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CONTENTS PREFACE xiii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Historical Development of Structural Concrete 1 1.2 Basic Hypothesis of Reinforced Concrete 2 1.3 Analysis versus Design of Sections 3 2 CONCRETE-PRODUCING MATERIALS 8 2.1 Introduction 8 2.2 Portland Cement 9 2.3 Water and Air 12 2.4 Aggregates 13 2.5 Admixtures 16 Selected References 20 3 CONCRETE 21 3.1 Introduction 21 3.2 Proportioning Theory-Normal Strength Concrete 23 3.3 High-Strength High-Performance Concrete Mixtures Design 30 3.4 PCA Method of Mixture Design 41 3.5 -Estimating Compressive Strength of a Trial Mixture Using the Specified Compressive Strength 41 3.6 Mixture Designs for Nuclear-Shielding Concrete 46 3.7 Quality Tests on Concrete 46 3.8 Placing and Curing of Concrete 47 3.9 Properties of Hardened Concrete 49 3.10 High-Strength Concrete 61 3.11 Durability Requirements in Concrete 68 Selected References 72 Problems for Solution 73 4 REINFORCED CONCRETE 75 4.1 Introduction 75 4.2 Types and Properties of Steel Reinforcement 76 4.3 Bar Spacing and Concrete Cover for Steel Reinforcement 77 4.4 Concrete Structural Systems 80 4.5 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components 81 4.6 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins 86 4.7 Design Strength versus Nominal Strength: Strength Reduction Factor f 88 4.8 Quality Control and Quality Assurance 89 Selected References 97 5 FLEXURE IN BEAMS 98 5.1 Introduction 98 5.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block 102 5.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design 107 5.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams for Flexure 111 5.5 Trial-and-Adjustment Procedures for the Design of Singly Reinforced Beams 115 5.6 One-Way Slabs 119 5.7 Doubly Reinforced Sections 122 5.8 Nonrectangular Sections 130 5.9 Analysis of T and L Beams 131 5.10 Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Design of Flanged Sections 138 5.11 Concrete Joist Construction 147 5.12 SI Expressions and Example for Flexural Design of Beams 148 Selected References 151 Problems for Solution 152 6 SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION IN BEAMS 156 6.1 Introduction 156 6.2 Behavior of Homogeneous Beams 158 6.3 Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections 159 6.4 Reinforced Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement 161 6.5 Diagonal Tension Analysis of Slender and Intermediate Beams 164 6.6 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy 166 6.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear 170 6.8 Examples of the Design of Web Steel for Shear 171 6.9 Deep Beams: Non-Linear Approach 178 6.10 Brackets or Corbels 188 6.11 Strut and Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements 198 6.12 SI Design Expressions and Example for Shear Design 213 Selected References 216 Problems for Solution 217 7 TORSION 221 7.1 Introduction 221 7.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements 224 7.3 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Elements 231 7.4 Shear-Torsion-Bending Interaction 236 7.5 -ACI Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Bending, and Shear 237 7.6 SI Metric Torsion Expressions and Example for Torsion Design 263 Selected References 267 Problems for Solution 269 8 SERVICEABILITY OF BEAMS AND ONE-WAY SLABS 272 8.1 Introduction 272 8.2 Significance of Deflection Observation 273 8.3 Deflection Behavior of Beams 273 8.4 Long-Term Deflection 281 8.5 Permissible Deflections in Beams and One-Way Slabs 282 8.6 Computation of Deflections 284 8.7 Deflection of Continuous Beams 289 8.8 Operational Deflection Calculation Procedure and Flowchart 298 8.9 Deflection Control in One-Way Slabs 299 8.10 Flexural Cracking in Beams and One-Way Slabs 303 8.11 Tolerable Crack Widths 309 8.12 ACI 318 Code Provisions for Control of Flexural Cracking 309 8.13 SI Conversion Expressions and Example of Deflection Evaluation 311 Selected References 314 Problems for Solution 314 9 COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS 317 9.1 Introduction 317 9.2 Types of Columns 318 9.3 Strength of Nonslender Concentrically Loaded Columns 321 9.4 Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Columns: Axial Load and Bending 324 9.5 -Strain Limits Method to Establish Reliability Factor f and Analysis and Design of Compression Members 327 9.6 Whitney's Approximate Solution in Lieu of Exact Solutions 342 9.7 Column Strength Reduction Factor f 349 9.8 -Load-Moment Strength Interaction Diagrams (P-M Diagrams) for Columns Controlled by Material Failure 351 9.9 Practical Design Considerations 357 9.10 Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Columns 360 9.11 Numerical Examples for Analysis and Design of Nonslender Columns 362 9.12 Limit State at Buckling Failure (Slender or Long Columns) 368 9.13 Second-Order Frame Analysis and the P-D Effect 372 9.14 Moment Magnification: First-Order Analysis 375 9.15 Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns 377 9.16 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending 