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Brief contents List of figures and tables xxii Guided tour xxviii Preface xxxii Publisher's acknowledgements xxxiii Chapter 1 Foundations 1 Chapter 2 Information processing and nature of the mind 31 Chapter 3 Visual processes and visual sensory memory 64 Chapter 4 Masking, thresholds and consciousness 105 Chapter 5 An introduction to perception 143 Chapter 6 Theories of perception 185 Chapter 7 Mental representation 228 Chapter 8 Attention I: general introduction, basic models and data 271 Chapter 9 Attentional constraints and performance limitations 312 Chapter 10 Human memory: an introduction 000 Chapter 11 Human memory: fallibilities and failures 000 Chapter 12 Semantic memory and concepts 000 Chapter 13 Object recognition 000 Chapter 14 The nature of language and its relation to the other mental faculties 000 Chapter 15 Reasoning 000 Chapter 16 Cognition and emotion 000 Bibliography 000 Glossary 000 Index 000 Contents List of figures and tables xxii Guided tour xxviii Preface xxxii Publisher's acknowledgements xxxiii Chapter 1 Foundations 1 Learning objectives 1 Chapter contents 1 'If you don't believe, she won't come': playground hypothesising about the tooth fairy 2 Reflective questions 3 Part 1: An historical perspective and why there is more to cognitive psychology than meets the eye 3 Introduction and preliminary considerations 3 The abstract nature of cognitive psychology 4 Dualism and one of the many mind/body problems 5 Behaviourism 6 The laws of behaviour 6 The principles of associationisms 7 Associative processes and learning about causation 8 Some general points about behaviourism 8 Research focus 1.1: Are you looking at me? The role of race when fear stares you in the face 9 Methodological behaviourism 10 Behaviourism and free will 10 Behaviourism and the science of psychology 11 Logical behaviourism 11 Criticisms of logical behaviourism 12 'Testability is falsifiability': cognitive psychology and theory testing 13 Occam's Razor: the beauty of simplicity 14 Simplicity and the thermostat 14 Simplicity and cognitive theory 15 Research focus 1.2: Reefer madness: behavioural solutions to marijuana problems 17 Part 2: An introduction to the nature of explanation in cognitive psychology 17 How the mind and the brain are related 17 Central state identity theory 18 Type identity theory 18 The different brains problem 19 Token identity theory 19 Function and functional role 20 Functionalism 21 Flow-charts of the mind: distinctions between mind, brain, software and hardware 22 Functional description and a return to the thermostat 22 Functionalism and information processing systems 23 Marr's levels of explanation and cognitive psychology 24 The level of the computational theory 24 The level of representation and the algorithm 24 The level of the hardware 25 Levels of explanation and information processing systems 25 Research focus 1.3: What's a computer? Half a century playing the imitation game 26 Levels of explanation and reductionism 26 Concluding comments 27 Chapter summary 28 Answers to pinpoint questions 30 Chapter 2 Information processing and nature of the mind 31 Learning objectives 31 Chapter contents 31 Hold the bells! The unfortunate case of the modular fruit machine 32 Reflective questions 32 Part 1: An introduction to computation and cognitive psychology 33 Introduction and preliminary considerations 33 Different methodological approaches to the study of the mind 34 The cognitive approach 35 The artificial intelligence approach 35 The neuroscience approach 36 Information theory and information processing 37 A brief introduction to information theory 37 Information and the notion of redundancy 38 Information theory and human information processing 38 The computational metaphor of mind and human cognition 40 The naked desktop: the internal workings of a digital computer laid bare 40 Physical symbol systems 41 Symbolic representation 41 Symbolic representation and memory 42 Information processing and the internal set of operations 43 Control 43 The special nature of minds and computers 44 Rules-following vs. rule-governed systems 44 Mental computation 46 The formality condition 46 The formality condition and strong AI 47 Part 2: So what is the mind really like? 49 Marr's principle of modular design 49 Research focus 2.1: We are not amusia-ed: is music modularised? 50 Other conceptions of modularity 51 The nature of horizontal faculties 51 The nature of vertical faculties: a different kind of pot head 52 Fodor's modules 53 How is it best to characterise modules? 