Table of contents for Technical drawing / Frederick E. Giesecke ... [et al.].

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About This Book
Preface
C H A P T E R O N E
THE WORLDWIDE GRAPHIC
LANGUAGE FOR DESIGN 2
OBJECTIVES 2
OVERVIEW 3
UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL
DRAWINGS 4
Artistic and Technical Drawings 6
The Design Process 6
Concurrent Engineering 8
Computer-Aided Design and Product
Development 8
Designing Quality Into Products 9
The Digital Database 9
Generate Concepts 10
1.1 ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 1 10
Identify the Customer and the Problem 10
1.2 ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 2 10
Generate Concepts 10
1.3 ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 3 11
Compromise Solutions 11
1.4 ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 4 12
Models and Prototypes 12
Intelligent Models 13
Rapid Prototyping 14
1.5 ENGINEERING DESIGN STAGE 5 14
Production or Working Drawings 14
1.6 DRAFTING STANDARDS 16
Examine Manufactured Products 16
Study the Natural World 16
Watch the Web 16
1.7 CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES 16
Research Patent Drawings 17
Design Groups 17
1.8 PRODUCT DEFINITION 18
1.9 SHOWING THE DESIGN PROCESS
IN A PORTFOLIO 18
KEY WORDS 20
CHAPTER SUMMARY 20
REVIEW QUESTIONS 20
C H A P T E R T WO
LAYOUTS AND LETTERING 22
OBJECTIVES 22
OVERVIEW 23
UNDERSTANDING PROJECTIONS 24
Types of Projections 24
Drawing Vocabulary 26
2.1 ALPHABET OF LINES 24
2.2 FREEHAND LINES 28
2.3 MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 28
U.S. Customary Units 28
The Metric System 28
2.4 DRAWING SCALE 29
2.5 SPECIFYING THE SCALE ON A
DRAWING 29
2.6 SCALES 30
2.7 METRIC SCALES 31
2.8 ENGINEERS? SCALES 33
2.9 DECIMAL INCH SCALES 33
2.10 MECHANICAL ENGINEERS? SCALES 33
2.11 ARCHITECTS? SCALES 34
2.12 LETTERING 36
2.13 LETTERING STANDARDS 36
2.14 VERTICAL LETTERS AND NUMERALS 36
2.15 LOWERCASE LETTERS 36
2.16 INCLINED LETTERS AND NUMBERS 39
2.17 FRACTIONS 39
2.18 USING GUIDELINES 39
2.19 SPACING OF LETTERS AND WORDS 40
2.20 LETTERING FOR TITLES 41
2.21 DRAWING PENCILS 42
2.22 TEMPLATES 43
2.23 THE COMPUTER AS A DRAFTING
TOOL 43
2.24 SKETCHING AND DRAWING MEDIA 45
2.25 POLYESTER FILMS AND COATED
SHEETS 45
2.26 STANDARD SHEETS 45
2.27 STANDARD LAYOUT ELEMENTS 46
Margins and Borders 44
Zones 46
Typical Letter Sizes 46
Title Block 47
2.28 LAYOUTS 48
2.29 PLANNING YOUR DRAWING OR
SKETCH 48
Show Details Clearly 48
KEY WORDS 53
CHAPTER SUMMARY 53
REVIEW QUESTIONS 53
EXERCISES 54
C H A P T E R T H R E E
TECHNICAL SKETCHING 58
OBJECTIVES 58
OVERVIEW 59
UNDERSTANDING SOLID OBJECTS 60
Types of Solids 60
UNDERSTANDING SKETCHING TECHNIQUES 62
Analyzing Complex Objects 62
Viewpoint 64
Shading 64
Edges and Vertices 65
Points and Lines 65
Angles 66
Drawings and Sketches 66
Freehand Sketching 67
3.1 TECHNIQUE OF LINES 68
Line Weights 68
3.2 SKETCHING STRAIGHT LINES 69
Blocking in a Freehand Drawing 69
3.3 SKETCHING CIRCLES, ARCS,
AND ELLIPSES 71
Circles 71
Sketching Arcs 73
Sketching Ellipses 73
