Table of contents for Animal physiology / Richard W. Hill, Gordon A. Wyse, Margaret Anderson.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Part I	Fundamentals of Physiology
Chapter 1	Animals and Environments: Function on the Ecological Stage
The Importance of Physiology
Mechanism and Origin: Physiology?s Two Central Questions
This Book?s Approach to Physiology
Animals
Environments
Evolutionary Processes
Chapter 2	Molecules and Cells in Animal Physiology
Cell Membranes and Intracellular Membranes
Epithelia
Elements of Metabolism
Enzyme Fundamentals
Regulation of Cell Function by Enzymes
Evolution of Enzymes
Enzymes Are Instruments of Change in All Time Frames
The Life and Death of Proteins
Cell Signaling: Signal Reception and Cell Signal Transduction
Chapter 3	Genomics, Proteomics, and Related Approaches to Physiology
Genomics
Top-down versus Bottom-up Approaches to the Study of Physiology
Screening or Profiling as a Research Strategy
The Study of Gene Expression: Transcriptomics
Proteomics
Metabolomics
Chapter 4	Transport of Solutes and Water
Passive Solute Transport by Simple Diffusion
Passive Solute Transport by Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Modulation of Channels and Transporters
Osmotic Pressure and Other Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions
Osmosis
Looking Forward
Part II	Food, Energy, and Temperature
Chapter 5	Nutrition, Feeding, and Digestion
Nutrition
Feeding
Digestion and Absorption
Responses to Eating
Nutritional Physiology in Additional Time Frames; Interactions between Nutritional 
Physiology and Environment
Chapter 6	Energy Metabolism
Why Animals Need Energy: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Fundamentals of Animal Energetics
Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement
Factors That Affect Metabolic Rates
Basal Metabolic Rate and Standard Metabolic Rate
The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size
Energetics of Food and Growth
Conclusion: Energy as the Common Currency of Life
POSTSCRIPT: The Energy Cost of Mental Effort
Chapter 7	Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism
Mechanisms of ATP Production and Their Implications
Comparative Properties of Mechanisms of ATP Production
Two Themes in Exercise Physiology: Fatigue and Muscle Fiber Types
The Interplay of Aerobic and Anaerobic Catabolism during Exercise
Responses to Impaired O2 Influx from the Environment
Chapter 8	The Energetics of Aerobic Activity
How Active Animals Are Studied
The Energy Costs of Defined Exercise
The most advantageous speed depends on the function of exercise
The minimal cost of transport depends in regular ways on mode of locomotion and body 
size
The Maximal Rate of Oxygen Consumption
 ?VO2max differs among phyletic groups and often from species to species within a 
phyletic group
The Energetics of Routine and Extreme Daily Life
Ecological Energetics
Chapter 9	Thermal Relations
Temperature and Heat
Heat Transfer between Animals and Their Environments
Poikilothermy (Ectothermy)
Homeothermy in Mammals and Birds
Warm-Bodied Fish
Endothermy and Homeothermy in Insects
Chapter 10	Food, Energy, and Temperature at Work: The Lives of Mammals in 
Frigid Places
Food, Nutrition, Energy Metabolism, and Thermoregulation in the Lives of Adult 
Reindeer
Newborn Reindeer
Lifetime Patterns of Thermoregulation and Thermogenesis in Small Mammals
The Effect of Body Size on Mammals? Lives in Cold Environments
Hibernation as a Winter Strategy: New Directions and Discoveries
Part III	Integrating Systems
Chapter 11	Neurons
The Physiology of Control: Neurons and Endocrine Cells Compared
Neurons are organized into functional circuits in nervous systems
The Cellular Organization of Neural Tissue
The Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials
The Action Potential
Propagation of Action Potentials
Chapter 12	Synapses
Synaptic Transmission Is Usually Chemical but Can Be Electrical
Synaptic Potentials Control Neuronal Excitability
Fast Chemical Synaptic Actions Depend on Increases in Permeability to Ions
Presynaptic Neurons Release Neurotransmitter Molecules in Quantal Packets
Neurotransmitters Are of Two General Kinds
Postsynaptic Receptors for Fast Ionotropic Actions: Ligand-Gated Channels
Postsynaptic Receptors for Slow, Metabotropic Actions: G Protein?Coupled Receptors
Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses Change Properties with Time and Activity
Chapter 13	Sensory Processes
Organization of Sensory Systems
Mechanoreception and touch
Vestibular Organs and Hearing
Chemoreception and Taste
Olfaction
Photoreception
Visual Sensory Processing
Chapter 14	Nervous System Organization and Biological Clocks
The Organization and Evolution of Nervous Systems
The Vertebrate Nervous System: A Guide to the General Organizational Features of 
Nervous Systems
Biological Clocks
Chapter 15	Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology
Introduction to Endocrine Principles
Synthesis, Storage, and Release of Hormones
Types of Endocrine Glands and Cells
Control of Endocrine Systems: The Vertebrate Pituitary Gland
The Mammalian Stress Response
Endocrine Control of Nutrient Metabolism in Mammals
Endocrine Control of Salt and Water Balance in Vertebrates
Hormones and Other Chemical Signals
Insect Metamorphosis
Chapter 16	Reproduction
What Aspects of Reproduction Do Physiologists Study?