54 Modularity and cognitive neuropsychology 55 Cognitive neuropsychology 55 Research focus 2.2: Life after trauma: the astonishing case of Phineas Gage and the iron rod 56 The logic of the cognitive neuropsychological approach 57 Association deficits 57 Dissociation deficits 58 Cognitive deficits and cognitive resources 58 Double dissociations 58 Research focus 2.3: It's rude to point: double dissociations and manual behaviour 59 Concluding comments 61 Chapter summary 62 Answers to pinpoint questions 63 Chapter 3 Visual processes and visual sensory memory 64 Learning objectives 64 Chapter contents 64 Catching the last bus home? 65 Reflective questions 65 Introduction and preliminary considerations 65 An introduction to sensory memory 66 Visual sensory memory: iconic memory 67 Early experimental investigations of iconic memory 68 Research focus 3.1: Blinking heck! What happens to iconic memory when you blink? 72 Iconic memory and visual masking 73 Iconic memory and visible persistence 76 Visible vs. informational persistence 77 Puzzling findings and the traditional icon 80 The 'eye-as-a-camera' view of visual perception 83 The discrete moment and the travelling moment hypotheses 84 Icons as retinal snapshots 86 Coding in the visual system 87 Visual frames of reference 88 Research focus 3.2: Honk if you can hear me: listening to trains inside cars 91 Turvey's (1973) experiments on masking 92 Visual masking and the organisation of the visual system 92 Further evidence on where the icon is 96 Research focus 3.3: Going, going, gone: iconic memory in dementia patients 97 Iconic memory and the more durable store 98 Aperture viewing 98 Concluding comments 101 Chapter summary 102 Answers to pinpoint questions 104 Chapter 4 Masking, thresholds and consciousness 105 Learning objectives 105 Chapter contents 105 While you were sleeping: the continuing joys of communal living 106 Reflective questions 106 Introduction and preliminary considerations 107 The sequential account of processing and Turvey's work on visual masking 108 The concurrent and contingent model of masking 108 Masking by object substitution 110 Feedforward and feedback processes 111 Feedback as re-entrant visual processes 111 Masking and consciousness 113 Semantic activation without conscious identification? 113 Allport (1977) 114 Problems for Allport (1977) and a re-interpretation of his data 115 Drawing the line between conscious and non-conscious processing 115 Perceptual thresholds 116 Thresholds and conscious perception 118 Research focus 4.1: Did you say something? Subliminal priming in audition 119 The traditional view of an absolute threshold 120 Variable thresholds and subjective factors 120 Thresholds and perceptual defence 122 Research focus 4.2: Slap or tickle: do we have a preference for the detection of negative or positive words? 123 Perceptual defence: a perceptual effect? 124 Thresholds and signal detection theory 125 The traditional interpretation of SDT in information processing terms 128 Perceptual defence a perceptual effect? Broadbent and Gregory (1967a) revisited 129 More recent accounts of semantic activation without conscious identification 131 Marcel's work on semantic activation without conscious identification 131 Perception without awareness? A re-appraisal of Marcel's findings 132 Cheesman and Merikle (1984) 132 Research focus 4.3: Paying your way into consciousness: can post-decision wagers measure awareness? 135 Perception without awareness? More provocative evidence 136 Just how effective is visual masking in halting stimulus processing? 138 Concluding comments 139 Chapter summary 140 Answers to pinpoint questions 142 Chapter 5 An introduction to perception 143 Learning objectives 143 Chapter contents 143 'It only attacks when the moon is aglow': the Beast of Burnley 144 Reflective questions 144 Introduction and preliminary considerations 144 Distinguishing perception from cognition 145 Drawing a distinction between the perceptual system and the cognitive system 147 Familiarity and perception 148 Familiarity and word recognition 149 Sensory/perceptual accounts of the effects of familiarity 150 Decisional/post-perceptual accounts of familiarity 151 Explaining the word frequency effect 152 Active vs. passive theories of perception 152 Familiarity effects reflect late processes 152 Familiarity effects reflect early processes 153 Recency and expectancy 157 The perception of ambiguous figures 157 Research focus 5.1: Flip-flopping: children's responses to ambiguous figures 158 Attempting to disentangle effects of recency from those of expectancy 159 Recency and repetition priming 160 Expectancy and set 162 Instructional set 163 Mental set 163 More general conclusions 165 The Old Look/New Look schools in perception 166 The Old Look: Gestalt theory 166 The Gestalt laws of perceptual organisation 167 The principle of Pr¿gnanz 168 Gestalt theory and the brain 168 Research focus 5.2: The gestation of Gestalt: how infants