384 9.17 SI Expressions and Example for the Design of Compression Members 401 Selected References 403 Problems for Solution 404 10 BOND DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCING BARS 408 10.1 Introduction 408 10.2 Bond Stress Development 409 10.3 Basic Development Length 413 10.4 Development of Flexural Reinforcement in Continuous Beams 424 10.5 Splicing of Reinforcement 427 10.6 Examples of Embedment Length and Splice Design for Beam Reinforcement 432 10.7 Typical Detailing of Reinforcement and Bar Scheduling 436 Selected References 447 Problems for Solution 447 11 DESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLABS AND PLATES 449 11.1 Introduction: Review of Methods 449 11.2 Flexural Behavior of Two-Way Slabs and Plates 452 11.3 The Direct Design Method 453 11.4 Distributed Factored Moments and Slab Reinforcement by the Direct Design Method 457 11.5 Design and Analysis Procedure: Direct Design Method 469 11.6 Equivalent Frame Method for Floor Slab Design 491 11.7 SI Two-Way Slab Design Expressions and Example 503 11.8 Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation 511 11.9 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Two-Way-Action Slabs and Plates 518 11.10 Yield-Line Theory for Two-Way Action Plates 524 Selected References 539 Problems for Solution 541 12 FOOTINGS 542 12.1 Introduction 542 12.2 Types of Foundations 544 12.3 Shear and Flexural Behavior of Footings 545 12.4 Soil Bearing Pressure at Base of Footings 548 12.5 Design Considerations in Flexure 553 12.6 Design Considerations in Shear 554 12.7 Operational Procedure for the Design of Footings 556 12.8 Examples of Footing Design 559 12.9 Structural Design of Other Types of Foundations 572 Selected References 572 Problems for Solution 573 13 CONTINUOUS REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 574 13.1 Introduction 574 13.2 Longhand Displacement Methods 576 13.3 Force Method of Analysis 576 13.4 Displacement Method of Analysis 582 13.5 Finite-Element Methods and Computer Usage 589 13.6 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Beams and Frames 590 13.7 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames 616 Selected References 626 Problems for Solution 627 14 INTRODUCTION TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 629 14.1 Basic Concepts of Prestressing 629 14.2 Partial Loss of Prestress 635 14.3 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements 641 14.4 Serviceability Requirements in Prestressed Concrete Members 656 14.5 Ultimate-Strength Flexural Design of Prestressed Beams 657 14.6 -Example 14.5: Ultimate-Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beamby Strain Compatibility 664 14.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear 668 Selected References 672 Problems for Solution 672 15 -LRFD AASHTO DESIGN OF CONCRETE BRIDGE STRUCTURES 676 15.1 LRFD Truck Load Specifications 676 15.2 Flexural Design Considerations 686 15.3 Shear Design Considerations 691 15.4 Horizontal Interface Shear 697 15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion 699 15.6 Step-by-Step LRFD Design Procedures 702 15.7 LRFD Design of Bulb-Tee Bridge Deck: Example 15.1 705 15.8 LRFD Shear and Deflection Design: Example 15.2 717 Selected References 724 Problems for Solution 725 16 SEISMIC DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES 728 16.1 Introduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes 728 16.2 Spectral Response Method 733 16.3 Equivalent Lateral Force Method 740 16.4 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Design of Buildings 746 16.5 Other Aspects in Seismic Design 749 16.6 Flexural Design of Beams and Columns 749 16.7 Seismic Detailing Requirements for Beams and Columns 752 16.8 Horizontal Shear in Beam-Column Connections (Joints) 757 16.9 Design of Shear Walls 759 16.10 Design Procedure for Earthquake-Resistant Structures 762 16.11 -Example 16.1: Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the International Building Code (IBC) Approach 772 16.12 Example 16.2: Design of Confining Reinforcement for Beam-Column Connections 774 16.13 Example 16.3: Transverse Reinforcement in a Beam Potential Hinge Region 777 16.14 Example 16.4: Probable Shear Strength of Monolithic Beam-Column Joint 780 16.15 Example 16.5: Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing 782 Selected References 787 Problems for Solution 788 17 STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES 17.1 Introduction 000 17.2 Design Principles 000 17.3 Strength Reduction Factors 000 17.4 Flexural Strength 000 17.5 Shear Strength 000 17.6 Axial Compression Strength 000 17.7 Anchorage of Masonry Reinforcement 000 17.8 Prestressed Masonry 000 17.9 Deflection 000 17.10 Example 17.9: Detailed Design of CMU Lintel in Seismic Zone 000 17.11 Example 17.10: Design of Grouted CMU Wall Supporting Beam Lintel of Example 17.9 000 17.12 Example 17.11: Tension Anchor Design 000 Selected References 000 Problems for Solution 000 APPENDIX A TABLES AND NOMOGRAMS 000 INDEX 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Reinforced concrete.

Reinforced concrete construction.