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Brief contents Preface xiii Guided tour xviii Acknowledgements xx Publisher's acknowledgements xxii Abbreviations xxvi About the author xxviii Part I THE DECISION TO INTERNATIONALIZE 1 Part I Video case study and Introduction 2 1 Global marketing in the firm 4 2 Initiation of internationalization 34 3 Internationalization theories 53 4 Development of the firm's international competitiveness 71 Part I Case study 103 Part II DECIDING WHICH MARKETS TO ENTER 113 Part II Video case study and Introduction 114 5 The political and economic environment 116 6 The sociocultural environment 139 7 The international market selection process 161 Part II Case study 186 Part III MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES 197 Part III Video case study and Introduction 198 8 Some approaches to the choice of entry mode 203 9 Export, intermediate and hierarchical entry modes 215 10 International buyer-seller relationships 261 Part III Case study 282 Part IV DESIGNING THE GLOBAL MARKETING PROGRAMME 293 Part IV Video case study and Introduction 294 11 Product and pricing decisions 301 12 Distribution and communication decisions 353 Part IV Case study 393 Part V IMPLEMENTING AND COORDINATING THE GLOBAL MARKETING PROGRAMME 411 Part V Video case study and Introduction 412 13 Cross-cultural sales negotiations 414 14 Organization and control of the global marketing programme 438 Part V Case study 466 Index 482 SUPPORTING RESOURCES Visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/hollensen to find valuable online resources: Companion website for students l Full versions of the video case studies at the end of each chapter l Self-assessment multiple choice questions for each chapter l Annotated links to relevant, specific sites on the web l Searchable online glossary l Flashcards to test your knowledge of key terms and definitions l Classic extra case studies that help take your learning further l An entire web-based chapter on global e-marketing, that helps keep you up-to-date in this fast-moving area l Further reading for chapters 1-14 For instructors l Media-rich PowerPoint slides, including animated key figures from the book, video clips, audio and direct links to the web l Extensive Instructor's Manual, with sample answers for all the case study question material, including the extra case studies on the book's website l Answers to the questions in the book that accompany the video case studies integrated with the book l A testbank (delivered in TestGen) of over 600 multiple choice questions Also: The Companion Website provides the following features: l Search tool to help locate specific items of content l E-mail results and profile tools to send results of quizzes to instructors l Online help and support to assist with website usage and troubleshooting For more information please contact your local Pearson Education sales representative or visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/hollensen Contents Preface xiii Guided tour xviii Acknowledgements xx Publisher's acknowledgements xxii Abbreviations xxvi About the author xxviii Part I THE DECISION TO INTERNATIONALIZE 1 Part I Video case study Acme Whistles Ltd: An SME is globalizing its whistles sales 2 Introduction to Part I 3 Global marketing in the firm 4 Learning objectives 4 1.1 The process of developing the global marketing plan 4 1.2 Introduction to globalization 5 1.3 Development of the 'global marketing' concept 10 1.4 Forces for 'global integration' and 'market responsiveness' 12 1.5 The value chain as a framework for identifying international competitive advantage 16 1.6 Value shop and the 'service value chain' 24 1.7 Information business and the virtual value chain 28 1.8 Summary 29 Case study 1.1 Bubba Gump Shrimp Co.: A US-based restaurant chain is going international 30 Questions for discussion 32 References 33 Initiation of internationalization 34 Learning objectives 34 2.1 Introduction 34 2.2 Internationalization motives 35 2.3 Triggers of export initiation (change agents) 42 2.4 Internationalization barriers/risks 46 2.5 Summary 50 Case study 2.1 Elvis Presley Enterprises Inc. (EPE): Internationalization of a 'cult icon' 50 Questions for discussion 51 References 51 Internationalization theories 53 Learning objectives 53 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 The Uppsala internationalization model 56 3.3 The transaction cost analysis (TCA) model 57 3.4 The network model 61 3.5 Born globals 63 3.6 Summary 66 Case study 3.1 Entertainment Rights: Internationalization of 'Postman Pat' 67 Questions for discussion 68 References 69 Development of the firm's international competitiveness 71 Learning objectives 71 4.1 Introduction 71 4.2 Analysis of national competitiveness (the Porter diamond) 73 4.3 Competition analysis in an industry 78 4.4 Value chain analysis 82 4.5 Blue ocean strategy and value innovation 92 4.6 Summary 96 Case study 4.1 Wii: Nintendo's Wii takes first place on the world market - can it last? 97 Questions for discussion 101 References 101 Part I Case studies I.1 Manchester United: Still trying to establish a global brand 103 I.2 Cereal Partners Worldwide (CPW): The No. 2 world player is challenging the No. 1 - Kellogg 106 Part II DECIDING WHICH MARKETS TO ENTER 113 Part II Video case study Land Rover: Which markets should be selected for the new Freelander 2 114 Introduction to Part II 115 The political and economic environment 116 Learning objectives 116 5.1 Introduction 116 5.2 The political/legal environment 117 5.3 The economic environment 126 5.4 The European Economic and Monetary Union and the euro 133 5.5 Summary 134 Case study 5.1 Sauer-Danfoss: Which political/economic factor would affect a manufacturer of hydraulic components? 