Table of contents for Practical aspects of rape investigation : a multidisciplinary approach / editor(s) Robert R. Hazelwood, Ann Wolbert Burgess Taylor.

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Contents
Series Editor¿s Note v
Preface vii
Acknowledgments xi
Contributors xiii
Section I: The Victim
1 Contemporary Issues 3
Ann Wolbert Burgess and Carol Harvey Marchetti
Introduction 3
The Size of the Problem 3
Incidence 3
Prevalence 5
Under-reported Crime 6
Relationship of Victim and Offender 6
Evidentiary Examination of the Victim 7
Crimes against the Elderly 7
Homicide 8
Elder Sexual Abuse in Nursing Homes 8
History of Psychological Trauma 10
The Psychobiology of Trauma 10
Memory 12
Developmental Traumatology: A Neurobiological Perspective 13
Substance Abuse 14
Date-Rape Drugs 14
Stalking 15
Cyberstalking 15
Youth Online Victimization 16
Collegiate Stalking and Cyberstalking 17
Adult Cyberstalking 17
Cyber Child Pornography 18
References 19
2 Rape and Its Impact on the Victim 23
Angela F. Amar and Ann Wolbert Burgess
Introduction 23
Rape Trauma Syndrome 23
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Anxiety-Based Disorders 24
Depression 24
Substance Abuse 25
Psychosocial Adaptation 25
Childhood Sexual Abuse 25
Physical Health Effects of Rape 26
Pregnancy 26
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) 26
Perception of Health 26
Utilization of Health Services 27
General Health Effects 27
Genital Injury 27
Specific Populations 27
Global Perspectives 29
Overview of Culture and Its Relevance to Sexual Assault 30
Cultural Values and Sexual Assault 30
Research Related to Rape and Culture 31
Global Reports of Rape and Sexual Assault 32
Investigative Implications 32
References 33
3 Victim Services and SANE/SART Programs 37
Ann Wolbert Burgess, Annie Lewis-O¿Connor, M.
Elaine Nugent-Borakove, and Patricia Fanflik
Introduction 37
Rape Crisis Centers 37
Hospital-Based Victim Care Service: Early Services 38
Rape Crisis Services 40
The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) 41
The Evolution of SANE and SART 41
The Anti-rape Movement and the Development of Rape Crisis Centers 41
The ¿Second Assault¿: Early Treatment of Rape Victims by the System 42
SANE/SART: Past and Present 43
Structure and Operation of SANE/SART Programs 44
Research on SANE/SART Programs 45
References 47
Section II: Investigation
4 The Relevance of Fantasy in Serial Sexual Crimes
Investigation 53
Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I Warren
Introduction 53
The Human Sex Drive 54
Sex Is a Sensory Act 54
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Contents xxi
The Paraphilias 55
Fantasy in Sexual Crimes 55
Inanimate Objects 56
Dolls 56
Photographs/Magazine Pictures 57
Clothing 57
Consenting Partners 57
Prostitutes 57
Girlfriends or Spouses as Partners 58
Self-Composition 58
Investigative Significance of Fantasy 58
Fantasy and Intelligence 59
Fantasy Is Always Perfect 59
Fantasy Enactment with Wives and/or Girlfriends 60
Fantasy and the Linking of Cases 61
Fantasy and Search Warrants 61
Fantasy and Prosecutive Strategy 62
Summary 63
References 63
5 The Sexually Violent Offender: Impulsive or Ritualistic 65
Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I. Warren
Introduction 65
The Impulsive Sex Offender 67
Motivation 67
Fantasy 68
Personality Style 68
Collections/Pornography 68
Pre-offense Acting Out 69
Criminal Behavior 69
Past Criminal Behavior 69
Travel and Search Patterns 69
The Ritualistic Offender 70
Motivation 70
Personality Style 70
Fantasy 70
Relational 71
Paraphilic 72
Demographic 72
Situational 72
Self-perceptional 73
Pre-offense Acting Out 74
Criminal Behavior 75
Pornography 76
Criminal History 76
Summary 76
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References 77
6 The Behavioral-Oriented Interview of Rape Victims:
The Key to Profiling 79
Robert R. Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess
Introduction 79
Motivation 79
Profiling the Unidentified Rapist 80
Questioning for Behavior 82