learn to perceptually group 170 Mental copies and perceptual organisation 170 The New Look 172 Bruner's perceptual readiness theory 172 Perception as a process of unconscious inference 173 The likelihood principle 173 The poverty of the stimulus argument 174 Perceptual inference-making 174 Research focus 5.3: You saw the whole of the cube: spatial neglect and Necker drawings 175 Lessons from perceptual illusions 176 Modularity re-visited 179 Bottom-up vs. top-down modes of processing 180 Concluding comments 181 Chapter summary 182 Answers to pinpoint questions 183 Chapter 6 Theories of perception 185 Learning objectives 185 Chapter contents 185 But is it art? Aesthetic observations and twiglets 186 Reflective questions 186 Introduction and preliminary considerations 186 Simplicity and likelihood 187 The minimum principle 187 Critical appraisal of SIT 190 The likelihood principle 191 Simplicity and likelihood reconsidered 193 Simplicity, likelihood and the nature of perception 193 Are short codes all they are cracked up to be? 193 The advantages of the likelihood principle 194 Global-to-local processing 196 Experiments with compound letters 197 Accounting for global-to-local processing 198 Navon's (2003) account of global-to-local processing 200 Change blindness 202 Research focus 6.1: Touchy touchy: the inability to detect changes in the tactile modality 204 Context effects in perception 206 Context in the perception of speech 207 Analysis by synthesis and speech perception 208 Initial appraisal of analysis by synthesis 209 Research focus 6.2: Hear my lips: visual and auditory dominance in the McGurk effect 212 Perception as a process of embellishment 213 Minsky's (1975) frame theory 213 Problems for knowledge-driven accounts of perception 214 Phonemic restoration as an act of perceptual embellishment 216 Detailed theoretical accounts of performance 217 Research focus 6.3: Sorry, I'll read that again: phonemic restoration with the initial phoneme 218 Top-down processing and interactive activation models 218 Interaction activation and phonemic restoration 220 Samuel's findings 220 Perception as constrained hallucination? 221 Pulling it all together 223 Embellishment in perception revisited 223 Top-down influences in perception revisited 224 Concluding comments 225 Chapter summary 225 Answers to pinpoint questions 227 Chapter 7 Mental representation 228 Learning objectives 228 Chapter contents 228 You are nothing! 229 Reflective questions 229 Introduction and preliminary considerations 230 How rats running mazes led to some insights about mental representation 230 Maps and cognitive maps 231 Analogical representation 232 Research focus 7.1: Is 8 to 9 further than 10 to 9? Representing the mental number line 236 Tolman's alternative theoretical perspective to behaviourism 237 Some examples of Tolman's experiments on cognitive maps 238 Mental operations carried out on mental maps 240 Research focus 7.2: You can't get there from here: the cognitive map of a brain-damaged London taxi driver 242 Maps and pictures-in-the-head 242 Mental pictures 242 Kosslyn's view of mental pictures 244 Mental images and the mental cathode-ray screen 244 Dual-format systems 245 Mental scanning 246 Further provocative data 248 Real space in the head: what is mental space really like? 249 Further evidence for analogical representation 249 The dissenting view: descriptive, not depictive representations 250 Depictive representations and a pause for thought 251 The ambiguity of mental images 252 Mental rotation 255 Research focus 7.3: Monkey see, monkey do, monkey rotate? The mental life of a macaque 257 Descriptive representations 258 Mentalese - the language of thought 258 Structural descriptions of shapes 259 Shape discriminations and template matching 262 The lingua mentis and propositional representation 263 Concluding comments 267 Chapter summary 268 Answers to pinpoint questions 270 Chapter 8 Attention: general introduction, basic models and data 271 Learning objectives 271 Chapter contents 271 A cognitive psychologist in the DJ booth 272 Reflective questions 273 Introduction and preliminary considerations 273 Out with the new and in with the old 273 Early filtering accounts of selection 274 Selection by filtering 275 Information processing constraints in the model 277 Split-span experiments 278 Shadowing experiments 280 Provocative data - challenges to the early filter account 280 Research focus 8.1: I think my ears are burning: why do I hear my name across a crowded room? 281 The attenuated filter model of attention 282 Further revisions to the original filter theory 283 The differences between stimulus set and response set 284 Late filtering accounts of selection 285 Evidence in support of late selection 285 No 'structural bottleneck' accounts of attention 288 The notion of attentional resources 290 A single pool of resources? 