Table of contents for Environmental economics : an introduction / Barry C. Field, Martha K. Field.

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Contents 
 
 
Preface xvii 
SECTION ONE 
INTRODUCTION 1 
Chapter 1 What Is Environmental Economics? 2 
Economic Analysis 3 The Importance of Incentives 4 Incentives: A Household 
Example 5 
Incentives in Industry 7 
The Design of Environmental Policy 8 
Macroeconomic Questions: Environment and Growth 9 Benefit?Cost Analysis 12 
Valuing the Environment 
15 Suburban Sprawl 15 International Issues 16 Economic Globalization 
and the Environment 16 Economics and Politics 18 Summary 20 
Chapter 2 The Economy and the Environment 22 
Natural Resource Economics 23 The Fundamental Balance 25 The Environment as an 
Economic and 
Social Asset 30 Terminology 32 
Emissions, Ambient Quality, 
and Damages 33 
Types of Pollutants 36 
Cumulative vs. Noncumulative Pollutants 36 Local vs. Regional and Global 
Pollutants 37 
Point-Source vs. Nonpoint-Source Pollutants 38 
Continuous vs. Episodic Emissions 38 
Environmental Damages Not Related to Emissions 39 
Summary 39 Questions for Further Discussion 39 
SECTION TWO 
ANALYTICAL TOOLS 41 
Chapter 3 Benefits and Costs, Supply and Demand 42 
Willingness to Pay 42 
Demand 45 
Aggregate Demand/ Willingness to Pay 47 Benefits 48 
Cost 50 
Opportunity Cost 51 Private and Social Costs 52 Cost Curves 52 
The Shapes of Cost 
Curves 53 
Technology 56 The Equimarginal Principle 57 Marginal Cost and Supply 59 Summary 
60 Questions for 
Further Discussion 61 
Chapter 4 Economic Efficiency and Markets 63 
Economic Efficiency 64 Efficiency and Equity 66 Markets 66 
Markets and Social Efficiency 68 External Costs 69 
Open-Access Resources 73 
External Benefits 76 
Public Goods 77 
Summary 80 Questions for Further Discussion 81 
Chapter 5 The Economics of Environmental Quality 84 
Pollution Control?A General Model 85 
Pollution Damages 85 
Damage Functions 87 Damage Functions: A Closer Look 89 Damages and Uncertainty 
91 
Abatement Costs 92 
Abatement Cost Functions 92 Abatement Cost Functions: A Closer Look 95 
Aggregate Marginal Abatement Costs 98 
The Socially Efficient Level of Emissions 99 
Changes in the Efficient Level of Emissions 102 
Enforcement Costs 103 The Equimarginal Principle Applied to Emission Reductions 
104 
Trade-offs and Politics 106 Summary 106 
Questions for Further Discussion 107 
SECTION THREE 
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS 109 
Chapter 6 Frameworks of Analysis 110 
Impact Analysis 110 
Environmental Impact Analysis 110 Economic Impact Analysis 111 Regulatory Impact 
Analysis 112 
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 112 Damage Assessment 113 Benefit?Cost Analysis 115 
The Basic Framework 116 Scope of the Program 118 Discounting 121 
Choice of Discount Rate 123 Discounting and Future Generations 124 
Distributional Issues 126 
Risk Analysis 128 
Risk Assessment 128 Risk Valuation 129 Risk Management 131 
Summary 131 Questions for Further Discussion 132 
Chapter 7 Benefit?Cost Analysis: Benefits 135 
The Damage Function: Physical Aspects 136 
Measuring Damages Directly 137 
Health Costs 137 The Effects of Pollution on Production Costs 138 
Materials Damage 140 
Problems with Direct Damage Approaches 141 
Willingness to Pay 142 Willingness to Pay: Indirect Methods 143 
The Value of Human Health as Expressed in Averting Costs 143 The Value of Human 
Life as Expressed in Wage Rates 
144 
Valuing Children?s Health 146 
The Value of Environmental 
Quality as Expressed in House 
Prices 146 
The Value of Environmental 
Quality and Intercity Wage Differentials 148 
The Value of Environmental Amenities as Expressed in 
Travel Costs 149 
Willingness to Pay: Direct Methods 149 
The Questionnaire 150 Some Results 151 Problems of CV Analysis 154 
Problems in Benefit Estimation 155 
Discounting 155 Willingness to Pay vs. Willingness to Accept 155 
Nonuse Values 156 
Summary 157 Questions for Further Discussion 157 
Chapter 8 Benefit?Cost Analysis: Costs 160 
The Cost Perspective: General Issues 160 
The With/Without Principle 161 No-Cost Improvements in Environmental Quality 161 
The Distribution of Costs 162 
Concepts of Cost 162 
Opportunity Costs 162 Environmental Costs 163 Enforcement Costs 164 