Method of Approach 82
Con 83
Blitz 83
Surprise 83
Offender¿s Control of the Victim 83
Mere Presence 83
Verbal Threats 84
Presence of a Weapon 84
Physical Force 84
Offender¿s Use of Physical Force 84
Minimal 85
Moderate 85
Excessive 85
Brutal 85
Victim Resistance 85
Passive Resistance 85
Verbal Resistance 86
Physical Resistance 86
Offender¿s Reaction to Resistance 86
Cease the Demand 86
Compromise or Negotiate 86
Flee 86
Threaten 87
Force 87
Sexual Dysfunctions 87
Erectile Insufficiency 87
Premature Ejaculation 88
Retarded Ejaculation 88
Conditional Insufficiency 88
Conditional Ejaculation 88
Type and Sequence of Sexual Acts 89
Verbal Activity 90
Forced Victim Verbal Activity 91
Sudden Change in Offender¿s Attitude 91
Criminal Experience 92
Novice 92
Experienced 92
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Contents xxiii
Items Taken 93
Evidentiary 93
Valuables 93
Personal 93
Indications That Victim Was Targeted 93
Summary 94
References 94
7 Analyzing the Rape and Profiling the Offender 97
Robert R. Hazelwood
Introduction 97
Selfish versus Pseudo-unselfish Behavior 98
Pseudo-unselfish Behavior 98
Verbal Behavior 98
Sexual Behavior 100
Physical Behavior 100
Selfish Behavior 101
Verbal Behavior 101
Sexual Behavior 102
Physical Behavior 102
Rapist Typologies 103
Power Reassurance Rapist 103
General 103
Purpose of Attack 103
Style of Attack 104
Power Assertive Rapist 105
General 105
Purpose of Attack 105
Style of Attack 105
Anger Retaliatory Rapist 106
General 106
Purpose of Attack 106
Style of Attack 106
Anger Excitation Rapist 107
General 107
Purpose of Attack 107
Style of Attack 107
Opportunistic Rapist 108
General 108
Purpose of Attack 108
Style of Attack 109
The Gang Rape 109
General 109
Purpose of Attack 109
Style of Attack 109
A Case Study 110
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Criminal Investigative Analysis 114
Victimology 114
Low Risk 114
Moderate Risk 114
High Risk 114
Method of Approach 115
Method of Control 115
Amount of Force 115
Victim Resistance 115
Reaction to Resistance 116
Sexual Dysfunction 116
Type and Sequence of Sexual Acts 116
Offender Verbal Activity 116
Attitudinal Change 117
What Preceded the Attitudinal Change 117
Precautionary Actions 118
Items Taken 118
Purpose of the Assault 118
Offender Profiling 119
The Profile 119
Personality Characteristics 119
Race 120
Age 120
Arrest History 120
Marital Status 121
Residence 121
Education 121
Military History 121
Employment 122
Transportation 122
Appearance and Grooming 122
Summary 122
References 122
8 Interviewing the Rapist 123
Michael R. Napier
Introduction 123
Developing the Interview Plan 124
Traits of Successful Interviewers 125
Question Formulation 126
Tools of the Profession 126
Reading Minds 126
Planting Ideas 128
Theme Development 129
Test of Commitment 130
Offender-Specific Tactics 131
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Contents xxv
The Power Reassurance Rapist 131
The Power Assertive Rapist 133
The Anger Retaliatory Rapist 134
The Anger Excitation Rapist 134
References 136
Bibliography 137
9 Geographic Profiling in Serial Rape Investigations 139
D. Kim Rossmo
Introduction 139
Criminal Investigative Process 139
Linkage Analysis 140
Physical Evidence 141
Offender Description 142
Crime Scene Behavior 142
Stranger and Serial Rape 145
Geography of Rape 146
Geographic Profiling 153
Geographic Profiling Considerations 156
Criminal Hunting Methods 157
Crime Locations 159
Questions 159
The Rigel Software System 160
Investigative Strategies and Tactics 161
Suspect Prioritization 161
Police Information Systems 161
Task Force Management 162
Sex Offender Registries 162
Government and Business Databases 162
Motor Vehicle Registrations 163
Bloodings 164
Peak-of-Tension Polygraphy 164
Conclusion 165
References 165
10 Linkage Analysis: M.O., Ritual, and Signature in Serial
Sexual Crimes 171
Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I. Warren
Introduction 171
Modus Operandi 171
Ritualistic Behaviors in Sexual Crimes 173