3.4 MAINTAINING PROPORTIONS 73
3.5 ONE-VIEW DRAWINGS 75
3.6 PICTORIAL SKETCHING 76
3.7 OBLIQUE SKETCHES 76
Appearance of Oblique Drawings 77
Choosing the Front Surface 77
Angle of Receding Lines 77
Depth of Receding Lines 77
3.8 SKETCHING ONE POINT PERSPECTIVES 78
3.9 DRAWING ON DRAWING 80
KEY WORDS 84
CHAPTER SUMMARY 84
REVIEW QUESTIONS 84
SKETCHING EXERCISES 85
C H A P T E R F O U R
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 92
OBJECTIVES 92
OVERVIEW 93
UNDERSTANDING PROJECTIONS 94
Views of Objects 94
The Six Standard Views 95
Principal Dimensions 95
Projection Method 96
The Glass Box 96
Spacing Between Views 98
Transferring Depth Dimensions 98
Measuring from a Reference Surface 98
Necessary Views 99
Orientation of the Front View 100
First- and Third-Angle Projection 100
Third Angle Projection 99
Alternate Arrangements for Third-Angle
Projection 100
First-Angle Projection 100
Projection System Drawing Symbol 100
Hidden Lines 103
CENTERLINES 104
4.1 HIDDEN LINE TECHNIQUE 104
4.2 PRECEDENCE OF LINES 104
4.3 CENTERLINES 104
4.4 LAYING OUT A DRAWING 104
4.5 VISUALIZATION 107
2.19 SPACING OF LETTERS AND WORDS 40
2.20 LETTERING FOR TITLES 41
2.21 DRAWING PENCILS 42
2.22 TEMPLATES 43
2.23 THE COMPUTER AS A DRAFTING
TOOL 43
2.24 SKETCHING AND DRAWING MEDIA 45
2.25 POLYESTER FILMS AND COATED
SHEETS 45
2.26 STANDARD SHEETS 45
2.27 STANDARD LAYOUT ELEMENTS 46
Margins and Borders 44
Zones 46
Typical Letter Sizes 46
Title Block 47
2.28 LAYOUTS 48
2.29 PLANNING YOUR DRAWING OR
SKETCH 48
Show Details Clearly 48
KEY WORDS 53
CHAPTER SUMMARY 53
REVIEW QUESTIONS 53
EXERCISES 54
C H A P T E R T H R E E
TECHNICAL SKETCHING 58
OBJECTIVES 58
OVERVIEW 59
UNDERSTANDING SOLID OBJECTS 60
Types of Solids 60
UNDERSTANDING SKETCHING TECHNIQUES 62
Analyzing Complex Objects 62
Viewpoint 64
Shading 64
Edges and Vertices 65
Points and Lines 65
Angles 66
Drawings and Sketches 66
Freehand Sketching 67
3.1 TECHNIQUE OF LINES 68
Line Weights 68
3.2 SKETCHING STRAIGHT LINES 69
Blocking in a Freehand Drawing 69
3.3 SKETCHING CIRCLES, ARCS,
AND ELLIPSES 71
4.6 VIEWS OF SURFACES 107
Surfaces, Edges, and Corners 107
4.7 NORMAL SURFACES 108
4.8 INCLINED SURFACES 108
4.9 OBLIQUE SURFACES 108
4.10 EDGES 109
4.11 NORMAL EDGES 109
4.12 INCLINED EDGES 109
4.13 OBLIQUE EDGES 109
4.14 PARALLEL EDGES 109
4.14 ANGLES 110
4.15 VERTICES 110
4.16 INTERPRETING POINTS 110
4.17 INTERPRETING LINES 110
4.18 SIMILAR SHAPES OF SURFACES 111
4.19 INTERPRETING VIEWS 111
4.20 MODELS 113
Rules for Visualizing From a Drawing: Putting it all
Together 113
4.21 PROJECTING A THIRD VIEW 113
4.22 BECOMING A 3D VISUALIZER 115
KEY WORDS 120
CHAPTER SUMMARY 120
REVIEW QUESTIONS 120
MULTIVIEW PROJECTION EXERCISES 121
EXERCISES 122
C H A P T E R F I V E
2D DRAWING
REPRESENTATION 132
OBJECTIVES 132
OVERVIEW 133
PRACTICES FOR 2D DOCUMENTATION
DRAWINGS 134
Common Manufactured Features 134
Conventional Representations 135
Intersections and Tangencies 135
Removed Views 135
5.1 VISUALIZING AND DRAWING COMPLEX
CYLINDRICAL SHAPES 136
5.2 CYLINDERS WHEN SLICED 137
5.3 CYLINDERS AND ELLIPSES 138