290 Single resource accounts and the dual-task decrement 291 Research focus 8.2: Patting my head and rubbing my belly: can I really do two things at once? 292 Appraisal of single resource theories 293 Resources and resource allocation in more detail 295 Attentional resources or something else? 296 Multiple resources? 299 Research focus 8.3: 'Sorry, I can't speak now, I'm in the hospital': mobile phone use and driving as dual task 300 When doing two things at once is as easy as doing either alone 300 Pulling it all together 302 Controlled parallel processing 304 Perceptual load theory 305 Load theory and effects of varying perceptual load 306 Load theory and effects of varying memory load 307 Concluding comments 309 Chapter summary 309 Answers to pinpoint questions 310 Chapter 9 Attentional constraints and performance limitations 312 Learning objectives 312 Chapter contents 312 Back in the booth 313 Reflective questions 313 Introduction and preliminary considerations 313 Stages of information processing 314 Further analyses of dual-task performance 316 Research focus 9.1: Counting the cost: Alzheimer's disease and dual-task performance 317 Studies of the psychological refractory period 317 Understanding the PRP 319 Pashler's (1994) four principles of the central bottleneck theory 320 Testing the principles of the central bottleneck account 322 Additivity and under-additivity on RT2 323 Standing back from the central bottlenecks 328 Capacity sharing? 328 PRP and driving 329 Research focus 9.2: Because practice makes . . . : PRP, practice and the elderly 330 Task switching 331 Basic concepts and findings from the task-switching literature 331 Task set reconfiguration 333 Some additional theoretical ideas 336 The task carryover account 336 Switching costs and proactive interference 337 Research focus 9.3: Totally wired? The effect of caffeine on task switching 338 Concluding comments 339 Chapter summary 339 Answers to pinpoint questions 340 Chapter 10 Human memory: an introduction 342 Learning objectives 342 Chapter contents 342 You must remember this? A levels of processing approach to exam cramming 343 Reflective questions 343 Introduction and preliminary considerations 343 Libraries/warehouses/computers 345 The modularity of mind revisited 346 Memory as a horizontal faculty 346 Organisation and memory 349 Organisation vs. associations? 351 The levels of processing approach 351 Problems with levels and alternative accounts 352 Compartmentalisation of memory 354 Episodic vs. semantic memory 354 Further evidence for the episodic/semantic distinction 355 Further divisions between memory systems 356 Short-term and long-term memory 356 Forgetting and short-term memory 358 Research focus 10.1: Playing tag on . . . which street? Childhood memories for street names 359 Further evidence for trace decay 360 Further evidence that bears on the short-term/long-term memory distinction 364 The modal model and its detractors 367 Arguments about recency effects 368 Research focus 10.2: Faithful all ye come: serial position effects in hymns 370 Alternative accounts of the recency effects 370 Memory as a vertical faculty 374 The working memory model 374 Visuo-spatial, short-term memory 378 The central executive 379 Research focus 10.3: Standing in the way of control: restarting the central executive after brain injury 380 The episodic buffer 382 Concluding comments 383 Chapter summary 384 Answers to pinpoint questions 385 Chapter 11 Human memory: fallibilities and failures 387 Learning objectives 387 Chapter contents 387 Night 388 Reflective questions 388 Introduction and preliminary considerations 388 Headed records 389 Headed records and various memory phenomena 390 Eyewitness memory 391 Reconstructive and destructive processes: the misleading information effect 392 Research focus 11.1: But I heard them with my own ears! An exploration in earwitness testimony 393 Headed records and the misleading information effect 393 Alternative accounts of the misleading information effect 395 Further evidence that bears on destructive processes 396 The misleading information effect and encoding specificity 397 Going beyond encoding specificity 398 Research focus 11.2: Do you remember the first time? Remembering misleading information about upcoming novel events 399 Even more accounts of the misleading information effect 400 Signal detection theory, recognition memory and explaining false memories 400 False memories and response bias 403 False memories in the real world 405 Research focus 11.3: Remembering the mothership: false memories and alien abductees 407 False memories and aging 408 False autobiographical memories 410 Memory and the remember/know distinction 412 Concluding comments 413 Chapter summary 414 Answers to pinpoint questions 415 Chapter 12 Semantic memory and concepts 416 Learning objectives 416 Chapter contents 416 Wardrobe refreshing and memories of the Pyramid stage 417 Reflective questions 417 Introduction and preliminary considerations 418 Key terms and key concepts 418 Extensions and intensions 419 Propositions and propositional networks 421 Semantic network representations of human memories 422 Semantic networks 423 A psychologically plausible semantic network? 