Observations Regarding M.O. and Ritual 173
The Signature in Sexual Crimes 174
A Case Example 175
The Linkage Analysis 176
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xxvi Contents
The Analysis in the Sanchez and Johnson Cases 177
The Motive 177
The Modus Operandi (M.O.) 177
The Ritual 178
The Signature 178
Dissimilar Features of the Crimes 178
Features Other Than M.O. or Ritual 179
Conclusions 180
References 180
11 False Rape Allegations 181
Robert R. Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess
Introduction 181
Definition 181
Potential Consequences of a False Allegation 182
Imprisonment of an Innocent Person 182
Impact on Legitimate Victims of Rape 183
Emotional Problems in Need of Attention 183
Problems Confronting the Investigator 184
Classification of Unfounded Rape Cases 185
Sex-Stress Situations 185
False Rape Allegation 187
Delusional Rape Allegation 189
Who Makes a False Allegation? 190
Motives for False Rape Allegations 191
Attention/Sympathy 191
Anger/Revenge 191
Alibi 191
False Allegations and the Adaptation Continuum 191
Munchausen Syndrome 192
Mental States 192
Factors Consistent with False Allegations 194
Initial Complaint 194
Assailants 195
Sexual Assault 195
Evidence 195
Injuries 195
Personality and Lifestyle Considerations 196
Other 196
Second Opinion 197
Summary 198
Acknowledgments 198
References 198
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Contents xxvii
12 Collateral Materials in Sexual Crimes 201
Robert R. Hazelwood and Kenneth V. Lanning
Introduction 201
Traditional Evidence in Sexual Crimes 201
Forensic Evidence 201
Circumstantial Evidence 201
Eyewitness Evidence 202
Direct Evidence 202
Collateral Materials 202
Types of Collateral Materials 203
Erotica 203
Educational 204
Introspective 205
Intelligence 205
Case Study 206
Summary 210
References 210
13 Interrogation and False Confessions in Rape Cases 211
Richard A. Leo
Introduction 211
Causes of False Confessions 211
The Police Interrogation 212
Step 1: Shifting the Suspect from Confident to Hopeless 212
Step 2: Offering the Suspect Inducements to Confess 213
The Different Types of False Confessions 213
Voluntary False Confession 214
Stress-Compliant False Confession 214
Coerced-Compliant False Confession 214
Coerced-Persuaded False Confession 215
Noncoerced-Persuaded False Confession 215
The Consequences of False Confessions 215
Conclusion 216
References 217
Section III: Forensics and Court
14 Physical Evidence in Sexual Assault Investigations 221
Robert P. Spalding and P. David Bigbee
Introduction 221
The Nature of Physical Evidence 223
The Identification of Evidence 224
General Types of Evidence 225
Class Characteristic Evidence 225
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Individual Characteristic Evidence 226
Evidence Resulting from Transfer 227
Direct Transfer 228
Indirect Transfer 228
The Evidence Environment 229
Evidence/Crime Scene Contamination 230
The Nature of the Evidence Environment 230
The Personnel 231
Careless and/or Inadvertent Alteration at the Scene 231
The Packaging of Evidence 231
The Laboratory Environment 232
Degradation of Evidence 232
Considerations Relating to the Victim, Suspect, and Assault Scene 233
The Victim 233
The Suspect 235
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits 236
Known Blood 238
Known Saliva 238
Head Hair Combing/Brushing 238
Pubic Hair Combing/Brushing 239
Combing/Brushing of Body Hair Regions Other Than Head and Pubic 239
Vaginal Swabs 239
Oral Swabs 239
Anal Swabs 239
Microscope Smear Slides Made from Swabs 239
Vaginal Aspirate 239
Oral Rinse (Wash) 239
Nasal Mucus Sample 239
Fingernail Scrapings 240
Clothing 240
Penile Swabs 240
Miscellaneous Debris Collection 240
Sheets/Body Bags 240
The Crime Scene 241
General Stages of Crime Scene Investigation 242
Approach the Scene 243
Secure and Protect the Scene 243
Conduct a Preliminary Survey 243
Evaluate Observed Evidence 244
Prepare a Narrative Description 244
Photograph the Scene 245
Sketch the Scene 246
