Table of contents for Cognitive psychology / Philip Quinlan, Ben Dyson.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Brief contents
List of figures and tables	xxii
Guided tour	xxviii
Preface	xxxii
Publisher's acknowledgements	xxxiii
Chapter 1	Foundations	1
Chapter 2	Information processing and nature of the mind	31
Chapter 3	Visual processes and visual sensory memory	64
Chapter 4	Masking, thresholds and consciousness	105
Chapter 5	An introduction to perception	143
Chapter 6	Theories of perception	185
Chapter 7	Mental representation	228
Chapter 8	Attention I: general introduction, basic models and data	271
Chapter 9	Attentional constraints and performance limitations	312
Chapter 10	Human memory: an introduction	000
Chapter 11	Human memory: fallibilities and failures	000
Chapter 12	Semantic memory and concepts	000
Chapter 13	Object recognition	000
Chapter 14	The nature of language and its relation to the other mental faculties	000
Chapter 15	Reasoning	000
Chapter 16	Cognition and emotion	000
Bibliography	000
Glossary	000
Index	000
Contents
List of figures and tables	xxii
Guided tour	xxviii
Preface	xxxii
Publisher's acknowledgements	xxxiii
Chapter 1	Foundations	1
Learning objectives	1
Chapter contents	1
'If you don't believe, she won't come': playground hypothesising about the tooth fairy	2
Reflective questions	3
Part 1:	An historical perspective and why there is more to cognitive psychology than meets the eye	3
Introduction and preliminary considerations	3
The abstract nature of cognitive psychology	4
Dualism and one of the many mind/body problems	5
Behaviourism	6
 The laws of behaviour	6
 The principles of associationisms	7
 Associative processes and learning about causation	8
Some general points about behaviourism	8
 Research focus 1.1: Are you looking at me? The role of race when fear stares you in the face	9
 Methodological behaviourism	10
 Behaviourism and free will	10
 Behaviourism and the science of psychology	11
 Logical behaviourism	11
 Criticisms of logical behaviourism	12
'Testability is falsifiability': cognitive psychology and theory testing	13
 Occam's Razor: the beauty of simplicity	14
 Simplicity and the thermostat	14
 Simplicity and cognitive theory	15
 Research focus 1.2: Reefer madness: behavioural solutions to marijuana problems	17
Part 2:	An introduction to the nature of explanation in cognitive psychology	17
How the mind and the brain are related	17
 Central state identity theory	18
 Type identity theory	18
 The different brains problem	19
 Token identity theory	19
 Function and functional role	20
 Functionalism	21
 Flow-charts of the mind: distinctions between mind, brain, software and hardware	22
 Functional description and a return to the thermostat	22
 Functionalism and information processing systems	23
Marr's levels of explanation and cognitive psychology	24
 The level of the computational theory	24
 The level of representation and the algorithm	24
 The level of the hardware	25
 Levels of explanation and information processing systems	25
 Research focus 1.3: What's a computer? Half a century playing the imitation game	26
 Levels of explanation and reductionism	26
Concluding comments	27
Chapter summary	28
Answers to pinpoint questions	30
Chapter 2	Information processing and nature of the mind	31
Learning objectives	31
Chapter contents	31
Hold the bells! The unfortunate case of the modular fruit machine	32
Reflective questions	32
Part 1:	An introduction to computation and cognitive psychology	33
Introduction and preliminary considerations	33
Different methodological approaches to the study of the mind	34
 The cognitive approach	35
 The artificial intelligence approach	35
 The neuroscience approach	36
Information theory and information processing	37
 A brief introduction to information theory	37
 Information and the notion of redundancy	38
Information theory and human information processing	38
The computational metaphor of mind and human cognition	40
 The naked desktop: the internal workings of a digital computer laid bare	40
Physical symbol systems	41
 Symbolic representation	41
 Symbolic representation and memory	42
 Information processing and the internal set of operations	43
 Control	43
The special nature of minds and computers	44
 Rules-following vs. rule-governed systems	44
 Mental computation	46
 The formality condition	46
 The formality condition and strong AI	47
Part 2:	So what is the mind really like?	49
Marr's principle of modular design	49
 Research focus 2.1: We are not amusia-ed: is music modularised?	50
Other conceptions of modularity	51
 The nature of horizontal faculties	51
 The nature of vertical faculties: a different kind of pot head	52
Fodor's modules	53
 How is it best to characterise modules?	54
Modularity and cognitive neuropsychology	55
 Cognitive neuropsychology	55
 Research focus 2.2: Life after trauma: the astonishing case of Phineas Gage and the iron rod	56