426 Data that challenge the Collins and Quillian account 428 Feature models 430 Psychological space and multi-dimensional scaling 430 Research focus 12.1: 'I think I'm gonna barf': the different dimensions of disgust 432 The Smith et al. (1974) featural model 432 Difficult findings for the featural account 434 Research focus 12.2: Do geese or squirrels lay eggs? Semantic memory in a schizophrenic 435 Semantic features, semantic primitives and cogits 436 Semantic features as defined on semantic dimensions 436 Semantic primitives as the atoms of meaning 436 Semantic features and semantic feature norms 437 Semantic features and semantic relatedness 437 Localist vs. distributed models 441 Distributed representation and mental chemistry 442 The Rumelhart and Todd (1993) model of semantic memory 444 Connectionist models and the simulation of knowledge acquisition 445 Training connectionists networks 446 Hidden unit representations 449 Research focus 12.3: What should I call you? Networks, nominal competition and naming 452 Prototypes 453 Early experimental work on prototypes 454 Conceptual categories and family resemblance 455 Prototype formation 456 The internal structure of mental taxonomies 457 The basic level and the structure of mental categories 457 Prototype models vs. exemplar-based models 459 Concluding comments 460 Chapter summary 461 Answers to pinpoint questions 462 Chapter 13 Object recognition 464 Learning objectives 464 Chapter contents 464 But mine was small, grey and shiny as well: disputes at baggage carousel number 6 465 Reflective questions 465 Introduction and preliminary considerations 466 A general framework for thinking about object recognition 467 Sorting out 'recognition', 'identification' and 'classification' 467 The basic level advantage 468 The crude-to-fine framework reappears 469 Further claims about the basic level advantage and perceptual processing 470 The basic level advantage and expertise 471 Experts and 'experts' 472 Research focus 13.1: Knowing your plonk from your plink: what makes a wine expert? 474 Further issues and controversies in visual object recognition 475 Additional useful terminology: introduction to Marr's theory 477 2D representations 477 21-2D representations 477 Marr's levels of representation in vision 478 The catalogue of 3D models 479 Object recognition and the process of matching 481 Object recognition and axis-based descriptions 481 Connections with the previous material 483 The basic first hypothesis revisited 483 Object recognition via the recognition of part of an object 483 Empirical evidence that bears on Marr's theory 483 Can we imagine how objects look from other viewpoints 484 Research focus 13.2: 'Narrowing towards the back': foreshortening without sight 489 Restricted viewpoint-invariant theories 490 Biederman's recognition by components account 491 Appraisal of RBC 494 Viewpoint-dependent theories 496 Privileged view or privileged views? 498 The chorus of prototypes 499 Research focus 13.3: Meet the Greebles: the effects of training on an individual with visual agnosia 501 Evidence regarding context and object recognition 503 Concluding comments 506 Chapter summary 507 Answers to pinpoint questions 508 Chapter 14 The nature of language and its relation to the other mental faculties 509 Learning objectives 509 Chapter contents 509 Off the starting blocks: language on a lazy Sunday afternoon 510 Reflective questions 510 Introduction and preliminary considerations 511 Some basic characteristics of natural language 511 Performance vs. competence 511 The difference between the surface forms of language and the deeper forms 513 Linguistics vs. psycholinguistics 514 The componential nature of language 515 The phonological structure 515 The syntactic structure 515 The semantic structure 517 Research focus 14.1: I know it, I know it, it's on the tip on my fingers: failure of sign retrieval in the deaf 519 Other basic characteristics of natural language 519 Productivity 520 Systematicity 520 Compositionality 521 Recursion 521 Syntactic parsing on-line 524 Syntax and the garden path 524 Research focus 14.2: While Anna dressed the baby spit up on the bed: what we believe happened as we walk down the garden path 526 Parsing