Conduct a Detailed Search for Evidence 246
Collect, Preserve, and Document the Evidence 247
Conduct a Final Survey 247
Release the Scene 248
It Does Not End There 248
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Contents xxix
Blood-Borne Pathogens 248
Bloodstain Patterns 249
Summary 250
15 Evidence Recovery Considerations in Sexual Assault
Investigations 251
Robert P. Spalding and P. David Bigbee
Introduction 251
Recovery of Questioned Evidence 253
Hairs and Fibers 253
Search Methods and Techniques 253
General Unassisted Visual Search 254
Oblique Light 254
Ultraviolet Light 254
Vacuuming 255
Adhesive Lifts 256
Combing/Brushing 256
Fingernail Scrapings and Clippings 257
Lasers and Alternate Light Sources (ALSs) 257
Blood 258
Conventional Forensic Analysis 258
DNA Analysis 259
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) 260
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCRs) 261
Newer Technologies 261
Recovery of Blood Evidence 261
Wet Blood 262
Dried Bloodstains 263
Control Samples 264
Representative Samples 265
Chemical Presumptive Tests 266
Chemical Agents 267
Chemical Enhancement of Blood Evidence 268
Bloodstain Pattern Evidence 268
Semen 269
Conventional Semen Serology 269
DNA in Semen 270
Semen Evidence Recovery 270
Sexual Assault Evidence at the Scene 271
Locating Semen at the Scene 271
DNA and UV Light 272
Post-event Alteration of Stains 272
Saliva 273
Saliva Recovery 273
Ash Tray Contents 274
Bite Marks 274
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xxx Contents
Recovery of Known Evidence 275
Known Hair Samples 276
How Many Hairs? 276
How Should They Be Collected? 276
Elimination Samples 277
Animals 277
Known Fiber Samples 277
Fiber Samples to Be Taken 278
Taking the Samples 278
Known Blood Samples 278
Known Saliva Samples 279
Marking of Evidence for Identification 280
Direct and Indirect Marking 281
What Should Be Marked on the Evidence? 281
Use of an Evidence Log 282
Chain of Custody 282
Materials Used to Package Physical Evidence 282
Small Evidence Items 282
Large Evidence Items 284
Summary 286
Acknowledgments 287
Additional Reading 287
16 Medical Examination of Sexually Abused Children 289
Andi Taroli
Primum Non Nocere 289
Multidisciplinary Investigations 289
The Pediatrician¿s Role 289
The Scope of the Problem 291
¿Children Are Not Little Adults¿ 292
The Medical History 292
The Patient¿s History (Interview) 292
General Principles for Interviewing Children 293
Setting 293
Timing 294
Questions 294
Number of Interviews 295
Content 295
Past Medical History, Family and Social History, and System Review 296
The Physical Exam 296
Colposcopy 297
The Hymen¿Myths and Truths 298
Examination Findings 300
Acute Injury 300
Chronic Exam Findings 300
Why Are Positive Physical Findings Uncommon? 300
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Contents xxxi
¿Penetration, However Slight¿ 302
Evidence for Absence of Physical Findings 308
The Written Report 309
Forensic Evidence Collection 310
Where the Evidence Is (and Where It Is Not) 311
Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) 312
False Allegations of Sexual Abuse in Children 313
Sequelae 315
References 316
Resources 318
17 Injury and Forensic Examination of the Victim 321
Kathleen P. Brown and Marilyn S. Sommers
Introduction 321
Overview 321
Genital Injury Prevalence 322
Injury Prevalence with Visual Inspection 322
Injury Prevalence with Staining Techniques 323
Injury Prevalence with Colposcopy Technique 323
Location of Genital Injury 323
Comparison of Genital Injury Prevalence Following Consensual Sexual
Intercourse 324
Genital Injury Type 325
Role of Genital Injury in Criminal Justice Proceedings 325
The Forensic Examination 326
Team Approach to Forensic Services 326
Access to the Sexual Assault Response Team 327
Setting 328
Role of the Forensic Examiner 328
Forensic Interview in Health Care Settings 329
Interview Format 330
Consent Issues 330
History 331
Forensic Examination 331
Overall Appearance 331
Clothing 332
Detection of Injury 333
