Table of contents for Quantitative approaches in business studies / Clare Morris.

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Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Brief contents
Preface	xiii
Guided tour	000
Note to the reader	xv
Acknowledgements	000
Introduction: Why quantitative methods?	1
Part 1 NUMBERS HOW WE HANDLE THEM	5
 1	Tools of the trade: basic numeracy skills	7
 2	Spreadsheets and other computer-based resources	34
Part 2 NUMBERS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION	37
 3	Obtaining the figures: data and data collection	39
 4	Presenting the figures: tables and diagrams	58
 5	Summarising the figures: measures of location and spread	94
 6	Measuring changes: index numbers	121
Part 3 NUMBERS A BASIS FOR DEDUCTION	139
 7	A firm foundation: elementary probability	141
 8	Patterns of probability: some distributions	164
 9	Estimating from samples: inference	197
10	Checking a theory: hypothesis testing	219
11	Making it better: statistics and quality improvement	253
12	Looking for connections: correlation	285
13	Spotting the relationship: line fitting	305
14	Multiple regression	323
Part 4 NUMBERS A TOOL OF PLANNING	341
15	Planning an inventory policy: stock control and simulation	343
16	Forecasting: time-series, semi-log graphs and exponential smoothing	365
17	Allowing for interest: financial mathematics	395
18	Planning production levels: linear programming	416
19	Planning a project: network analysis	437
20	Quantitative methods in the student research project	455
Appendices	469
1	Suggestions for further reading	471
2	Random sampling numbers	472
3	Cumulative binomial probabilities	473
4	Cumulative Poisson probabilities	475
5	Areas under the standard normal curve	477
6	Percentage points of the c2 distribution	478
7	The correlation coefficient	481
8	The t-distribution	482
9	Solutions to selected exercises	483
Index	501
Contents
Preface	xiii
Guided tour	000
Note to the reader	xv
Acknowledgements	000
Introduction: Why quantitative methods?	1
Part 1 NUMBERS HOW WE HANDLE THEM
 1	Tools of the trade: basic numeracy skills	7
	Almost everybody s problem	9
	Numbers and how we combine them	9
	Operation with fractions	11
	Decimals: a special kind of fraction	13
	Significant figures and rounding	14
	Percentages	15
	Letters for numbers	16
	Powers and roots	17
	The use of brackets	18
	Solving equations	19
	Equations from problems	21
	Some unfamiliar symbols	22
	Simultaneous equations	22
	Straight line graphs	25
	Other types of graph	28
	Graphing inequalities	28
	Sketching graphs	29
	Making use of graphs	30
	A business application	30
	A word about calculators	32
	Further reading	33
 2	Spreadsheets and other computer-based resources	34
	Introduction	34
	Microsoft Excel and the companion website	34
	Other statistical and mathematical software	35	Writing out mathematics to word-process or not?	36
Part 2 NUMBERS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION	
 3	Obtaining the figures: data and data collection	39
	Quantitative methods in practice	40
	A multiplicity of measurements	41
	Whence information?	44
	Collect-it-yourself	45
	Where to find second-hand statistics	52
	Points for further thought	54
	A word of warning	55
	Exercises	55
	Further reading	57
 4	Presenting the figures: tables and diagrams	58
	Quantitative methods in practice	59
	The management trainee s problem	60
	 Eye-balling data	61
	The narrative approach	62
	The do s and don ts of effective tabulation	62
	More complicated tables	65
	Easily digested diagrams	67
	Tabulating quantitative data	73
	Diagrams from frequency tables	78
	Some simple graphs	83
	Tables and diagrams with Excel	86
	How not to do it	89
	Back to the Tesco charts	90
	Exercises	91
	Further reading	93
 5	Summarising the figures: measures of location and spread	94
	Quantitative methods in practice	95
	The trade union leader s problem	95
	What needs to be measured	96
	Measuring location	98
	Measuring spread	108
	Summary measures with Excel	116
	Which should we choose?	116
	So what is typical?	118
	Exercises	118
	Further reading	120
 6	Measuring changes: index numbers	121
	Quantitative methods in practice	122
	The investor s problem	123
	What is an index number?	123
	Diversifying the diet	125
	Weighting the index	126
	Calculating the indices	127
	Deciding which to use	128
	The Retail Price Index	129
	What is the use of the RPI?	131
	Advising the investor	132
	Some technical considerations	133
	Other kinds of index	134
	Exercises	135
	Further reading	138
Part 3 NUMBERS A BASIS FOR DEDUCTION
 7	A firm foundation: elementary probability	141
	Quantitative methods in practice	142
	The product development manager s problem	143
	Reckoning the chances	143
	Putting probabilities together	147
	Tackling problems	150
	Giving probabilities a cash value	154
	Decision tables	155
	Decision trees	157
	Drawbacks of the method	160
	Exercises	161
	Further reading	163
 8	Patterns of probability: some distributions	164
	Quantitative methods in practice	165
	The quality manager s problem	165
	The idea of a probability distribution	167
	The binomial distribution	169
	The Poisson distribution	175
	The normal distribution	178
	Some further points	189
	Probabilities from the computer	192
	Thinking again about computer failures	193
	Exercises	194
 9	Estimating from samples: inference	197
	Quantitative methods in practice	198
	The dissatisfied customer s problem	199
	The sampling distribution of percentages	201
	Applications of STEP	204
	The sampling distribution of means	211
	The problem revisited	214
	So how reliable are opinion polls?	216
	Exercises	217
	Further reading	218
