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Contents Preface Acknowledgments chapter 1 Understanding Underdevelopment Third World Commonalities: The Nature of Underdevelopment Economic Underdevelopment Social Underdevelopment Political Underdevelopment Some Relationships among the Components of Development The Causes of Underdevelopment Modernization Theory and the Importance of Cultural Values Dependency Theory Modernization and Dependency Theory Compared Contemporary Perspectives Discussion Questions Notes chapter 2 Democratic Change and the Change to Democracy Democracy Defined Democratic Transition and Consolidation Authoritarian Beginnings Justifying Authoritarian Rule The Third Wave and Its Effect on the Third World International Causes and Consequences of the Third Wave The Prerequisites of Democracy in Individual Countries Social and Economic Modernization Class Structure Political Culture How Do Democracies Perform? Public Policy Compared Democratic Consolidation Improving the Quality of Democracy Conclusion Discussion Questions Notes chapter 3 Religion and Politics The Meeting of Church and State Great Religions of the Third World Religion, Modernity, and Secularization Structural and Theological Bases of Church¿State Relations Islam Catholicism Hinduism and Buddhism Religious Fundamentalism: Islam and Hinduism Defining and Explaining Fundamentalism Fundamentalists: Radical and Conservative ¿Sacred Rage and the Iranian Revolution¿: Radical Islamism as a Reaction to Western-Style Modernization Al Qaeda and Militant Islamism Turkey and Moderate Fundamentalism (Islamism) Radical Hindu Fundamentalism The Progressive Catholic Church Religion and Politics in the Developing World: Looking to the Future Conclusion: Religion and Democracy Discussion Questions Notes chapter 4 The Politics of Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Conflict Defining Ethnicity Ethnic and State Boundaries Types of Ethnic-Cultural Divisions Nationality Tribe Race Religion Dependence, Modernization, and Ethnic Conflict Levels of Interethnic Conflict Relative Harmony Uneasy Balance Enforced Hierarchy (Ethnic Dominance) Systematic Violence Outcomes and Resolutions Power Sharing: Federalism and Consociationalism Secession Outside Intervention Outside Intervention in Iraq: The Effect of the U.S. Occupation on Kurdish Autonomy Settlement through Exhaustion Toward a Peaceful Resolution of Conflict Conclusion: Ethnic Pluralism and Democracy Discussion Questions Notes chapter 5 Women and Development The Political and Socioeconomic Status of Third World Women Colonization, Westernization, Modernization, and the Economic Status of Women Women in the Economy: Rural and Urban Women and Politics Women¿s Political Activism at the Grass Roots Women as National Political Leaders Reserved Seats and Quotas: Female Representation in Parliament and the Cabinet Women and Revolutionary Change The Status of Women: The Roles of Modernization, Globalization, and Regime Type Conclusion: Democracy and the Role of Women in Society Discussion Questions Notes chapter 6 Agrarian Reform and the Politics of Rural Change Rural Class Structures Peasant Politics The Politics of Agrarian Reform Patterns of Land Concentration The Case for Agrarian Reform Types of Agrarian Reform Externally Imposed Reform Revolutionary Transformation Moderate Reformism The Limits of Agrarian Reform Other Approaches and Issues Crop Pricing Conclusion: Democracy and Rural Reform Discussion Questions Notes chapter 7 Rapid Urbanization and the Politics of the Urban Poor The Political Consequences of Urban Growth The Struggle for Employment The Struggle for Housing among the Urban Poor Public Housing and the Role of the State Spontaneous Housing Sites-and-Services Programs The Struggle Against Urban Crime The Politics of the Urban Poor: Conflicting Images Forms of Political Expression among the Urban Poor Individual Political Behavior Collective Goals: Housing and Urban Services Radical Political Behavior Conclusion: Future Urban Growth and Democratic Politics Discussion Questions Notes chapter 8 Revolutionary Change Defining Revolution Underlying Causes of Revolution Inexorable Historical Forces Regime Decay Challenges from Below Causes of Revolution: A Summary Levels of Popular Support Peasants as Revolutionaries Why Peasants Rebel Which Peasants Rebel Revolutionary Leadership Revolutionaries in Power Conclusion: Revolutionary Change and Democracy Discussion Questions Notes chapter 9 Soldiers and Politics The Causes of Military Intervention The Nature of the Armed Forces The Nature of Civil Society Progressive Soldiers and Military Conservatives The Goals of Military Regimes Personalistic Regimes Institutional Military Regimes The Accomplishments and Failures of Military Regimes Combating Corruption Defending Corporate Interests Patterns in Military Spending Establishing Stability Economic Development Military Withdrawal from Politics New Roles for the Armed Forces Conclusion: Democracy and the Military Discussion Questions Notes chapter 10 The Political Economy of Third World Development The Role of the State The Command Economy Latin American Statism East Asia¿s Developmental State The Neoclassical Ideal Finding a Proper Role for the State Industrialization Strategies Import-Substituting Industrialization Export-Oriented Industrialization Growth with Equity Economic Development and the Environment The Costs of Growth Environmental Decay as a Third World Problem Environmental Decay in the LDCs as a Global Problem The Search for Sustainable Development Some Signs of Progress Finding the Right Mix The Effects of Globalization on Developing Nations Conclusion: Democracy and Economic Development Discussion Questions Notes Glossary Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Developing countries -- Economic conditions.
Developing countries -- Economic policy.
Developing countries -- Politics and government.