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Contents Preface 1. The Qualitative Methods Family Differences From and Similarities With Quantitative Methods The Intellectual Life Course of Qualitative Methods The Formative Years The Rise of Quantification and Operationalism Pragmatic ?Camps? in Qualitative Methods The Pragmatic Middle Ground Evidence-Based Practice and Qualitative Methods Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks in Qualitative Inquiry Some Are a Better Fit Than Others The Place and Timing of Theories in Qualitative Studies Reasons for Doing Qualitative Research Desirable Qualities and Skills in the Qualitative Researcher-as-Instrument Studying the Familiar Versus the Unfamiliar Values and Social Responsibility in Qualitative Research Choosing the Topic and Making the ?Argument? Introducing the New York Services Study (NYSS): A Qualitative Study of Homeless Mentally Ill Adults in New York City Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings A Selection of Journals That Feature Qualitative Studies Web Sites for Qualitative Methods 2. Choosing the Right Qualitative Approach(es) Six Primary Approaches in Qualitative Research Ethnography Grounded Theory Case Study Analysis Narrative Approaches Phenomenological Analysis Action Research and Community-Based Participatory Research Constructivist and Critical-Theory Influences Mixing and Matching Qualitative Approaches Qualitative Methods in Program Evaluation Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings 3. Getting Started: Study Design and Sampling Reviewing the Literature Developing a Conceptual Framework Formulating Research Questions Designing the Study Questions Posed (and Needing Answers) by Qualitative Research Designs The Element of Time Specific Aspects of Qualitative Designs Using Multiple Qualitative Methods at Different Levels Sampling Strategies Sample Size Considerations Recruiting and Retaining Study Participants Researcher?Participant Dynamics: Gender, Ethnicity, Age, and Social Class Introducing the Three Main Types of Data Collection Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings 4. Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research Deception and Disclosure Informed Consent Coercion and ?Deformed? Consent Confidentiality and Privacy Distress and Emotional Harm Incentives, Payback, and Maintaining Goodwill Institutional Review Boards and Qualitative Research Dealing with Moral Ambiguity and Risk Socially Responsible Research as Ethical Research Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings 5. Entering the Field and Conducting Observation On the Importance of Observation Getting Permission(s) and Announcing the Study Obtaining and Maintaining Rapport Presentation of Self in the Field Issues of Identity: Gender, Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Social Class Researcher Self-Disclosure: How Much Is Enough? How Much Is Too Much? Observation in Qualitative Studies ?Doing? Observation: The Best (and Only True) Way to Learn Recording Observational Data Uses of Video and Photography Rapid Ethnographic Assessment (REA) and Time-Sensitive Qualitative Methods Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings 6. Interviewing and Use of Documents Informal Field Interviews Focus Group Interviews In-Depth Interviews Interviewing Children and Other Vulnerable Populations Elite and Expert Interviews A Few Guidelines for Starting Out Conducting the Interview Probes: An Essential Part of the Qualitative Interview Developing the Interview Guide How Many Interviews? Issues of Quantity and Quality Matching Interviewers to Respondents: The Effects of Age, Gender, Race, and Other Characteristics Common Problems and Errors in Qualitative Interviewing Emotional Issues in Interviewing Interviewing in a Non-English Language Interviewing at a Distance: Telephone and Computer-Mediated Interviews Use of Audio Recorders and Other Logistical Considerations Incorporating Standardized Measures into Qualitative Interviews Using Documents, Archives, and Existing Data Secondary Analysis in Qualitative Research Ending Data Collection and Leaving the Field Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings 7. Data Analysis and Interpretation Data Management: Dealing With Volume Early On Using Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) Software Part I: Storing and Managing Data Multiple Users and Cross-Site Databases Transcribing Interviews Using ?Outside? Transcribers Protecting Confidentiality During Transcription Translating From a Non-English Language Analyzing Qualitative Data: The Search for Meaning Use of Case Summaries and Data Displays Theories and Concepts in Qualitative Data Analysis: A Continuum of Involvement Data Analysis in Diverse Qualitative Approaches Content Analysis in Qualitative Research Ethnography and Data Analysis Case Study Analysis Data Analysis in Narrative Approaches Phenomenological Analyses Action and Community-Based Participatory Research: Analyzing Data Analysis in Longitudinal Designs Coding and Thematic Development Varied Approaches to Coding Starting Out: Identifying and Labeling Codes Documenting and Verifying Coding Procedures: Independent Co-Coding Comparing and Contrasting: Memo-Writing Producing Categories and Themes: Differing Analytic Possibilities Beyond Coding Multitasking During Coding: An Example From the NYSS Using Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) Software Part II: Facilitating Data Analysis Using Numbers and Quantification in Qualitative Data Analyses Negative Case Analysis and Causation Secondary Analysis and Meta-Synthesis Hybrid and Mixed Qualitative Approaches to Data Analysis Saturation and Interpretation An Example of a Conceptual Schema In Pursuit of Methodological Transparency Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings QDA Software Resources 8. Strategies for Rigor Evaluating Qualitative Research: Debates About Standards and Strategies Evaluative Criteria and External Standards In the Eye of the Beholder? The Meaning(s) of Generalizability in Qualitative Methods Defining Rigor in Qualitative Research Threats to the Trustworthiness of Qualitative Studies Strategies for Rigor in Qualitative Research Prolonged Engagement Triangulation Peer Debriefing and Support Member Checking Negative Case Analysis Auditing?Leaving a Decision Trail Questions of Rigor in Community-Based Research Strategies for Rigor in Differing Qualitative Approaches Guidelines for Appraising the Quality of a Study: Adequacy Is Key Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings 9. Telling the Story: Writing up the Qualitative Study Deciding on an Approach Targeting the Audience Diachronic Versus Synchronic Reports The Researcher?s Role in the Report Using Numbers in the Report Coauthorship in Qualitative Studies Organizing the Report?Key Components Qualitative Reports Across the Diverse Approaches Balancing Description and Interpretation Writing Stance and Style Rhetorical Devices Suited to Qualitative Studies Writing Style: Creating Rhythm and Flow Use of Metaphors and Other Tropes The Ultimate Goal?Dissemination of the Study Findings Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Additional Readings Selected Monographs 10. Mixed Methods The Rise of Mixed Methods and Their Rationale(s) Types of Mixed Methods Research Sequential Designs Concurrent Designs Mixed Methods: Ways of Going About It Structural and Design Decisions: What, When, Where, and How? Some Examples of Mixed Methods Studies Writing the Mixed Method Report Challenges for Mixed Methods Studies Mixed Method Approaches to Program and Practice Evaluation Summary and Concluding Thoughts Exercises Appendix: Writing a Qualitative Methods Proposal for External Funding Finding the Right Fit With Funding Priorities: Emerging Opportunities Getting Past the Catch 22 Setting the Stage Questions From Reviewers Regarding Qualitative Methods Proposals Budgeting Time and Resources Twenty Tips for Writing the Proposal Additional Readings References Index About the Author
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Social service -- Research -- Methodology.