 The logic of the cognitive neuropsychological approach	57
 Association deficits	57
 Dissociation deficits	58
 Cognitive deficits and cognitive resources	58
 Double dissociations	58
 Research focus 2.3: It's rude to point: double dissociations and manual behaviour	59
Concluding comments	61
Chapter summary	62
Answers to pinpoint questions	63
Chapter 3	Visual processes and visual sensory memory	64
Learning objectives	64
Chapter contents	64
Catching the last bus home?	65
Reflective questions	65
Introduction and preliminary considerations	65
An introduction to sensory memory	66
Visual sensory memory: iconic memory	67
 Early experimental investigations of iconic memory	68
 Research focus 3.1: Blinking heck! What happens to iconic memory when you blink?	72
 Iconic memory and visual masking	73
 Iconic memory and visible persistence	76
 Visible vs. informational persistence	77
 Puzzling findings and the traditional icon	80
The 'eye-as-a-camera' view of visual perception	83
 The discrete moment and the travelling moment hypotheses	84
 Icons as retinal snapshots	86
Coding in the visual system	87
 Visual frames of reference	88
 Research focus 3.2: Honk if you can hear me: listening to trains inside cars	91
Turvey's (1973) experiments on masking	92
 Visual masking and the organisation of the visual system	92
Further evidence on where the icon is	96
 Research focus 3.3: Going, going, gone: iconic memory in dementia patients	97
Iconic memory and the more durable store	98
 Aperture viewing	98
Concluding comments	101
Chapter summary	102
Answers to pinpoint questions	104
Chapter 4	Masking, thresholds and consciousness	105
Learning objectives	105
Chapter contents	105
While you were sleeping: the continuing joys of communal living	106
Reflective questions	106
Introduction and preliminary considerations	107
The sequential account of processing and Turvey's work on visual masking	108
 The concurrent and contingent model of masking	108
Masking by object substitution	110
 Feedforward and feedback processes	111
 Feedback as re-entrant visual processes	111
Masking and consciousness	113
 Semantic activation without conscious identification?	113
 Allport (1977)	114
 Problems for Allport (1977) and a re-interpretation of his data	115
Drawing the line between conscious and non-conscious processing	115
 Perceptual thresholds	116
Thresholds and conscious perception	118
 Research focus 4.1: Did you say something? Subliminal priming in audition	119
 The traditional view of an absolute threshold	120
 Variable thresholds and subjective factors	120
Thresholds and perceptual defence	122
 Research focus 4.2: Slap or tickle: do we have a preference for the detection of negative or positive words?	123
 Perceptual defence: a perceptual effect?	124
Thresholds and signal detection theory	125
The traditional interpretation of SDT in information processing terms	128
 Perceptual defence a perceptual effect? Broadbent and Gregory (1967a) revisited	129
More recent accounts of semantic activation without conscious identification	131
 Marcel's work on semantic activation without conscious identification	131
 Perception without awareness? A re-appraisal of Marcel's findings	132
 Cheesman and Merikle (1984)	132
 Research focus 4.3: Paying your way into consciousness: can post-decision wagers measure awareness?	135
 Perception without awareness? More provocative evidence	136
 Just how effective is visual masking in halting stimulus processing?	138
Concluding comments	139
Chapter summary	140
Answers to pinpoint questions	142
Chapter 5	An introduction to perception	143
Learning objectives	143
Chapter contents	143
'It only attacks when the moon is aglow': the Beast of Burnley	144
Reflective questions	144
Introduction and preliminary considerations	144
Distinguishing perception from cognition	145
Drawing a distinction between the perceptual system and the cognitive system	147
Familiarity and perception	148
 Familiarity and word recognition	149
 Sensory/perceptual accounts of the effects of familiarity	150
 Decisional/post-perceptual accounts of familiarity	151
 Explaining the word frequency effect	152
 Active vs. passive theories of perception	152
 Familiarity effects reflect late processes	152
 Familiarity effects reflect early processes	153
Recency and expectancy	157
 The perception of ambiguous figures	157
 Research focus 5.1: Flip-flopping: children's responses to ambiguous figures	158
 Attempting to disentangle effects of recency from those of expectancy	159
 Recency and repetition priming	160
 Expectancy and set	162
 Instructional set	163
 Mental set	163
 More general conclusions	165
The Old Look/New Look schools in perception	166
 The Old Look: Gestalt theory	166
 The Gestalt laws of perceptual organisation	167
 The principle of Pr¿gnanz	168
 Gestalt theory and the brain	168