Intersections of Cylinders 139
5.4 INTERSECTIONS AND TANGENCIES 138
5.5 FILLETS AND ROUNDS 141
5.6 RUNOUTS 142
5.7 CONVENTIONAL EDGES 143
5.8 NECESSARY VIEWS 144
5.9 PARTIAL VIEWS 145
Showing Enlarged Details 146
Conventional Breaks 146
5.10 ALIGNMENT OF VIEWS 147
5.11 REMOVED VIEWS 148
5.12 RIGHT-HAND AND LEFT-HAND
PARTS 149
5.13 REVOLUTION CONVENTIONS 150
Common Hole Features Shown in Orthographic
Views 151
Common Features Shown in Orthographic
Views 152
KEY WORDS 155
CHAPTER SUMMARY 155
REVIEW QUESTIONS 155
C H A P T E R S I X
SECTIONAL VIEWS 170
OBJECTIVES 170
OVERVIEW 171
UNDERSTANDING SECTIONS 172
Sections of Single Parts 172
Full Sections 172
The Cutting Plane 172
Lines Behind the Cutting Plane 172
6.1 PLACEMENT OF SECTION VIEWS 175
6.2 LABELING CUTTING PLANES 176
6.3 LINE PRECEDENCE 176
6.4 RULES FOR LINES 177
6.5 CUTTING-PLANE LINE STYLE 178
Visualizing Cutting-Plane Direction 178
6.6 SECTION LINE TECHNIQUE 179
Section Lining Large Areas 180
Section Lining Symbols 180
Section Lining in CAD 181
6.7 HALF SECTIONS 181
6.8 BROKEN OUT SECTIONS 182
6.9 REVOLVED SECTIONS 183
6.10 REMOVED SECTIONS 184
6.11 OFFSET SECTIONS 186
6.12 RIBS IN SECTION 187
6.13 ALIGNED SECTIONS 187
6.14 PARTIAL VIEWS 189
6.15 INTERSECTIONS IN SECTIONS 190
6.16 CONVENTIONAL BREAKS AND
SECTIONS 190
6.17 ASSEMBLY SECTIONS 190
KEY WORDS 194
SUMMARY 194
REVIEW QUESTIONS 194
SECTIONING EXERCISES 195
C H A P T E R S E V E N
AUXILIARY VIEWS 206
OBJECTIVES 206
OVERVIEW 206
UNDERSTANDING AUXILIARY VIEWS 208
The Auxiliary Plane 208
Primary Auxiliary Views 208
Visualizing Auxiliary Views as a Revolved
Drawing 210
Classification of Auxiliary Views 210
Successive Auxiliary Views 212
Secondary Auxiliary Views 212
Reference Planes 213
7.1 USING TRIANGLES TO SKETCH AUXILIARY
VIEWS 215
7.2 USING GRID PAPER TO SKETCH AUXILIARY
VIEWS 215
7.3 USING CAD TO CREATE AUXILIARY
VIEWS 217
7.4 CIRCLES AND ELLIPSES IN AUXILIARY
VIEWS 217
7.5 HIDDEN LINES IN AUXILIARY VIEWS 217
7.6 REVERSE CONSTRUCTION 219
7.7 PARTIAL AUXILIARY VIEWS 219
7.8 HALF AUXILIARY VIEWS 219
7.9 AUXILIARY SECTIONS 220
7.10 VIEWING-PLANE LINES AND ARROWS 221
7.11 USES OF AUXILIARY VIEWS 222
7.12 TRUE LENGTH OF A LINE 222
7.13 POINT VIEW OF A LINE 224
Showing the Point View of a Line 224
7.14 EDGE VIEW OF A PLANE 225
Showing the Edge View of a Plane 225
7.15 TRUE SIZE OF AN OBLIQUE SURFACE 226
Showing the True Size and Shape of an Oblique
Surface 226
7.16 DIHEDRAL ANGLES 228
UNDERSTANDING DEVELOPMENTS AND
INTERSECTIONS 229
Surface Terminology 229
Revolved and Extruded Solids 230
Developable Surfaces 230
Principles of Intersections 231
7.17 DEVELOPMENTS 232
Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Prism and
Developing the Prism 232
Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Cylinder
and Developing the Cylinder 234
7.18 HEMS AND JOINTS FOR SHEET METAL AND
OTHER MATERIALS 235
7.19 MORE EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPMENTS AND
INTERSECTIONS 235
Developing a Plane and an Oblique Prism 235
Developing a Plane and an Oblique Cylinder 236
