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Brief contents Part I Conceptualising development: meanings of development 1 Questioning development 3 2 Understanding colonialism 47 3 Theories and strategies of development 79 4 Globalisation, development and underdevelopment 127 Part II Development in practice: components of development 5 People in the development process 183 6 Resources and the environment 229 7 Institutions of development 275 Part III Spaces of development: places and development 8 Movements and flows 327 9 Urban spaces 381 10 Rural spaces 443 Conclusion 491 Contents List of boxes ix List of case studies x List of key ideas xi List of key thinkers xii List of critical reflections xiii Preface to the Third Edition xiv Guided tour xvi Guided tour to website xviii Acknowledgements xx Introduction xxi Part I Conceptualising development: meanings of development 1 Questioning development 3 Introduction: from 'development' to 'anti-development' 3 The meaning of the word 'development' 4 Thinking about development 6 Critiques of development: Eurocentrism, populist stances, anti-development and postmodernity 12 Spatialising development: the Third World/Developing World/Global South/ Poor Countries 22 Rich and poor worlds: relative poverty and inequalities at the global scale 32 Concluding issues: geography, development and 'distant others' 44 Key points 45 Further reading 45 Websites 46 Discussion topics 46 2 Understanding colonialism 47 Introduction: colonialism and imperialism 47 Phases of colonialism 56 Legacies of colonialism 71 Key points 77 Further reading 78 Websites 78 Discussion topics 78 3 Theories and strategies of development 79 Introduction 79 Theories, strategies and ideologies of development 80 Classical+traditional approaches: early views from the developed world 83 Historical approaches: empirical perspectives on change and development 96 Radical dependency approaches: the Third World answers back? 106 Alternative, bottom-up and participatory approaches: perspectives on 'another' development 114 Development theory, modernity and postmodernity 121 Key points 126 Further reading 126 Websites 126 Discussion topics 126 4 Globalisation, development and underdevelopment 127 Defining globalisation 128 Globalisation and development: 'for and against'/'solution or problem'? 128 Global transformations: a shrinking world or a more unequal world? 133 Globalisation and the information society: the digital divide and an unequal world 140 Economic aspects of globalisation: industrialisation, TNCs, world cities and global shifts 145 Economic change and global divergence 160 Global convergence: perspectives on cultural globalisation 160 Global convergence and divergence: patterns of hierarchic and non-hierarchic change + a summary 164 Political aspects of globalisation: the anti-globalisation and anti-capitalist movements 166 Concluding comments: globalisation and unequal development 178 Key points 180 Further reading 180 Websites 180 Discussion topics 180 Part II Development in practice: components of development 5 People in the development process 183 Introduction: putting people at the centre of development 183 Population and resources: a demographic time bomb? 184 Where do the world's people live? 186 Counting the people 188 Population change 188 Understanding population statistics 192 The demographic transition 192 Population policies 194 Population structure 196 Ageing populations 198 Quality of life 202 Conclusion 225 Key points 226 Further reading 226 Websites 227 Discussion topics 227 6 Resources and the environment 229 Introduction: the search for sustainable development 229 Resources and development 231 Water resources in development: where will new sources come from? 234 Energy resource developments: the search for equity and efficiency 239 Mineral resources: curse or cure for development? 242 Resource constraints and the development process 244 Environmental impacts of development 249 Conclusion: towards sustainable resource management 272 Key points 273 Further reading 273 Websites 274 Discussion topics 274 7 Institutions of development 275 Introduction 275 The rise of global governance 278 The role of the state 312 Civil society, NGOs and development 316 Conclusion 322 Key points 323 Further reading 324 Websites 324 Discussion topics 324 Part III Spaces of development: places and development 8 Movements and flows 327 Introduction: unravelling complexities 328 Movements and flows in the 'real world': growing coffee for export 328 People on the move 331 Communications and transport 344 North and South: an interdependent world 346 World trade: the changing scene 351 Developing countries and the debt crisis 369 Conclusion 377 Key points 378 Further reading 378 Websites 378 Discussion topics 379 9 Urban spaces 381 Urbanisation and development: an overview 382 Urbanisation in the contemporary developing world 384 Causes and consequences of rapid urbanisation in the Third World 391 City systems and development: questions of urban primacy, regional inequalities and unequal development 395 Urban and regional planning in Third World countries 400 Rural+urban interrelations in developing countries 405 Inside Third World cities 415 Final comments: urban management for sustainable urbanisation 440 Key points 441 Further reading 441 Websites 441 Discussion topics 441 10 Rural spaces 443 Introduction 443 Rural spaces in development thinking 444 'Old' and 'new' challenges in rural development 445 Agrarian structures and landholding in rural areas 450 Livelihood systems in rural areas 456 Approaches to agricultural and rural development 472 A new paradigm in rural development? 483 Conclusion 488 Key points 489 Further reading 489 Websites 490 Discussion topics 490 Conclusion 491 Bibliography 495 Index 535
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