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Part I Fundamentals of Physiology Chapter 1 Animals and Environments: Function on the Ecological Stage The Importance of Physiology Mechanism and Origin: Physiology?s Two Central Questions This Book?s Approach to Physiology Animals Environments Evolutionary Processes Chapter 2 Molecules and Cells in Animal Physiology Cell Membranes and Intracellular Membranes Epithelia Elements of Metabolism Enzyme Fundamentals Regulation of Cell Function by Enzymes Evolution of Enzymes Enzymes Are Instruments of Change in All Time Frames The Life and Death of Proteins Cell Signaling: Signal Reception and Cell Signal Transduction Chapter 3 Genomics, Proteomics, and Related Approaches to Physiology Genomics Top-down versus Bottom-up Approaches to the Study of Physiology Screening or Profiling as a Research Strategy The Study of Gene Expression: Transcriptomics Proteomics Metabolomics Chapter 4 Transport of Solutes and Water Passive Solute Transport by Simple Diffusion Passive Solute Transport by Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport Modulation of Channels and Transporters Osmotic Pressure and Other Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions Osmosis Looking Forward Part II Food, Energy, and Temperature Chapter 5 Nutrition, Feeding, and Digestion Nutrition Feeding Digestion and Absorption Responses to Eating Nutritional Physiology in Additional Time Frames; Interactions between Nutritional Physiology and Environment Chapter 6 Energy Metabolism Why Animals Need Energy: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Fundamentals of Animal Energetics Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement Factors That Affect Metabolic Rates Basal Metabolic Rate and Standard Metabolic Rate The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size Energetics of Food and Growth Conclusion: Energy as the Common Currency of Life POSTSCRIPT: The Energy Cost of Mental Effort Chapter 7 Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism Mechanisms of ATP Production and Their Implications Comparative Properties of Mechanisms of ATP Production Two Themes in Exercise Physiology: Fatigue and Muscle Fiber Types The Interplay of Aerobic and Anaerobic Catabolism during Exercise Responses to Impaired O2 Influx from the Environment Chapter 8 The Energetics of Aerobic Activity How Active Animals Are Studied The Energy Costs of Defined Exercise The most advantageous speed depends on the function of exercise The minimal cost of transport depends in regular ways on mode of locomotion and body size The Maximal Rate of Oxygen Consumption ?VO2max differs among phyletic groups and often from species to species within a phyletic group The Energetics of Routine and Extreme Daily Life Ecological Energetics Chapter 9 Thermal Relations Temperature and Heat Heat Transfer between Animals and Their Environments Poikilothermy (Ectothermy) Homeothermy in Mammals and Birds Warm-Bodied Fish Endothermy and Homeothermy in Insects Chapter 10 Food, Energy, and Temperature at Work: The Lives of Mammals in Frigid Places Food, Nutrition, Energy Metabolism, and Thermoregulation in the Lives of Adult Reindeer Newborn Reindeer Lifetime Patterns of Thermoregulation and Thermogenesis in Small Mammals The Effect of Body Size on Mammals? Lives in Cold Environments Hibernation as a Winter Strategy: New Directions and Discoveries Part III Integrating Systems Chapter 11 Neurons The Physiology of Control: Neurons and Endocrine Cells Compared Neurons are organized into functional circuits in nervous systems The Cellular Organization of Neural Tissue The Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials The Action Potential Propagation of Action Potentials Chapter 12 Synapses Synaptic Transmission Is Usually Chemical but Can Be Electrical Synaptic Potentials Control Neuronal Excitability Fast Chemical Synaptic Actions Depend on Increases in Permeability to Ions Presynaptic Neurons Release Neurotransmitter Molecules in Quantal Packets Neurotransmitters Are of Two General Kinds Postsynaptic Receptors for Fast Ionotropic Actions: Ligand-Gated Channels Postsynaptic Receptors for Slow, Metabotropic Actions: G Protein?Coupled Receptors Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses Change Properties with Time and Activity Chapter 13 Sensory Processes Organization of Sensory Systems Mechanoreception and touch Vestibular Organs and Hearing Chemoreception and Taste Olfaction Photoreception Visual Sensory Processing Chapter 14 Nervous System Organization and Biological Clocks The Organization and Evolution of Nervous Systems The Vertebrate Nervous System: A Guide to the General Organizational Features of Nervous Systems Biological Clocks Chapter 15 Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology Introduction to Endocrine Principles Synthesis, Storage, and Release of Hormones Types of Endocrine Glands and Cells Control of Endocrine Systems: The Vertebrate Pituitary Gland The Mammalian Stress Response Endocrine Control of Nutrient Metabolism in Mammals Endocrine Control of Salt and Water Balance in Vertebrates Hormones and Other Chemical Signals Insect Metamorphosis Chapter 16 Reproduction What Aspects of Reproduction Do Physiologists Study? Reproduce Once or More Than Once??Semelparity versus Iteroparity Eggs, Provisioning, and Parental Care External or Internal Fertilization? The Environment as a Player in Reproduction The Timing of Reproductive Cycles Sex Change Reproductive Endocrinology of Placental Mammals Chapter 17 Integrating Systems at Work: Animal Navigation The Adaptive Significance of Animal Navigation Navigational Strategies Innate and Learned Components of Navigation Part IV Movement and Muscle Chapter 18 Control of Movement: The Motor Bases of Animal Behavior Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle is the Basis of Animal Behavior Neural Generation of Rhythmic Behavior Control and Coordination of Vertebrate Movement Chapter 19 Muscle Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle Cells Excitation?Contraction Coupling Whole Skeletal Muscles Muscle Energetics Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle Vertebrate Smooth Muscle Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle Chapter 20 Movement and Muscle at Work: Muscle in Human Health and Disease Muscle phenotypes Atrophy Regulating muscle mass Summary Part V Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport Chapter 21 Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Physiology The Properties of Gases in Gas Mixtures and Aqueous Solutions Diffusion of Gases Convective Transport of Gases: Bulk Flow The Oxygen Cascade Expressing the Amounts and Partial Pressures of Gases in Other Units The Contrasting Physical Properties of Air and Water Respiratory Environments Chapter 22 External Respiration: The Physiology of Breathing Fundamental Concepts of External Respiration Principles of Gas Exchange by Active Ventilation Introduction to Vertebrate Breathing Breathing by Fish Breathing by Amphibians Breathing by Nonavian Reptiles Breathing by Mammals Breathing by Birds Breathing by Aquatic Invertebrates and Allied Groups Breathing by Insects and Other Tracheate Arthropods Chapter 23 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Body Fluids The Chemical Properties and Distributions of the Respiratory Pigments The O2-Binding Characteristics of Respiratory Pigments The Functions of Respiratory Pigments in Animals Carbon Dioxide Transport Acid?Base Physiology Chapter 24 Circulation Hearts Principles of Pressure, Resistance, and Flow in Vascular Systems Circulation in Mammals and Birds Circulation in Fish Circulation in Amphibians and Nonavian Reptiles Concluding Comments on Vertebrates Invertebrates with Closed Circulatory Systems Invertebrates with Open Circulatory Systems Chapter 25 Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport at Work: Diving by Marine Animals Diving Feats and Behavior Types of Dives and the Importance of Method Physiology: The Big Picture The Oxygen Stores of Divers Circulatory Adjustments during Dives Metabolism during Dives The Aerobic Dive Limit: Physiology?s Benchmark for Understanding Diving Behavior Decompression Sickness A Possible Advantage for Pulmonary O2 Sequestration in Deep Dives Part VI Water, Salts, and Excretion Chapter 26 Water and Salt Physiology: Introduction and Mechanisms The Importance of Animal Body Fluids The Relations among Body Fluids Types of Regulation and Conformity Natural Aquatic Environments Natural Terrestrial Environments Organs of Blood Regulation Food and Drinking Water Metabolic Water Cell Volume Regulation From Osmolytes to Compatible Solutes: Terms and Concepts Chapter 27 Water and Salt Physiology of Animals in Their Environments Animals in Freshwater Animals in the Ocean Animals that Face Changes in Salinity Responses to Drying of the Habitat in Aquatic Animals Animals on Land: Fundamental Physiological Principles Animals on Land: Case Studies Control of Water and Salt Balance in Terrestrial Animals Chapter 28 Kidneys and Excretion Basic Mechanisms of Kidney Function Urine Formation in Amphibians Urine Formation in Mammals Urine Formation in Other Vertebrates Urine Formation in Decapod Crustaceans Urine Formation in Molluscs Urine Formation in Insects Nitrogen Disposition and Excretion Chapter 29 Water, Salts, and Excretion at Work: Mammals of Deserts and Dry Savannas Desert and Dry-Savanna Environments The Relations of Animals to Water The Dramatic Adaptations of Particular Species
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