Collection of Forensic Evidence 334
Examination of Genitalia 334
Rectal Examination 336
Proper Handling (Management) of Evidence 336
Chain of Custody 337
Documentation 337
Drug and Alcohol Testing 338
Therapy and Prophylaxis 338
Follow-up Care 339
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xxxii Contents
Discharge Instructions 339
Conclusion 339
References 340
18 Classifying Rape and Sexual Assault 343
Ann Wolbert Burgess and Robert R. Hazelwood
Introduction 343
Motivation for Rape: Early Research 343
The Rationale for Classification 344
Usefulness of Classification 345
Crime Classification Numbering System 346
300: Criminal Enterprise Rape 346
301: Felony Rape 347
310: Personal Cause 348
312: Domestic Sexual Assault 348
313.00: Entitlement Rape 348
314: Anger Rape 351
315: Sadistic Rape 355
319: Abduction Rape 357
330: Group Cause Sexual Assault 358
331: Formal Gang 358
332: Informal Gang 358
390: Sexual Assault Not Classified Elsewhere 359
Multiple Motives Underlying Sexual Assault 359
Rape: Its Impact on the Victim 360
Rape Is an Act of Aggression 360
Child Molesters 360
Summary 361
References 361
19 Prosecuting Rape Cases: Trial Preparation
and Trial Tactic Issues 363
Teresa Scalzo
Introduction 363
Conducting an Offender-Focused Prosecution 363
Enhancing the Victim¿s Credibility 365
Direct Examination 367
General Trial Strategies 369
Preparation 369
Witness Order 370
Pretrial Motions 370
Voir Dire 370
Opening Statement 371
Victim Cross-Examination 372
Expert Testimony Regarding Victim Behavior 372
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Contents xxxiii
Medical Testimony 373
DNA 373
Toxicologist and/or Pharmacologist 374
Cross-Examination of the Defendant 374
Closing Argument 377
Jury Instructions 377
Additional Trial Strategies 378
Summary 378
Section IV: Special Populations
20 Cyber ¿Pedophiles¿: A Behavioral Perspective 381
Kenneth V. Lanning
Introduction 381
Overview 382
Illegal Sexual Activity 382
Legal Sexual Activity 383
Understanding Behavior 384
Paraphilias and Sexual Ritual Behavior 384
¿Pedophiles¿ and Child Molesters 385
Typology 387
Computer Offenders 391
What about ¿Predators?¿ 393
Recognizing Preferential Sex Offenders 394
Exaggerated Example 395
¿Concerned¿ Civilians 396
Female Offenders 397
Use of Computers 397
Organization 398
Communicate, Fuel, and Validate 398
Maintenance of Business or Financial Records 399
Child Pornography 399
Interaction with and Soliciting Sex with Children 402
Comments Concerning Prevention 404
Proactive Investigations 405
Staleness of Probable Cause 406
Summary 407
References 407
21 The Sexual Crimes of Juveniles 409
John A. Hunter
Introduction 409
Developmental Issues 410
Typology Research 411
Modus Operandi 412
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Violent Juvenile Sex Offenders 413
Investigative Issues 416
Detection 416
Guidelines for Interviewing Juvenile Sex Offenders 417
Mental Health Evaluations 418
Disposition Decision-Making and Management 419
Effective Community Programming 420
Treatment Focuses 421
Treatment Outcomes 422
References 425
22 Patterns of Female Sexual Offending and Their
Investigatory Significance to Law Enforcement and Child
Protective Services 429
Janet I. Warren and Julia Hislop
Introduction 429
Historical Perspective 429
Empirical Typologies of Female Offenders 431
Motivational Typology of Female Sex Offenders 433
The Forbidden Lover: Secrets Are Seductive 433
The Facilitator: Engaging in the Sexual Fantasy of Another 435
The Instigator: Expressing Control and Dominance 435
The Psychotic: There Was a Demon in Her 436
Munchausen by Proxy: ¿But I Am Only Trying to Protect My Child!¿ 437
Contributory Factors in Female Sex Offending 438
Re-enactment and Early Trauma 439
Personality Disorders 439
Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorders 440
Investigatory Significance of the Paradigm 440
References 442
Bibliography 443
23 Drug-Facilitated Sex Assault 445
Michael Welner and Barbara Welner
Introduction 445
Tracing the History of DFSA 445