Costs of Single Facilities 164 Costs of a Local Regulation 166 Costs of 
Regulating an Industry 167 
An Example 168 Sources of Cost Data 169 Misrepresentation of Costs 169 Actual 
vs. Minimum Pollution Control 
Costs 170 
The Effect of Output Adjustments on Costs 170 
Long-Run Technical Change and Pollution-Control Costs 172 
Costs at the National Level 174 
Future Costs and Technological Change 176 
Summary 177 
Questions for Further Discussion 177 
SECTION FOUR 
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS 179 
Chapter 9 Criteria for Evaluating Environmental Policies 180 
Efficiency 180 Cost Effectiveness 181 Fairness 182 
Environmental Justice 183 
Incentives for Technological Improvements 184 Enforceability 185 Materials 
Balance 
Issues 188 
Moral Considerations 189 Government Failure 190 Summary 190 Questions for 
Further Discussion 191 
Chapter 10 Decentralized Policies: Liability Laws, Property Rights, Voluntary 
Action 
193 
Liability Laws 193 
The Principle 194 Common Law 195 Statutory Law 197 
Property Rights 200 The Principle 200 Rules and Conditions 202 Transactions 
Costs 202 The Absence of Markets 203 
Voluntary Action 204 Moral Suasion 207 Informal Community Pressure 207 
Summary 208 Questions for Further Discussion 209 
Chapter 11 Command-and-Control Strategies: The Case 
of Standards 211 
Types of Standards 212 
Ambient Standards 212 Emission Standards 213 Technology Standards 214 Standards 
Used in Combination 216 
The Economics of Standards 216 
Setting the Level of the Standard 216 Uniformity of Standards 217 Standards and 
the Equimarginal Principle 220 
Standards and Incentives 223 
Short Run 223 Long Run 224 Political-Economic Aspects of Standards 225 
The Economics of Enforcement 227 
Enforcing Emission Standards 227 Enforcing Technology Standards 229 General 
Issues 229 
Summary 230 Questions for Further Discussion 231 
Chapter 12 Incentive-Based Strategies: Emission Charges and Subsidies 233 
Emission Charges 235 
The Basic Economics 235 The Level of the Charge 237 Emission Charges and 
Cost-Effectiveness 239 Emission Taxes and Nonuniform Emissions 242 
Emissions Charges and Uncertainty 244 
Emission Charges and Tax Revenues 245 
Emission Charges and the Incentives to Innovate 247 
Emission Charges and Enforcement Costs 248 
Other Types of Charges 249 Distributional Impacts of Emission Charges 250 
Abatement Subsidies 251 
Deposit-Refund Systems 252 
Summary 254 Questions for Further Discussion 255 
Chapter 13 Incentive-Based Strategies: Transferable Discharge Permits 257 
General Principles 257 
The Initial Rights Allocation 261 Establishing Trading Rules 262 Reducing the 
Number of Permits 263 Nonuniform 
Emissions 263 
CAPs and Problems of 
Competition 266 
CAP Programs and Enforcement 266 CAPs and the Incentive for 
R&D 267 
Summary 270 Questions for Further Discussion 270 
SECTION FIVE 
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES 273 
Chapter 14 Federal Water Pollution?Control Policy 274 
Types of Water Pollutants 275 Federal Policy: A Brief History 277 Technology-
Based Effluent Standards 
280 
Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness of TBESs 282 
Experience with TBESs 283 TBESs and Incentives 285 TBESs and Enforcement 286 
The Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Subsidy Program 287 The Safe Drinking 
Water Act (SDWA) 
290 Recent Policy Innovations in Water Pollution Control 291 
Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution Control 291 
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program 292 
Emission Trading in Water Pollution Control 293 
Summary 297 Questions for Further Discussion 298 
Chapter 15 Federal Air Pollution Control Policy 300 
Federal Air Pollution Control Laws: A Brief Sketch 303 
National Ambient Air Quality Standards 307 
Stationary-Source Control 308 
Technology-Based Effluent Standards 309 
Cost-Effectiveness of the TBES Approach 310 
New Directions in Stationary-Source Control 312 
The CAP Program of the 1990 
CAA 313 
How It Works 313 
The Role of the EPA 314 
Has It Worked? 315 
Future CAP Programs 316 
Mobile-Source Air Pollution Control 318 
New-Car Emission Standards 319 Lead Trading and the Switch to Lead-Free Gas 321 