Developing a Plane and a Pyramid 236
Developing a Plane and a Cone 236
Developing a Hood and Flue 237
7.20 TRANSITION PIECES 238
7.21 TRIANGULATION 238
7.22 DEVELOPING A TRANSITION PIECE
CONNECTING RECTANGULAR PIPES
ON THE SAME AXIS 238
7.23 DEVELOPING A PLANE AND A SPHERE 239
7.24 REVOLUTION 240
7.25 AXIS OF REVOLUTION 240
Creating a Revolved Drawing 240
7.26 PRIMARY AND SUCCESSIVE
REVOLUTIONS 240
7.27 TRUE LENGTH OF A LINE: REVOLUTION
METHOD 241
KEY WORDS 243
CHAPTER SUMMARY 243
REVIEW QUESTIONS 244
EXERCISES 244
C H A P T E R E I G H T
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 258
OBJECTIVES 258
OVERVIEW 259
UNDERSTANDING MANUFACTURING 260
The Design Process and Concurrent
Engineering 261
8.1 COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENT 259
Computer-Aided Engineering Allows for Future
Modification 259
Computer-Aided Engineering Links All Phases of
Manufacturing 259
The Role of Prototypes and Rapid Prototyping in
Product Development 260
8.2 RAPID PROTOTYPING 261
Translating the Model 261
8.3 TYPES OF RAPID PROTOTYPING
SYSTEMS 262
Cores and Cavities 265
8.4 DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE, ASSEMBLY,
DISASSEMBLY, AND SERVICE 266
8.5 MATERIAL SELECTION 267
8.6 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 267
8.7 COST AND AVAILABILITY OF
MATERIALS 268
8.8 APPEARANCE, SERVICE LIFE,
AND RECYCLING 268
8.9 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 269
Processing Methods 270
8.10 DO?S AND DON?TS OF PRACTICAL
DESIGN 271
Casting Design 271
Practical Considerations 272
8.11 DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY AND SURFACE
FINISH 273
8.12 MEASURING DEVICES USED IN
MANUFACTURING 274
8.13 OPERATIONAL AND MANUFACTURING
COSTS 274
8.14 CONSEQUENCES OF MATERIAL AND
PROCESS SELECTION 275
8.15 NET-SHAPE MANUFACTURING 275
8.16 COMPUTER-INTEGRATED
MANUFACTURING 276
8.17 SHARED MANUFACTURING 277
8.18 MANUFACTURING METHODS AND THE
DRAWING 277
KEY WORDS 280
CHAPTER SUMMARY 280
REVIEW QUESTIONS 280
C H A P T E R N I N E
DIMENSIONING 282
OBJECTIVES 0
OVERVIEW 0
UNDERSTANDING DIMENSIONING 284
Three Aspects of Good Dimensioning 285
Tolerance 285
Geometric Breakdown 286
9.1 LINES USED IN DIMENSIONING 286
9.2 USING DIMENSION AND EXTENSION
LINES 288
9.3 ARROWHEADS 288
9.4 LEADERS 289
9.5 DRAWING SCALE AND
DIMENSIONING 289
9.6 DIRECTION OF DIMENSION VALUES
AND NOTES 290
9.7 DIMENSION UNITS 290
9.8 MILLIMETER VALUES 290
9.9 DECIMAL INCH VALUES 291
9.10 RULES FOR DIMENSION VALUES 292
9.11 RULES FOR ROUNDING DECIMAL
DIMENSION VALUES 292
9.12 DUAL DIMENSIONING 292
9.13 COMBINATION UNITS 293
9.14 DIMENSION SYMBOLS 293
9.15 PLACING AND SHOWING DIMENSIONS
LEGIBLY 294
Rules for Placing Dimensions Properly 294
9.16 SUPERFLUOUS DIMENSIONS 296
9.17 DIMENSIONING ANGLES 297
9.18 DIMENSIONING ARCS 297
9.19 FILLETS AND ROUNDS 297
9.20 SIZE DIMENSIONS: PRISMS 298
9.21 SIZE DIMENSIONS: CYLINDERS 298
9.22 SIZE DIMENSIONING HOLES 300
9.23 APPLYING STANDARD DIMENSIONING
SYMBOLS 301
9.24 DIMENSIONING TRIANGULAR PRISMS,
PYRAMIDS, AND CONES 301
9.25 DIMENSIONING CURVES 302
