costs and Prices	744
Summarizing Economic Effects	745
Glossary of Advertising and Promotion Terms	749
Endnotes	763
Credits and Acknowledgments	791
Name and Company Index	795
Subject Index	807

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Advertising.
Sales promotion.
Communication in marketing.