Table of contents for Sampling of populations : methods and applications / Paul S. Levy, Stanley Lemeshow.

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vii
Contents
Tables xv
Boxes xix
Getting Files from the Wiley ftp and Internet Sites xxi
Preface to the Fourth edition xxv
PART 1 BASIC CONCEPTS
1. Uses of Sample Surveys 1
1.1 Why Sample Surveys are Used, 1
1.2 Designing Sample Surveys, 3
1.2.1 Sample Design, 3
1.2.2 Survey Measurements, 4
1.2.3 Survey Operations, 4
1.2.4 Statistical Analysis and Report Writing, 5
1.3 Preliminary Planning of a Sample Survey, 5
Exercises, 6
Bibliography, 7
2. The Population and the Sample 9
2.1 The Population, 9
2.1.1 Elementary Units, 11
2.1.2 Population Parameters, 11
2.2 The Sample, 16
2.2.1 Probability and Nonprobability Sampling. 16
2.2.2 Sampling Frames, Sampling Units, and Enumeration Units, 17
2.3 Sample Measurements and Summary Statistics, 18
2.2.4 Estimation of Population Characteristics, 20
2.3 Sampling Distributions, 23
2.4 Characteristics of Estimates of Population Parameters, 28
2.4.1 Bias, 29
2.4.2 Mean Square Error, 30
2.4.3 Validity, Reliability, and Accuracy, 33
2.5 Criteria for a Good Sample Design, 34
2.6 Summary, 35
Exercises, 35
Bibliography, 40
PART 2 MAJOR SAMPLING DESIGNS AND ESTIMATION
PROCEDURES
3. Simple Random Sampling 41
3.1 What is a Simple Random Sample?, 41
3.1.1 How to Take a Simple Random Sample, 42
3.1.2 Probability of an Element Being Selected, 43
3.2 Estimation of Population Characteristics Under Simple Random
Sampling, 45
3.2.1 Estimation Formulas, 45
3.2.2 Numerical Computation of Estimates and Their Standard
Errors, 46
3.3 Sampling Distributions of Estimated Population Characteristics, 51
3.4 Coefficients of Variation of Estimated PopulationParameters, 54
3.5 Reliability of Estimates, 57
3.6 Estimation of Parameters for Subdomains, 60
3.7 How Large a Sample Do We Need?, 66
3.8 Why Simple Random Sampling Is Rarely Used, 71
3.9 Summary, 72
Exercises, 72
Bibliography, 75
4. Systematic Sampling 77
4.1 How To Take a Systematic Sample, 77
4.2 Estimation of Population Characteristics, 78
4.3 Sampling Distribution of Estimates, 80
4.4 Variance of Estimates, 84
4.5 A Modification That Always Yields Unbiased Estimates, 92
4.6 Estimation of Variances, 94
4.7 Repeated Systematic Sampling, 97
4.8 How Large a Sample Do We Need?, 105
4.9 Using Frames That Are Not Lists, 107
4.10 Summary, 108
CONTENTS ix
Exercises, 108
Bibliography, 114
5. Stratification and Stratified Random Sampling 115
5.1 What is a Stratified Random Sample?, 115
5.2 How to Take a Stratified Random Sample, 116
5.3 Why Stratified Sampling? 116
5.4 Population Parameters for Strata, 122
5.5 Sample Statistics for Strata, 127
5.6 Estimation of Population Parameters from Stratified Random
Sampling, 128
5.7 Summary, 133
Exercises, 133
Bibliography, 136
6. Stratified Random Sampling: Further Issues 137
6.1 Estimation of Population Parameters, 137
6.2 Sampling Distributions of Estimates, 138
6.3 Estimation of Standard Errors, 140
6.4 Estimation of Characteristics of Subgroups, 142
6.5 Allocation of Sample to Strata, 144
6.5.1 Equal Allocation, 145
6.5.2 Proportional Allocation: Self-weighting Samples, 145
6.5.3 Optimal Allocation, 152
6.5.4 Optimal Allocation and Economics, 154
6.6 Stratification After Sampling, 162
6.7 How Large a Sample is Needed?, 169
6.8.Construction of Stratum Boundaries and Desired" Number of
Strata, 173
6.9 Summary, 177
Exercises, 178
Bibliography, 182