 Research focus 5.2: The gestation of Gestalt: how infants learn to perceptually group	170
 Mental copies and perceptual organisation	170
The New Look	172
 Bruner's perceptual readiness theory	172
Perception as a process of unconscious inference	173
 The likelihood principle	173
 The poverty of the stimulus argument	174
 Perceptual inference-making	174
 Research focus 5.3: You saw the whole of the cube: spatial neglect and Necker drawings	175
 Lessons from perceptual illusions	176
 Modularity re-visited	179
 Bottom-up vs. top-down modes of processing	180
Concluding comments	181
Chapter summary	182
Answers to pinpoint questions	183
Chapter 6	Theories of perception	185
Learning objectives	185
Chapter contents	185
But is it art? Aesthetic observations and twiglets	186
Reflective questions	186
Introduction and preliminary considerations	186
Simplicity and likelihood	187
 The minimum principle	187
 Critical appraisal of SIT	190
 The likelihood principle	191
Simplicity and likelihood reconsidered	193
Simplicity, likelihood and the nature of perception	193
 Are short codes all they are cracked up to be?	193
 The advantages of the likelihood principle	194
Global-to-local processing	196
 Experiments with compound letters	197
 Accounting for global-to-local processing	198
 Navon's (2003) account of global-to-local processing	200
 Change blindness	202
 Research focus 6.1: Touchy touchy: the inability to detect changes in the tactile modality	204
Context effects in perception	206
Context in the perception of speech	207
 Analysis by synthesis and speech perception	208
 Initial appraisal of analysis by synthesis	209
 Research focus 6.2: Hear my lips: visual and auditory dominance in the McGurk effect	212
Perception as a process of embellishment	213
 Minsky's (1975) frame theory	213
 Problems for knowledge-driven accounts of perception	214
Phonemic restoration as an act of perceptual embellishment	216
 Detailed theoretical accounts of performance	217
 Research focus 6.3: Sorry, I'll read that again: phonemic restoration with the initial phoneme	218
 Top-down processing and interactive activation models	218
 Interaction activation and phonemic restoration	220
 Samuel's findings	220
 Perception as constrained hallucination?	221
Pulling it all together	223
 Embellishment in perception revisited	223
 Top-down influences in perception revisited	224
Concluding comments	225
Chapter summary	225
Answers to pinpoint questions	227
Chapter 7	Mental representation	228
Learning objectives	228
Chapter contents	228
You are nothing!	229
Reflective questions	229
Introduction and preliminary considerations	230
How rats running mazes led to some insights about mental representation	230
Maps and cognitive maps	231
 Analogical representation	232
 Research focus 7.1: Is 8 to 9 further than 10 to 9? Representing the mental number line	236
Tolman's alternative theoretical perspective to behaviourism	237
 Some examples of Tolman's experiments on cognitive maps	238
Mental operations carried out on mental maps	240
 Research focus 7.2: You can't get there from here: the cognitive map of a brain-damaged London taxi driver	242
Maps and pictures-in-the-head	242
 Mental pictures	242
Kosslyn's view of mental pictures	244
 Mental images and the mental cathode-ray screen	244
Dual-format systems	245
Mental scanning	246
 Further provocative data	248
Real space in the head: what is mental space really like?	249
 Further evidence for analogical representation	249
 The dissenting view: descriptive, not depictive representations	250
Depictive representations and a pause for thought	251
The ambiguity of mental images	252
Mental rotation	255
 Research focus 7.3: Monkey see, monkey do, monkey rotate? The mental life of a macaque	257
Descriptive representations	258
 Mentalese - the language of thought	258
 Structural descriptions of shapes	259
 Shape discriminations and template matching	262
 The lingua mentis and propositional representation	263
Concluding comments	267
Chapter summary	268
Answers to pinpoint questions	270
Chapter 8	Attention: general introduction, basic models and data	271
Learning objectives	271
Chapter contents	271
A cognitive psychologist in the DJ booth	272
Reflective questions	273
Introduction and preliminary considerations	273
Out with the new and in with the old	273
Early filtering accounts of selection	274
 Selection by filtering	275
 Information processing constraints in the model	277
 Split-span experiments	278
 Shadowing experiments	280
 Provocative data - challenges to the early filter account	280
 Research focus 8.1: I think my ears are burning: why do I hear my name across a crowded room?	281
The attenuated filter model of attention	282
 Further revisions to the original filter theory	283
 The differences between stimulus set and response set	284
Late filtering accounts of selection	285
 Evidence in support of late selection	285