Reproduce Once or More Than Once??Semelparity versus Iteroparity
Eggs, Provisioning, and Parental Care
External or Internal Fertilization?
The Environment as a Player in Reproduction
The Timing of Reproductive Cycles
Sex Change
Reproductive Endocrinology of Placental Mammals
Chapter 17	Integrating Systems at Work: Animal Navigation
The Adaptive Significance of Animal Navigation
Navigational Strategies
Innate and Learned Components of Navigation
Part IV	Movement and Muscle
Chapter 18	Control of Movement: The Motor Bases of Animal Behavior
Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle is the Basis of Animal Behavior
Neural Generation of Rhythmic Behavior
Control and Coordination of Vertebrate Movement
Chapter 19	Muscle
Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle Cells
Excitation?Contraction Coupling
Whole Skeletal Muscles
Muscle Energetics
Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle
Vertebrate Smooth Muscle
Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle
Chapter 20	Movement and Muscle at Work: Muscle in Human Health and Disease
Muscle phenotypes
Atrophy
Regulating muscle mass
Summary
Part V	Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport
Chapter 21	Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Physiology
The Properties of Gases in Gas Mixtures and Aqueous Solutions
Diffusion of Gases
Convective Transport of Gases: Bulk Flow
The Oxygen Cascade
Expressing the Amounts and Partial Pressures of Gases in Other Units
The Contrasting Physical Properties of Air and Water
Respiratory Environments
Chapter 22	External Respiration: The Physiology of Breathing
Fundamental Concepts of External Respiration
Principles of Gas Exchange by Active Ventilation
Introduction to Vertebrate Breathing
Breathing by Fish
Breathing by Amphibians
Breathing by Nonavian Reptiles
Breathing by Mammals
Breathing by Birds
Breathing by Aquatic Invertebrates and Allied Groups
Breathing by Insects and Other Tracheate Arthropods
Chapter 23	Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Body Fluids
The Chemical Properties and Distributions of the Respiratory Pigments
The O2-Binding Characteristics of Respiratory Pigments
The Functions of Respiratory Pigments in Animals
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Acid?Base Physiology
Chapter 24	Circulation
Hearts
Principles of Pressure, Resistance, and Flow in Vascular Systems
Circulation in Mammals and Birds
Circulation in Fish
Circulation in Amphibians and Nonavian Reptiles
Concluding Comments on Vertebrates
Invertebrates with Closed Circulatory Systems
Invertebrates with Open Circulatory Systems
Chapter 25	Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport at Work: Diving by 
Marine Animals
Diving Feats and Behavior
Types of Dives and the Importance of Method
Physiology: The Big Picture
The Oxygen Stores of Divers
Circulatory Adjustments during Dives
Metabolism during Dives
The Aerobic Dive Limit: Physiology?s Benchmark for Understanding Diving Behavior
Decompression Sickness
A Possible Advantage for Pulmonary O2 Sequestration in Deep Dives
Part VI	Water, Salts, and Excretion
Chapter 26	Water and Salt Physiology: Introduction and Mechanisms
The Importance of Animal Body Fluids
The Relations among Body Fluids
Types of Regulation and Conformity
Natural Aquatic Environments
Natural Terrestrial Environments
Organs of Blood Regulation
Food and Drinking Water
Metabolic Water
Cell Volume Regulation
From Osmolytes to Compatible Solutes: Terms and Concepts
Chapter 27	Water and Salt Physiology of Animals in Their Environments
Animals in Freshwater
Animals in the Ocean
Animals that Face Changes in Salinity
Responses to Drying of the Habitat in Aquatic Animals
Animals on Land: Fundamental Physiological Principles
Animals on Land: Case Studies
Control of Water and Salt Balance in Terrestrial Animals
Chapter 28	Kidneys and Excretion
Basic Mechanisms of Kidney Function
Urine Formation in Amphibians
Urine Formation in Mammals
Urine Formation in Other Vertebrates
Urine Formation in Decapod Crustaceans
Urine Formation in Molluscs
Urine Formation in Insects
Nitrogen Disposition and Excretion
Chapter 29	Water, Salts, and Excretion at Work: Mammals of Deserts and Dry 
Savannas
Desert and Dry-Savanna Environments
The Relations of Animals to Water
The Dramatic Adaptations of Particular Species

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Physiology, Comparative.