10	Checking a theory: hypothesis testing	219
	Quantitative methods in practice	220
	The training manager s problem	220
	Testing hypotheses about percentages	221
	Further points about hypothesis testing	225
	Testing hypotheses about means of large samples	228
	An alternative way of carrying out hypothesis tests	229
	Testing hypotheses about the means of small samples	230
	Testing the difference between two sample means	233
	Testing hypotheses about more than one proportion	235
	Using the c2 distribution	239
	More about c2	241
	Single-row tables	243
	A cautionary note	244
	A mixed batch of examples	245
	Hypothesis testing with Excel	248
	Conclusion	250
	Exercises	250
11	Making it better: statistics and quality improvement	253
	Quantitative methods in practice	254
	The pizza manufacturer s problem	254
	The importance of quality	255
	Total quality management	256
	How can statistics help?	257
	Tracking down the problem	257
	The effect of variability on processes	266
	Can our machines meet the tolerances?	267
	Controlling the mean of a capable process	270
	Controlling the range	275
	Controlling other aspects of a process	276
	Sampling inspection	278
	How did it work for Ford?	282
	Exercises	282
	Further reading	284
12	Looking for connections: correlation	285
	Quantitative methods in practice	286
	The sales manager s problem	287
	What kind of relationship?	288
	Using the scattergraph	289
	Measuring the strength of a relationship: the correlation coefficient	292
	Interpreting the correlation coefficient	296
	The sales data revisited	298
	What we have and have not proved	298
	The rank correlation	300
	Exercises	302
13	Spotting the relationship: line fitting	305
	Quantitative methods in practice	306
	More problems for the sales manager!	306
	What is a well-fitting line ?	307
	Calculating the regression line	310
	Using straight lines to forecast over time	317
	Regression with Excel	318
	Exercises	320
14	Multiple regression	323
	Quantitative methods in practice	324
	The advertising manager s problem	324
	Carrying out the multiple regression	325
	Interpreting the results	326
	Qualitative variables in a regression equation	328
	Using multiple regression to fit curves	331
	Some points to watch for when using regression	332
	Back to the Treasury Economic Model	335
	Exercises	336
	Further reading	339
Part 4 NUMBERS A TOOL OF PLANNING
15	Planning an inventory policy: stock control and simulation	343
	Quantitative methods in practice	344
	The small business s problem	344
	The information needed	345
	Simplifying the problem	346
	Solving the simplified problem	348
	Eliminating some assumptions	351 
	Making and using	352
	Allowing stock-outs	354
	The effect of errors in estimates	356
	Alternative approaches	358
	Simulating an inventory process	358
	Exercises	362
	Further reading	364
16	Forecasting: time-series, semi-log graphs and exponential smoothing	365
	Quantitative methods in practice	366
	The airline manager s problem	367
	Forecasting: when can we do it?	367
	Forecasting a steady percentage growth	368
	More uses for semi-log graphs	371
	Forecasting from a short-term pattern	374
	Extracting the trend	376
	Analysing the seasonal variations	379
	Calculating random variations	380
	Getting a forecast	381
	Other patterns of variation	381
	Forecasting the pie sales figures	383
	Forecasting in an unpredictable situation	386
	Features of exponential smoothing	388
	Software for forecasting	390
	Exercises	391
	Further reading	394
17	Allowing for interest: financial mathematics	395
	Quantitative methods in practice	396
	The management accountant s problem	396
	The fundamentals of compound interest	397
	Applications of the compound interest formula	399
	The idea of present value	402
	Applications of discounting	405
	Calculating mortgage and hire purchase repayments	407
	Some further points	409
	Comparing investments	409
	Computational note	412
	Worked examples	413
	Exercises	414
	Further reading	415
18	Planning production levels: linear programming	416
	Quantitative methods in practice	417
	The production manager s problem	417
	Setting up the model	418
	Graphing the model	420
	Finding the best solution	422
	Varying the constraints	425
	Changes in the profits	428
	A different type of problem	429
	Problems where the solutions must be integers	431
	Solving linear programming problems with Excel Solver	431
	Reservations and conclusions	433
	Exercises	434
	Further reading	436
19	Planning a project: network analysis	437
	Quantitative methods in practice	438
	The office supervisor s problem	438
	Drawing up a precedence table	439
	Constructing the network	440
	Numbering the network	444
	An alternative way of drawing the network	445
	The shortest time for the job	446
	Finding the floats	447
	Making the best of it	449
	Limitations of the method	451
	The technique in practice	451
	Exercises	452
	Further reading	454
20	Quantitative methods in the student research project	455
	The business student s problem	456
	What shall I write about?	456
	A general methodology for quantitative investigations	458
	Examples	466
	Further reading	468
Appendices	469
1	Suggestions for further reading	471
2	Random sampling numbers	472
3	Cumulative binomial probabilities	473
4	Cumulative Poisson probabilities	475
5	Areas under the standard normal curve	477
6	Percentage points of the c2 distribution	478
7	The correlation coefficient	481
8	The t-distribution	482
9	Solutions to selected exercises	483
Index	501

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Management -- Statistical methods.
Decision making -- Mathematical models.
Statistical decision.