No 'structural bottleneck' accounts of attention	288
The notion of attentional resources	290
 A single pool of resources?	290
 Single resource accounts and the dual-task decrement	291
 Research focus 8.2: Patting my head and rubbing my belly: can I really do two things at once?	292
 Appraisal of single resource theories	293
 Resources and resource allocation in more detail	295
 Attentional resources or something else?	296
Multiple resources?	299
 Research focus 8.3: 'Sorry, I can't speak now, I'm in the hospital': mobile phone use and driving as dual task	300
When doing two things at once is as easy as doing either alone	300
Pulling it all together	302
 Controlled parallel processing	304
Perceptual load theory	305
 Load theory and effects of varying perceptual load	306
 Load theory and effects of varying memory load	307
Concluding comments	309
Chapter summary	309
Answers to pinpoint questions	310
Chapter 9	Attentional constraints and performance limitations	312
Learning objectives	312
Chapter contents	312
Back in the booth	313
Reflective questions	313
Introduction and preliminary considerations	313
Stages of information processing	314
 Further analyses of dual-task performance	316
 Research focus 9.1: Counting the cost: Alzheimer's disease and dual-task performance	317
Studies of the psychological refractory period	317
 Understanding the PRP	319
 Pashler's (1994) four principles of the central bottleneck theory	320
 Testing the principles of the central bottleneck account	322
 Additivity and under-additivity on RT2	323
Standing back from the central bottlenecks	328
 Capacity sharing?	328
PRP and driving	329
 Research focus 9.2: Because practice makes . . . : PRP, practice and the elderly	330
Task switching	331
 Basic concepts and findings from the task-switching literature	331
 Task set reconfiguration	333
Some additional theoretical ideas	336
 The task carryover account	336
 Switching costs and proactive interference	337
 Research focus 9.3: Totally wired? The effect of caffeine on task switching	338
Concluding comments	339
Chapter summary	339
Answers to pinpoint questions	340
Chapter 10	Human memory: an introduction	342
Learning objectives	342
Chapter contents	342
You must remember this? A levels of processing approach to exam cramming	343
Reflective questions	343
Introduction and preliminary considerations	343
Libraries/warehouses/computers	345
The modularity of mind revisited	346
 Memory as a horizontal faculty	346
Organisation and memory	349
 Organisation vs. associations?	351
The levels of processing approach	351
 Problems with levels and alternative accounts	352
Compartmentalisation of memory	354
 Episodic vs. semantic memory	354
 Further evidence for the episodic/semantic distinction	355
Further divisions between memory systems	356
 Short-term and long-term memory	356
 Forgetting and short-term memory	358
 Research focus 10.1: Playing tag on . . . which street? Childhood memories for street names	359
 Further evidence for trace decay	360
 Further evidence that bears on the short-term/long-term memory distinction	364
The modal model and its detractors	367
 Arguments about recency effects	368
 Research focus 10.2: Faithful all ye come: serial position effects in hymns	370
 Alternative accounts of the recency effects	370
Memory as a vertical faculty	374
 The working memory model	374
 Visuo-spatial, short-term memory	378
 The central executive	379
 Research focus 10.3: Standing in the way of control: restarting the central executive after brain injury	380
 The episodic buffer	382
Concluding comments	383
Chapter summary	384
Answers to pinpoint questions	385
Chapter 11	Human memory: fallibilities and failures	387
Learning objectives	387
Chapter contents	387
Night	388
Reflective questions	388
Introduction and preliminary considerations	388
Headed records	389
 Headed records and various memory phenomena	390
Eyewitness memory	391
 Reconstructive and destructive processes: the misleading information effect	392
 Research focus 11.1: But I heard them with my own ears! An exploration in earwitness testimony	393
 Headed records and the misleading information effect	393
 Alternative accounts of the misleading information effect	395
 Further evidence that bears on destructive processes	396
 The misleading information effect and encoding specificity	397
 Going beyond encoding specificity	398
 Research focus 11.2: Do you remember the first time? Remembering misleading information about upcoming novel events	399
Even more accounts of the misleading information effect	400
 Signal detection theory, recognition memory and explaining false memories	400
 False memories and response bias	403
 False memories in the real world	405
 Research focus 11.3: Remembering the mothership: false memories and alien abductees	407
 False memories and aging	408
 False autobiographical memories	410
 Memory and the remember/know distinction	412