137 Questions for discussion 137 References 138 The sociocultural environment 139 Learning objectives 139 6.1 Introduction 139 6.2 Layers of culture 142 6.3 High- and low-context cultures 143 6.4 Elements of culture 144 6.5 Hofstede's original work on national cultures (the '4 + 1' dimensions model) 151 6.6 Managing cultural differences 153 6.7 Convergence or divergence of the world's cultures 154 6.8 The effects of cultural dimensions on ethical decision making 155 6.9 Summary 157 Case study 6.1 IKEA catalogue: Are there any cultural differences? 158 Questions for discussion 160 References 160 The international market selection process 161 Learning objectives 161 7.1 Introduction 161 7.2 International market selection: SMEs versus LSEs 162 7.3 Building a model for international market selection 163 7.4 Market expansion strategies 176 7.5 The global product/market portfolio 179 7.6 Summary 182 Case study 7.1 Philips Lighting: Screening markets in the Middle East 183 Questions for discussion 184 References 185 Part II Case studies II.1 Red Bull: The global market leader in energy drinks is considering further market expansion 186 II.2 Skagen Designs: Becoming an international player in designed watches 192 Part III MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES 197 Part III Video case study Tata: Which entry modes should be used for Tata Nano - the World's cheapest car 198 Introduction to Part III 200 Some approaches to the choice of entry mode 203 Learning objectives 203 8.1 Introduction 203 8.2 The transaction cost approach 204 8.3 Factors influencing the choice of entry mode 205 8.4 Summary 210 Case study 8.1 Ansell condoms: Is acquisition the right way for gaining market shares in the European condom market? 211 Questions for discussion 213 References 214 Export, intermediate and hierarchical entry modes 215 Learning objectives 215 9.1 Introduction 215 9.2 Export modes 216 9.3 Intermediate modes 228 9.4 Hierarchical modes 242 9.5 Summary 253 Case study 9.1 Lysholm Linie Aquavit: International marketing of a Norwegian Aquavit brand 257 Questions for discussion 258 References 259 International buyer-seller relationships 261 Learning objectives 261 10.1 Introduction 261 10.2 Reasons for international sourcing 262 10.3 A typology of subcontracting 265 10.4 Buyer-seller interaction 266 10.5 Development of a relationship 269 10.6 Reverse marketing: from seller to buyer initiative 272 10.7 Internationalization of subcontractors 272 10.8 Project export (turnkey contracts) 274 10.9 Summary 276 Case study 10.1 YouTube: Can YouTube get too many international marketing partners? 277 Questions for discussion 280 References 280 Part III Case studies III.1 IKEA: Expanding through franchising to the South American market? 282 III.2 Autoliv Air Bags: Transforming Autoliv into a global company 288 Part IV DESIGNING THE GLOBAL MARKETING PROGRAMME 293 Part IV Video case study Electrolux: Try to establish a global brand identity 294 Introduction to Part IV 295 Product and pricing decisions 301 Learning objectives 301 11.1 Introduction 302 11.2 The dimensions of the international product offer 302 11.3 Developing international service strategies 303 11.4 The product communications mix 307 11.5 Product positioning 310 11.6 Brand equity 312 11.7 Branding decisions 314 11.8 Implications of the Internet for collaboration with customers on product decisions 322 11.9 Green marketing strategies 327 11.10 Factors influencing international pricing decisions 329 11.11 International pricing strategies 334 11.12 Implications of the Internet for pricing across borders 347 11.13 Summary 348 Case study 11.1 Zippo Manufacturing Company: Has product diversification beyond the lighter gone too far? 349 Questions for discussion 350 References 351 Distribution and communication decisions 353 Learning objectives 353 12.1 Introduction 354 12.2 External determinants of channel decisions 355 12.3 The structure of the channel 357 12.4 Managing and controlling distribution channels 360 12.5 Implications of the Internet for distribution decisions 365 12.6 The communication process 367 12.7 Communication tools 370 12.8 International advertising strategies in practice 383 12.9 Implications of the Internet for communication decisions 387 12.10 Summary 392 Case study 12.1 De Beers: Forward integration into the diamond industry value chain 393 Questions for discussion 395 References 396 Part IV Case studies IV.1 Guinness: How can the iconic Irish beer brand compensate for declining sales in the home market? 397 IV.2 Dyson Vacuum Cleaner: Shifting from domestic to international marketing with the famous bagless vacuum cleaner 404 Part V IMPLEMENTING AND COORDINATING THE GLOBAL MARKETING PROGRAMME 411 Part V Video case study Royal Enfield: Trying to establish an international brand entity 412 Introduction to Part V 413 Cross-cultural sales negotiations 414 Learning objectives 414 13.1 Introduction 414 13.2 Cross-cultural negotiations 416 13.3 Intercultural preparation 425 13.4 Coping with expatriates 426 13.5 Knowledge management and learning across borders 428 13.6 Transnational bribery in cross-cultural negotiations 432 13.7 Summary 434 Case study 13.1 Mecca Cola: Marketing of a 'Muslim' cola to the European market 434 Questions for discussion 436 References 437 Organization and control of the global marketing programme 438 Learning objectives 438 14.1 Introduction 438 14.2 Organization of global marketing activities 439 14.3 The global management account (GAM) organization 444 14.4 Controlling the global marketing programme 455 14.5 The global marketing budget 462 14.6 The process of developing the global marketing plan 465 14.7 Summary 465 Case study 14.1 iPhone: Apple's entry into the global mobile phone business 466 Questions for discussion 469 References 470 Part V Case studies V.1 Sony BMG: New worldwide organizational structure and the marketing, planning and budgeting of Dido's new album 471 V.2 Philips Shavers: Maintaining shaving leadership in the world market 475 Index 482
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Export marketing -- Case studies.