9.26 DIMENSIONING CURVED SURFACES 302
9.27 DIMENSIONING ROUNDED-END
SHAPES 302
9.28 DIMENSIONING THREADS 303
9.29 DIMENSIONING TAPERS 304
9.30 DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS 304
9.31 SHAFT CENTERS 304
9.32 DIMENSIONING KEYWAYS 305
9.33 DIMENSIONING KNURLS 305
9.34 FINISH MARKS 306
9.35 SURFACE ROUGHNESS 306
Applications of Surface Roughness Symbols 307
9.36 LOCATION DIMENSIONS 310
9.37 MATING DIMENSIONS 312
9.38 TABULAR DIMENSIONS 313
9.39 COORDINATE DIMENSIONING 314
9.40 MACHINE, PATTERN, AND FORGING
DIMENSIONS 314
9.41 SHEET METAL BENDS 316
9.42 NOTES 316
9.43 STANDARDS 317
9.44 DO?S AND DON?TS OF
DIMENSIONING 318
KEY WORDS 323
CHAPTER SUMMARY 323
REVIEW QUESTIONS 323
DIMENSIONING EXERCISES 323
C H A P T E R T E N
TOLERANCING 330
OBJECTIVES 330
OVERVIEW 331
UNDERSTANDING TOLERANCE 332
Tolerance 332
Quality Control 332
Variations in Form 333
Implied Right Angles 334
Fits Between Mating Parts 335
Selective Assembly 336
Definitions for Size Designation 337
Basic Hole System 338
Basic Shaft System 338
10.1 SPECIFYING TOLERANCES 340
10.2 GENERAL TOLERANCE NOTES 340
10.3 LIMIT TOLERANCES 341
Single-Limit Dimensioning 341
10.4 PLUS-OR-MINUS TOLERANCES 342
10.5 TOLERANCE STACKING 343
Chained or Continuous Dimensioning 343
Baseline Dimensioning 343
10.6 USING AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
LIMITS AND FIT TABLES 344
10.7 TOLERANCES AND MACHINING
PROCESSES 345
10.8 METRIC SYSTEM OF TOLERANCES
AND FITS 346
10.9 PREFERRED SIZES 348
10.10 PREFERRED FITS 348
10.11 GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING
AND TOLERANCING 349
10.12 SYMBOLS FOR TOLERANCES OF POSITION
AND FORM 340
10.13 DATUM SURFACES AND FEATURES 352
10.14 POSITIONAL TOLERANCES 354
10.15 MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION 356
10.16 TOLERANCES OF ANGLES 357
10.17 FORM TOLERANCES FOR SINGLE
FEATURES 358
10.18 FORM TOLERANCES FOR RELATED
FEATURES 360
10.19 USING GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING
AND TOLERANCING 362
10.20 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 362
10.21 TOLERANCES AND DIGITAL PRODUCT
DEFINITION 363
KEY WORDS 367
CHAPTER SUMMARY 367
REVIEW QUESTIONS 367
C H A P T E R E L E V E N
THREADS, FASTENERS,
AND SPRINGS 372
OBJECTIVES 372
OVERVIEW 373
UNDERSTANDING THREADS AND FASTENERS 374
Screw Thread Terms 375
Screw Thread Forms 376
Thread Pitch 377
Thread Series 378
Right-Hand and Left-Hand Threads 378
Single and Multiple Threads 379
American National Thread Fits 379
Metric and Unified Thread Fits 379
Three Methods for Drawing Thread 380
11.1 THREAD NOTES 383
11.2 EXTERNAL THREAD SYMBOLS 384
11.3 INTERNAL THREAD SYMBOLS 385
11.4 DETAILED REPRESENTATION: METRIC,
UNIFIED, AND AMERICAN NATIONAL
THREADS 385
Detailed External Square Thread 386
Detailed Internal Square Thread 386
11.5 USE OF PHANTOM LINES 389
11.6 THREADS IN ASSEMBLY 389
11.7 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PIPE
THREADS 389
11.8 BOLTS, STUDS, AND SCREWS 390
11.9 TAPPED HOLES 391
11.10 STANDARD BOLTS AND NUTS 392
