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Table of Contents Foreword by Nils Muiznieks, Ph.D. i Acknowledgments iii Introduction 1 Chapter One - What is nationalism and who are intellectuals? 11 Chapter Two - A nation of their own: the young Latvians of the nineteenth century 29 modernization and the Baltic peasants 29 The first Latvian intellectuals discover their identity 31 Borrowing and resisting the influences of Russian and German nationalisms 35 The early Latvian nationalism and its legacy 39 Chapter Three - Imperfect democracy for the perfect people, 1920-1934 49 The first decade of national independence 49 Latvian nationalist intelligentsia: who were They and what they did 52 Internal conflicts: socialists, nationalists, refugees and veterans 57 But who will lead the nation? 62 From disappointment to the sense of crisis 65 Chapter Four - Perfect leader for the imperfect people 89 Latvian State under authoritarianism 89 Nationalist Intellectuals and Ulmanis' regime: Involvement and rewards 93 From imperfect people to ideal leader 103 Nationalism in service to authoritarian political rhetoric 115 Chapter Five - Nationalist intellectuals under the sciety and Nazi occupations (1940-1944) and in exile in the United States (1951-1989) 123 Two occupations 123 Exile in the United States 129 Chapter Six -Conclusions 153 Bibliography 161 Index . . . . . . 177
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Latvia -- Intellectual life -- 19th century.
Latvia -- Intellectual life -- 20th century.
Nationalism -- Latvia -- History.