Concluding comments	413
Chapter summary	414
Answers to pinpoint questions	415
Chapter 12	Semantic memory and concepts	416
Learning objectives	416
Chapter contents	416
Wardrobe refreshing and memories of the Pyramid stage	417
Reflective questions	417
Introduction and preliminary considerations	418
 Key terms and key concepts	418
 Extensions and intensions	419
 Propositions and propositional networks	421
 Semantic network representations of human memories	422
 Semantic networks	423
 A psychologically plausible semantic network?	426
 Data that challenge the Collins and Quillian account	428
Feature models	430
 Psychological space and multi-dimensional scaling	430
 Research focus 12.1: 'I think I'm gonna barf': the different dimensions of disgust	432
 The Smith et al. (1974) featural model	432
 Difficult findings for the featural account	434
 Research focus 12.2: Do geese or squirrels lay eggs? Semantic memory in a schizophrenic	435
Semantic features, semantic primitives and cogits	436
 Semantic features as defined on semantic dimensions	436
 Semantic primitives as the atoms of meaning	436
 Semantic features and semantic feature norms	437
 Semantic features and semantic relatedness	437
 Localist vs. distributed models	441
 Distributed representation and mental chemistry	442
 The Rumelhart and Todd (1993) model of semantic memory	444
 Connectionist models and the simulation of knowledge acquisition	445
 Training connectionists networks	446
 Hidden unit representations	449
 Research focus 12.3: What should I call you? Networks, nominal competition and naming	452
Prototypes	453
 Early experimental work on prototypes	454
 Conceptual categories and family resemblance	455
 Prototype formation	456
 The internal structure of mental taxonomies	457
 The basic level and the structure of mental categories	457
 Prototype models vs. exemplar-based models	459
Concluding comments	460
Chapter summary	461
Answers to pinpoint questions	462
Chapter 13	Object recognition	464
Learning objectives	464
Chapter contents	464
But mine was small, grey and shiny as well: disputes at baggage carousel number 6	465
Reflective questions	465
Introduction and preliminary considerations	466
A general framework for thinking about object recognition	467
 Sorting out 'recognition', 'identification' and 'classification'	467
The basic level advantage	468
 The crude-to-fine framework reappears	469
Further claims about the basic level advantage and perceptual processing	470
The basic level advantage and expertise	471
 Experts and 'experts'	472
 Research focus 13.1: Knowing your plonk from your plink: what makes a wine expert?	474
Further issues and controversies in visual object recognition	475
Additional useful terminology: introduction to Marr's theory	477
 2D representations	477
 21-2D representations	477
 Marr's levels of representation in vision	478
 The catalogue of 3D models	479
 Object recognition and the process of matching	481
 Object recognition and axis-based descriptions	481
Connections with the previous material	483
 The basic first hypothesis revisited	483
 Object recognition via the recognition of part of an object	483
Empirical evidence that bears on Marr's theory	483
 Can we imagine how objects look from other viewpoints	484
 Research focus 13.2: 'Narrowing towards the back': foreshortening without sight	489
Restricted viewpoint-invariant theories	490
 Biederman's recognition by components account	491
 Appraisal of RBC	494
 Viewpoint-dependent theories	496
Privileged view or privileged views?	498
 The chorus of prototypes	499
 Research focus 13.3: Meet the Greebles: the effects of training on an individual with visual agnosia	501
Evidence regarding context and object recognition	503
Concluding comments	506
Chapter summary	507
Answers to pinpoint questions	508
Chapter 14	The nature of language and its relation to the other mental faculties	509
Learning objectives	509
Chapter contents	509
Off the starting blocks: language on a lazy Sunday afternoon	510
Reflective questions	510
Introduction and preliminary considerations	511
Some basic characteristics of natural language	511
 Performance vs. competence	511
The difference between the surface forms of language and the deeper forms	513
 Linguistics vs. psycholinguistics	514
The componential nature of language	515
 The phonological structure	515
 The syntactic structure	515
 The semantic structure	517
 Research focus 14.1: I know it, I know it, it's on the tip on my fingers: failure of sign retrieval in the deaf	519
Other basic characteristics of natural language	519
 Productivity	520
 Systematicity	520
 Compositionality	521
 Recursion	521
Syntactic parsing on-line	524
 Syntax and the garden path	524
 Research focus 14.2: While Anna dressed the baby spit up on the bed: what we believe happened as we walk down the garden path	526