according to minimal attachment 527 Parsing according to late closure 529 Multiple-constraint satisfaction accounts of parsing: semantically driven parsing 530 Mental rules 532 Rule-following vs. rule-governed devices reconsidered 533 The past-tense debate 533 The establishment account of past-tense learning 534 Connectionist accounts of past-tense learning 535 Past-tense learning according to Rumelhart and McClelland (1986) 535 Research focus 14.3: Holded the front page! Sex differences in past-tense overgeneralisations 539 Appraising the Rumelhart and McClelland past-tense model 540 Language, knowledge and perception 542 A final general framework for thinking about the relations between language and the other related faculties 542 Language, mental categories and perception 544 Influences of categorisation on perceptual discrimination - Goldstone (1994) 544 Categorical perception and verbal labelling 547 Categorical perception, colour perception and colour naming 549 The Whorf hypothesis vs. the Roschian hypothesis 549 The early work of Heider/Rosch 550 More recent work by Roberson and colleagues 551 Concluding comments 553 Chapter summary 554 Answers to pinpoint questions 556 Chapter 15 Reasoning 557 Learning objectives 557 Chapter contents 557 A day at the races 558 Reflective questions 558 Introduction and preliminary considerations 559 The dual system account of reasoning 559 The associative system 559 The rule-based system 559 Distinguishing between the two systems 560 Linda-the-bank-teller problem 560 The conjunction fallacy and representativeness 561 Reasoning by heuristics and biases 562 The representative heuristic 563 The availability heuristic 563 Base rate neglect 564 Research focus 15.1: You are either with us or against us: the heuristics of terror 566 The medical diagnosis problem 567 Heuristics and biases and the competence/performance distinction 570 The standard picture 570 Why people are not Bayesian reasoners 570 Natural frequencies vs. conditional probabilities 572 The two systems of reasoning revisited 574 Reasoning in evolutionary terms 575 Evolution and the dual systems 575 Evolution and reasoning the fast and frugal way 576 Human reasoning as a process of satisficing 576 Research focus 15.2: When enough is enough: satisficing, maximising and the way you feel 577 Evolution and the modularity of mind 579 Deductive and inductive inference 580 Deductive inference 580 Inductive inference 580 The Wason selection task 581 Social contract theory 583 Feeling obliged? Deontic and indicative conditionals 585 The selection task and attempts to eliminate system 2 585 Appraising the information gain account 587 Deductive reasoning and syllogisms 589 Some definitions and useful terminology 589 Psychological aspects of syllogistic reasoning 591 The figural effect and mental models 592 Research focus 15.3: Looking at the evidence: eye movements and syllogistic reasoning 595 Mental models and mental imagery 596 Concluding comments 597 Chapter summary 598 Answers to pinpoint questions 599 Chapter 16 Cognition and emotion 600 Learning objectives 600 Chapter contents 600 Master of your mood? 601 Reflective questions 601 Introduction and preliminary considerations 601 Towards a cognitive theory of emotions 603 The 'five' basic emotions 604 Emotional vs. non-emotional modes of the cognitive system 604 Research focus 16.1: If you're happy and you know it, press a key: cultural differences in recognising basic emotions 605 Conscious versus unconscious processing 607 Automatic vs. controlled processes 608 Searching for emotionally charged stimuli 609 The face-in-the-crowd effect 609 Further work on the face-in-the-crowd effect 613 Appraisal of the work on facial expression detection 617 Other attentional tasks and facial expression processing 617 Research focus 16.2: Going for gold? What your face looks like when you come second 618 The flanker task and emotional faces 619 Eye gaze, facial expression and the direction of attention 621 The basic spatial cueing task 621 Explaining spatial cueing 624 Covert vs. overt shifts of attention 624 Experimental work on following eye gaze 625 Further experiments on the potency of eye gaze 626 Detecting threatening objects 629 Further evidence for the animal advantage 630 Research focus 16.3: Freeze! Coming face to face with threat 631 Other indications of the influence of emotion on cognition 632 Mood induction in 'normal, healthy adults' 632 Mood induction and ethical considerations 633 'Mood' induction and 'mood' 633 Mood and judgement 635 Depressive realism 635 Further work on depressive realism 636 Concluding comments 637 Chapter summary 638 Answers to pinpoint questions 640 Bibliography 641 Glossary 665 Index 681
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