11.11 DRAWING STANDARD BOLTS 394
11.12 SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOLTS AND
NUTS 394
11.13 LOCKNUTS AND LOCKING DEVICES 396
11.14 STANDARD CAP SCREWS 397
11.15 STANDARD MACHINE SCREWS 398
11.16 STANDARD SET SCREWS 398
11.17 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
WOOD SCREWS 399
11.18 MISCELLANEOUS FASTENERS 399
11.19 KEYS 400
11.20 MACHINE PINS 400
11.21 RIVETS 401
Riveted Joints 401
Rivet Symbols 402
Small Rivets 402
Blind Rivets 402
11.22 SPRINGS 403
Helical Springs 403
11.23 DRAWING HELICAL SPRINGS 404
11.24 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 405
KEY WORDS 409
CHAPTER SUMMARY 409
REVIEW QUESTIONS 409
EXERCISES 409
C H A P T E R T W E LV E
WORKING DRAWINGS 414
OBJECTIVES 414
OVERVIEW 415
UNDERSTANDING DESIGN, DOCUMENTATION,
AND WORKING DRAWINGS 416
Top Down vs. Bottom Up Design 416
Constraining 3D Assembly Models 416
3D Layouts and Skeleton Assemblies 418
Working Drawings or Construction Drawings 418
Assembly Drawings 419
Detail Drawings or Piece Part Drawings 420
12.1 SUBASSEMBLIES 422
12.2 IDENTIFICATION 422
Multidetail Drawings 423
12.3 PARTS LISTS 424
12.4 ASSEMBLY SECTIONS 425
12.5 WORKING DRAWING ASSEMBLY 426
12.6 INSTALLATION ASSEMBLIES 426
12.7 CHECK ASSEMBLIES 426
12.8 WORKING DRAWING FORMATS 428
Number of Details Per Sheet 428
Digital Drawing Transmittal 428
Title and Record Strips 429
12.9 DRAWING NUMBERS 430
12.10 ZONING 430
12.11 CHECKING DRAWINGS 430
12.12 DRAWING REVISIONS 430
12.13 SIMPLIFYING DRAWINGS 431
12.14 PATENT DRAWINGS 432
KEY WORDS 437
CHAPTER SUMMARY 437
REVIEW QUESTIONS 437
DESIGN AND WORKING DRAWING EXERCISES 438
C H A P T E R T H I R T E E N
DRAWING MANAGEMENT 490
OBJECTIVES 490
OVERVIEW 491
MANAGING THE DESIGN PROCESS 492
Design Review 493
UNDERSTANDING DRAWING MANAGEMENT 494
13.1 DRAWING APPROVAL AND RELEASE 496
13.2 CHANGE ORDERS 497
13.3 REVISION BLOCK 497
13.4 A DRAWING AS A SNAPSHOT IN TIME 498
13.5 GOOD PRACTICES FOR ELECTRONIC
DRAWING STORAGE 498
13.6 STORING ELECTRONIC FILES 498
13.7 ORGANIZED DIRECTORY STRUCTURES 498
13.8 FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS 500
13.9 DRAWING STANDARDS 501
13.10 STORAGE OF PAPER OR MYLAR
DRAWINGS 502
13.11 REPRODUCTION OF DRAWINGS 502
13.12 PRINTING AND COPYING ENGINEERING
DRAWINGS 502
13.13 DIGITAL STORAGE SYSTEMS 504
13.14 DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT
SOFTWARE 505
13.15 ELECTRONIC FILES AND THE
INTERNET 505
13.16 MICROFILM, MICROFICHE, AND
COMPUTER-OUTPUT MICROFILM 505
KEY WORDS 507
CHAPTER SUMMARY 507
REVIEW QUESTIONS 507
C H A P T E R F O U R T E E N
AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION 508
OBJECTIVES 508
OVERVIEW 509
UNDERSTANDING AXONOMETRIC
DRAWINGS 510
Projection Methods Reviewed 511
Types of Axonometric Projection 512
Axonometric Projections and 3D Models 513
14.1 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 514
14.2 ISOMETRIC AXES 514
14.3 NONISOMETRIC LINES 514
14.4 ISOMETRIC SCALES 515
14.5 ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 515
14.6 MAKING AN ISOMETRIC DRAWING 516