 Parsing according to minimal attachment	527
 Parsing according to late closure	529
 Multiple-constraint satisfaction accounts of parsing: semantically driven parsing	530
Mental rules	532
 Rule-following vs. rule-governed devices reconsidered	533
The past-tense debate	533
 The establishment account of past-tense learning	534
 Connectionist accounts of past-tense learning	535
 Past-tense learning according to Rumelhart and McClelland (1986)	535
 Research focus 14.3: Holded the front page! Sex differences in past-tense overgeneralisations	539
 Appraising the Rumelhart and McClelland past-tense model	540
Language, knowledge and perception	542
 A final general framework for thinking about the relations between language and the other related faculties	542
 Language, mental categories and perception	544
 Influences of categorisation on perceptual discrimination - Goldstone (1994)	544
 Categorical perception and verbal labelling	547
 Categorical perception, colour perception and colour naming	549
 The Whorf hypothesis vs. the Roschian hypothesis	549
 The early work of Heider/Rosch	550
 More recent work by Roberson and colleagues	551
Concluding comments	553
Chapter summary	554
Answers to pinpoint questions	556
Chapter 15	Reasoning	557
Learning objectives	557
Chapter contents	557
A day at the races	558
Reflective questions	558
Introduction and preliminary considerations	559
The dual system account of reasoning	559
 The associative system	559
 The rule-based system	559
 Distinguishing between the two systems	560
 Linda-the-bank-teller problem	560
 The conjunction fallacy and representativeness	561
Reasoning by heuristics and biases	562
 The representative heuristic	563
 The availability heuristic	563
 Base rate neglect	564
 Research focus 15.1: You are either with us or against us: the heuristics of terror	566
The medical diagnosis problem	567
Heuristics and biases and the competence/performance distinction	570
 The standard picture	570
 Why people are not Bayesian reasoners	570
Natural frequencies vs. conditional probabilities	572
The two systems of reasoning revisited	574
Reasoning in evolutionary terms	575
 Evolution and the dual systems	575
 Evolution and reasoning the fast and frugal way	576
 Human reasoning as a process of satisficing	576
 Research focus 15.2: When enough is enough: satisficing, maximising and the way you feel	577
Evolution and the modularity of mind	579
Deductive and inductive inference	580
 Deductive inference	580
 Inductive inference	580
The Wason selection task	581
 Social contract theory	583
 Feeling obliged? Deontic and indicative conditionals	585
 The selection task and attempts to eliminate system 2	585
 Appraising the information gain account	587
Deductive reasoning and syllogisms	589
 Some definitions and useful terminology	589
Psychological aspects of syllogistic reasoning	591
 The figural effect and mental models	592
 Research focus 15.3: Looking at the evidence: eye movements and syllogistic reasoning	595
 Mental models and mental imagery	596
Concluding comments	597
Chapter summary	598
Answers to pinpoint questions	599
Chapter 16	Cognition and emotion	600
Learning objectives	600
Chapter contents	600
Master of your mood?	601
Reflective questions	601
Introduction and preliminary considerations	601
Towards a cognitive theory of emotions	603
 The 'five' basic emotions	604
 Emotional vs. non-emotional modes of the cognitive system	604
 Research focus 16.1: If you're happy and you know it, press a key: cultural differences in recognising basic emotions	605
Conscious versus unconscious processing	607
 Automatic vs. controlled processes	608
 Searching for emotionally charged stimuli	609
 The face-in-the-crowd effect	609
 Further work on the face-in-the-crowd effect	613
 Appraisal of the work on facial expression detection	617
 Other attentional tasks and facial expression processing	617
 Research focus 16.2: Going for gold? What your face looks like when you come second	618
 The flanker task and emotional faces	619
Eye gaze, facial expression and the direction of attention	621
 The basic spatial cueing task	621
 Explaining spatial cueing	624
 Covert vs. overt shifts of attention	624
 Experimental work on following eye gaze	625
 Further experiments on the potency of eye gaze	626
Detecting threatening objects	629
 Further evidence for the animal advantage	630
 Research focus 16.3: Freeze! Coming face to face with threat	631
Other indications of the influence of emotion on cognition	632
 Mood induction in 'normal, healthy adults'	632
 Mood induction and ethical considerations	633
 'Mood' induction and 'mood'	633
Mood and judgement	635
 Depressive realism	635
 Further work on depressive realism	636
Concluding comments	637
Chapter summary	638
Answers to pinpoint questions	640
Bibliography	641
Glossary	665
Index	681

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Cognitive psychology.