The DFSA Perpetrator 447
What Makes the DFSA Drug? 448
Modus Operandi 450
Components of the DFSA Modus Operandi 451
A Typology of DFSA 451
Settings 451
Accomplices and Conspiracies 453
Intrafamilial DFSA 453
Male-on-Male Offenses 453
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Contents xxxv
Sexual Deviance or Sexual Hunters 454
What Distinguishes DFSA Offenders from Other Sexual Criminals? 455
What Makes a Sound Investigation? 455
References 459
Bibliography 460
24 The Criminal Sexual Sadist 463
Robert R. Hazelwood, Park Elliot Dietz, and Janet I. Warren
Introduction 463
What Is Sexual Sadism? 463
Physical and Psychological Suffering 464
Sexually Sadistic Behavior 464
Sadistic Fantasy 464
Sadism toward Symbols 465
Consenting or Paid Partners 465
Behavior Patterns Confused with Sexual Sadism 466
Sadistic Personality 466
Cruelty during Crime 467
Pathological Group Behavior 467
Sanctioned Cruelty 467
Revenge-Motivated Cruelty 468
Interrogative Cruelty 468
Postmortem Mutilation 468
Study Conducted 469
Offender Characteristics 469
Crime Characteristics 470
Evidence of Crime 471
Investigating Crimes of the Sexual Sadist 472
Sources 472
Search Warrants 472
Interviewing the Sexual Sadist 472
Summary 473
References 473
25 Sexual Sadists: Their Wives and Girlfriends 475
Robert R. Hazelwood
Introduction 475
Genesis of the Research 476
Methodology 476
The Women 477
Their Relationships with the Men 477
The Transformation of the Women 478
Selection of a Vulnerable Woman 479
Seduction of the Woman 479
Reshaping the Sexual Norms 479
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xxxvi Contents
Social Isolation 480
Punishment 480
Investigative Significance of the Research 480
Crime Behavior 480
The Criminal 481
Former Wives and Girlfriends 481
Summary 482
References 482
26 Elder Sexual Abuse Victims 483
Ann Wolbert Burgess and Leonard I. Morgenbesser
Introduction 483
Scope of the Problem 483
Literature on Elder Sexual Abuse 484
Barriers in Investigating Elder Sexual Abuse Cases 486
Intentional versus Unintentional Injury 486
Older Adult Victim Unable to Communicate 486
Signs and Symptoms of Abuse 486
Inadequate Evidentiary Examination 487
Resident-on-Resident Sexual Abuse 487
Early Recognition and Detection 488
Interviewing Elder Victims of Sexual Abuse 489
Forensic Services 490
Types of Interventions 490
Brief Therapy 490
Individual Counseling 490
Group Counseling 491
Music Therapy 491
Living Situations of Elderly Victims 492
Independent Living 492
Assisted Living 493
Nursing Home 493
Intervention for Family Members of Sexually Abused Elders 494
Prevention of Elder Sexual Abuse 495
Suggested Approaches to Elder Victims in Nursing Homes 497
Crisis Intervention 497
Nursing Home Staff 497
27 Sex Offenders of the Elderly 499
Ann Wolbert Burgess, Robert A. Prentky, and Mark Saffarik
Introduction 499
Background 500
Theories of Offending 500
Dynamics of the Offense 501
Victimology 501
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Contents xxxvii
Style of approach 502
Control of Victim 502
Victim Resistance 502
Multiple Assaults 502
Types of Sexual Acts 502
Classifying Sex Offenders of the Elderly 503
Typology and Examples 503
Opportunistic 503
Pervasive Anger 504
Sexualization 504
Nonsadistic Types 506
Vindictive Motivation 507
Discussion 508
Taxonomic Heterogeneity 508
Policy and Investigative Implications 509
Motive and Escalation in Serial Sexual Homicide 509
Investigative Profiling and Risk Assessment 509
Conclusion 510
References 510
Bibliography 511
28 Educator Sexual Misconduct:
Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders 513
James Knoll
Introduction 513
Female Perpetrators 514
General Sex Offender Grooming Patterns 515
Educator Sexual Abuse Grooming Patterns 516
Effects of Educator Sexual Abuse 517
Dilemmas 518
Case Example and Discussion 519
Toward Prevention 521
Conclusions 522
References

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Rape -- Investigation.
Rape -- United States -- Investigation.