14.7 OFFSET LOCATION MEASUREMENTS 517
14.8 DRAWING NONISOMETRIC LINES 517
Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces 518
14.9 OBLIQUE SURFACES IN ISOMETRIC 518
14.10 HIDDEN LINES AND CENTERLINES 518
14.11 ANGLES IN ISOMETRIC 519
14.12 IRREGULAR OBJECTS 520
14.13 CURVES IN ISOMETRIC 521
14.14 TRUE ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC 522
14.15 ORIENTING ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC
DRAWINGS 523
14.16 DRAWING ISOMETRIC CYLINDERS 525
14.17 SCREW THREADS IN ISOMETRIC 525
14.18 ARCS IN ISOMETRICS 526
14.19 INTERSECTIONS 526
14.20 SPHERES IN ISOMETRIC 527
14.21 ISOMETRIC SECTIONING 527
14.22 ISOMETRIC DIMENSIONING 528
14.23 EXPLODED ASSEMBLIES 529
14.24 PIPING DIAGRAMS 529
14.25 DIMETRIC PROJECTION 530
14.26 APPROXIMATE DIMETRIC DRAWING 530
14.27 TRIMETRIC PROJECTION 532
14.28 TRIMETRIC SCALES 532
14.29 TRIMETRIC ELLIPSES 532
14.30 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION USING
INTERSECTIONS 534
14.31 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 537
KEY WORDS 539
CHAPTER SUMMARY 539
REVIEW QUESTIONS 539
EXERCISES 539
C H A P T E R F I F T E E N
OBLIQUE PROJECTION 546
OBJECTIVES 546
OVERVIEW 547
UNDERSTANDING OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS 548
Directions of Projectors 549
15.1 LENGTH OF RECEDING LINES 550
Cavalier Projection 550
Cabinet Projection 550
15.2 ANGLES OF RECEDING LINES 551
15.3 CHOICE OF POSITION 551
15.4 ELLIPSES FOR OBLIQUE DRAWINGS 553
Alternate Four Center Ellipses 553
Four Center Ellipse for Cavalier Drawings 553
15.5 OFFSET MEASUREMENTS 554
15.6 ANGLES IN OBLIQUE PROJECTION 555
15.7 OBLIQUE SECTIONS 555
15.8 SCREW THREADS IN OBLIQUE 556
15.9 OBLIQUE DIMENSIONING 556
15.10 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 556
KEY WORDS 558
CHAPTER SUMMARY 558
REVIEW QUESTIONS 558
EXERCISES 558
C H A P T E R S I X T E E N
PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS 564
OBJECTIVES 564
OVERVIEW 565
UNDERSTANDING PERSPECTIVES 566
16.1 PERSPECTIVE FROM A MULTIVIEW
PROJECTION 567
16.2 NON-ROTATED SIDE VIEW METHOD FOR
PERSPECTIVE 568
16.3 DRAWING AN ANGULAR PERSPECTIVE 570
16.4 POSITION OF THE STATION POINT 570
16.5 LOCATION OF THE PICTURE PLANE 570
16.6 BIRD?S EYE VIEW OR WORM?S EYE
VIEW 571
16.7 THE THREE TYPES OF PERSPECTIVES 571
16.8 ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE 571
16.9 ONE POINT PERSPECTIVE OF A
CYLINDRICAL SHAPE 572
16.10 TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE 572
16.11 THREE POINT PERSPECTIVE 574
16.12 MEASUREMENTS IN PERSPECTIVE 576
16.13 DIRECT MEASUREMENTS ALONG INCLINED
LINES 577
16.14 VANISHING POINTS OF INCLINED
LINES 578
16.15 INCLINED LINES IN PERSPECTIVE, JOINING
ENDPOINT METHOD 578
16.16 CURVES AND CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE 580
16.17 THE PERSPECTIVE PLAN METHOD 581
16.18 PERSPECTIVE DIAGRAM 581
16.19 SHADING 582
16.20 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 582
KEY WORDS 584
CHAPTER SUMMARY 584
REVIEW QUESTIONS 584
EXERCISES 584
C H A P T E R S E V E N T E E N
GEARS AND CAMS 590