The 1990 Clean Air Act 322 Clean Cars 323 
Incentive Issues in Mobile-Source Programs 325 
Summary 328 Questions for Further Discussion 328 
Chapter 16 Federal Policy on Toxic and Hazardous Substances 330 
Economic Issues in Laws Governing Chemicals in Production and Consumer Products 
332 
The ?Balancing? Issue 333 Uniform Standards 338 Differentiated Control 339 
Economic Issues in Federal Policy on Toxic Emissions 339 
Instrument Choice 341 Waste Reduction 341 
The Management of Hazardous Wastes 344 
Economic Issues in Handling Current Hazardous 
Waste 347 
Incentive-Based Possibilities 347 Environmental Justice 348 Radioactive Wastes 
349 Cleaning Up after the Cold War 
350 
Economic Issues in Handling Legacy Hazardous 
Waste Sites 351 
Financing Hazardous Waste Site Cleanups 352 
How Clean Is Clean? 352 Brownfields 353 
Natural Resource Damages (NRD) 353 
Summary 354 Questions for Further Discussion 354 
Chapter 17 State and Local Environmental Issues 357 
Environmental Federalism 358 
Constitutional Issues 359 Efficiency Issues 359 Race to the Bottom? 361 Policy 
Innovations at the State Level 361 
Municipal Solid Waste 362 
The Nature of the Problem 362 Technical Options for Reducing MSW 363 
Current Policy 364 
The Economics of Recycling 365 
Producer Use of Recycled Material 367 Consumer Recycling Decisions 369 Producer 
Take-Back Programs 375 
Land-Use Control Policies 375 The Economic Logic of Land-Use Decisions 376 
Policy Options 377 
The Regulatory Takings Issue 378 
Growing National Land-Use Issues 379 
The Endangered Species Act 379 Wetlands 381 
Summary 383 Questions for Further Discussion 383 
SECTION SIX 
INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 385 
Chapter 18 Comparative Environmental Policies 386 
International Comparisons of Environmental Quality 386 
Interpreting Differences in Environmental Performance 387 
Environmental Policy in Other Countries 391 
National Styles in Environmental Policy 391 
Guiding Principles of Pollution Control 394 
Instrument Choices 395 Environmental Analysis 397 
Environmental Policy in Transition Countries 397 
Developments in Environmental Accounting 401 
Summary 403 
Questions for Further 
Discussion 404 
Chapter 19 Economic Development and the Environment 407 
General Considerations 408 Environmental Degradation in Developing Economies 408 
Economy and 
Environment 409 
A Static View 410 Sustainability 411 Long-Run Relationships 412 
The Pollution-Haven Hypothesis 414 Environmental Policy Choices in Developing 
Countries 416 
Benefit?Cost Analysis 416 Reducing Environmental Disincentives of Current 
Policies 418 Institutional Policy: 
Property 
Rights 419 
Population Policy as Environmental Policy 420 
What Types of Environmental Policies? 421 
The Role of the Developed Countries 423 
Technology Transfer 424 Debt-for-Nature Swaps 426 Environmental Values in 
International Aid Institutions 428 
Summary 428 Questions for Further Discussion 429 
Chapter 20 The Global Environment 431 
Ozone Depletion 431 
The Physical Problem 431 Damages from Ultraviolet Radiation 432 Policy Responses 
433 
The Economics of CFC 
Controls 434 
Global Warming 438 
The Physical Problem 438 Human and Ecosystem Impacts 439 
Scientific Uncertainties and Human Choice 440 Technical Responses to the 
Greenhouse Effect 440 Reducing Domestic 
GHG Emissions 442 International Efforts in Global Warming 445 
The Kyoto Protocol 448 
Biological Diversity 450 Summary 453 Questions for Further Discussion 453 
Chapter 21 International Environmental Agreements 456 
General Issues 457 The Economics of International Agreements 462 
Bilateral Agreements 462 Multilateral Agreements 464 The Distribution of Costs 
466 International Agreements 
in Practice 466 
Cost-Effectiveness in Multinational Agreements 466 
International Trade and the Environment 468 
Free Trade vs. Environmental Trade Restrictions 468 
Trade Restrictions to Advance International Environmental Goals 471 
Summary 474 
Questions for Further Discussion 474 Web Sites 475 Selected Readings 475 
APPENDIX 
Abbreviations and Acronyms Used in the Book 477 
NAME INDEX 480
SUBJECT INDEX 486 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Environmental economics.
Economic development -- Environmental aspects.