OBJECTIVES 590
OVERVIEW 591
UNDERSTANDING GEARS 592
Using Gears to Transmit Power 592
Spur Gear Definitions and Formulas 592
17.1 CONSTRUCTING A BASE CIRCLE 594
17.2 THE INVOLUTE TOOTH SHAPE 594
17.3 APPROXIMATE INVOLUTE USING
CIRCULAR ARCS 594
17.4 SPACING GEAR TEETH 595
17.5 RACK TEETH 596
17.6 WORKING DRAWINGS OF SPUR
GEARS 596
17.7 SPUR GEAR DESIGN 597
17.8 WORM GEARS 598
17.9 WORKING DRAWINGS OF WORM
GEARS 599
17.10 BEVEL GEARS 600
17.11 BEVEL GEAR DEFINITIONS AND
FORMULAS 600
17.12 WORKING DRAWINGS OF BEVEL
GEARS 601
17.13 CAMS 603
17.14 DISPLACEMENT DIAGRAMS 604
17.15 CAM PROFILES 604
17.16 OFFSET AND PIVOTED CAM
FOLLOWERS 606
17.17 CYLINDRICAL CAMS 607
17.18 OTHER DRIVE DEVICES 607
KEY WORDS 610
CHAPTER SUMMARY 610
REVIEW QUESTIONS 610
EXERCISES 611
C H A P T E R E I G H T E E N
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS 616
OBJECTIVES 616
OVERVIEW 617
UNDERSTANDING ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS 618
Standard Symbols 618
CAD Symbol Libraries 618
Types of Electronic Diagrams 620
18.1 UNDERSTANDING ELECTRONIC
DIAGRAMS 622
18.2 LINE CONVENTIONS AND LETTERING 622
18.3 STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR ELECTRONIC
DIAGRAMS 622
18.4 ABBREVIATIONS 623
18.5 GROUPING PARTS 623
18.6 ARRANGEMENT OF
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC SYMBOLS 624
18.7 CONNECTIONS AND CROSSOVERS 626
18.8 INTERRUPTED PATHS 626
18.9 TERMINALS 627
18.10 COLOR CODING 628
18.11 DIVISION OF PARTS 629
18.12 ELECTRON TUBE PIN IDENTIFICATION 629
18.13 REFERENCE DESIGNATIONS 630
18.14 NUMERICAL VALUES 630
18.15 FUNCTIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND OTHER
INFORMATION 631
18.16 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 631
18.17 PRINTED CIRCUITS 632
18.18 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 633
KEY WORDS 635
CHAPTER SUMMARY 635
REVIEW QUESTIONS 635
EXERCISES 636
C H A P T E R N I N E T E E N
STRUCTURAL DRAWING 640
OBJECTIVES 640
OVERVIEW 641
STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS 642
19.1 WOOD CONSTRUCTION 643
Nominal Sizes for Wood Products 643
Symbols for Finished Surfaces on Wood
Products 643
Wood Joints 644
Connector Designs 644
Metal Ring Connectors 644
Straps and Plates 646
19.2 STRUCTURAL STEEL 647
Piece Marks 647
Erection Plans 648
19.3 STRUCTURAL STEEL SHAPES 648
19.4 SPECIFICATIONS 650
19.5 WELDED AND BOLTED CONNECTIONS 650
19.6 RIVETED CONNECTIONS 650
19.7 FRAME BEAM CONNECTIONS 650
19.8 WELDING 652
19.9 HIGH STRENGTH BOLTING FOR
STRUCTURAL JOINTS 654
19.10 ACCURACY OF DIMENSIONS 655
19.11 CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 655
19.12 REINFORCED CONCRETE DRAWINGS 656
19.13 STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS 658
19.14 STONE CONSTRUCTION 658
KEY WORDS 664
CHAPTER SUMMARY 664
REVIEW QUESTIONS 664
EXERCISES 665
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y
LANDFORM DRAWINGS 670
OBJECTIVES 670
OVERVIEW 671
UNDERSTANDING LANDFORM DRAWINGS 672
Definitions 672
Appendices
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Mechanical drawing.