7. Ratio Estimation 183
7.1 Ratio Estimation Under Simple Random Sampling, 184
7.2 Estimation of Ratios for Subdomains Under Simple Random
Sampling, 192
7.3 Poststratified Ratio Estimates Under Simple Random Sampling, 194
7.4 Ratio Estimation of Totals Under Simple Random Sampling, 198
7.5 Comparison of Ratio Estimate with Simple Inflation Estimate, 204
7.6 Approximation to the Standard Error of the Ratio Estimated Total,
205
7.7 Determination of Sample Size, 206
7.8 Regression Estimation of Totals, 207
7.9 Ratio Estimation in Stratified Random Sampling, 209
7.10 Summary, 212
Exercises, 212
Bibliography, 216
8. Cluster Sampling: Introduction and Overview 217
8.1 What is Cluster Sampling? 218
8.2 Why is Cluster Sampling Widely Used? 220
8.3 A Disadvantage of Cluster Sampling: High Standard Errors, 222
8.4 How Cluster Sampling is Treated in This Book, 223
8.5 Summary, 223
Exercises, 224
Bibliography, 224
9. Simple One-Stage Cluster Sampling 225
9.1 How to Take a Simple One-Stage Cluster Sample, 226
9.2 Estimation of Population Characteristics, 226
9.3 Sampling Distributions of Estimates, 244
9.4 How Large a Sample Is Needed? 248
9.5 Reliability of Estimates and Costs Involved, 250
9.6 Choosing a Sampling n Design Based on Cost and Reliability, 252
9.7 Summary, 257
Exercises, 257
Bibliography, 262
10. Two-Stage Cluster Sampling: Clusters Sampled with Equal
Probability 263
10.1 Situation in Which all Clusters Have the Same Number, NI, of
Enumeration Units, 264
10.1.1 How to Take a Simple Two-Stage Cluster Sample, 264
10.1.2 Estimation of Population Characteristics, 265
10.1.3 Estimation of Standard Errors, 267
10.1.4 Sampling Distribution of Estimates, 278
10.1.5 How Large a Sample is Needed? 283
10.1.6 Choosing the Optimal Cluster Size n Considering Costs, 286
10.1.7 Some Shortcut Formulas for Determining the Optimal
Number n , 289
10.2 Situation in Which All Clusters Do Not Have the Same Number
Ni of Enumeration Units, 294
10.2.1 How to Take a Simple Two-Stage Cluster Sample for this
Design, 294
10.2.2 Estimation of Population Characteristics, 295
10.2.3 Estimation of Standard Errors of Estimates, 295
10.2.4 Sampling Distributions of Estimates, 305
10.2.5 How Large a Sample Do We Need? 308
10.2.6 Choosing the Optimal Cluster Size n Considering Costs, 311
10.3 Systematic Sampling as Cluster Sampling, 313
10.4 Summary, 314
Exercises, 315
Bibliography, 324
11. Cluster Sampling in Which Clusters Are Sampled
with Unequal Probability: Probability Proportional to Size
Sampling 325
11.1 Motivation for Not Sampling Clusters with Equal Probability, 326
11.2 Two General Classes of Estimators Valid for Sample Designs in
Which Units Are Selected with Unequal Probability, 330
1 1.2.1 The Horvitz-Thompson Estimator, 330
1 1.2.2 The Hansen-Hurwitz Estimator, 331
11.3 Probability Proportional to Size Sampling, 334
11.3.1 Probability Proportional to Size Sampling with Replacement:
Use of the Hansen-Hurwitz Estimator, 336
11.3.2 PPS Sampling When the Measure of Size Variable is not the
Number of Enumeration Units, 344
11.3.3 How to Take a PPS Sample with Replacement, 347
11.3.4 Sequential Methods of PPS Sampling with Replacement-
Chromy?s Probability with Minimum Replacement (PMR)
Method, 347
11.3.5 How Large a Sample is Needed for a Two-Stage Sample in
Which Clusters Are Selected PPS with Replacement? 350
11.3.6 Telephone PPS Sampling: The Mitofsky-Waksberg Method
of Random Digit Dialing, 353
11.4 Further Comment on PPS Sampling, 355
11.5 Summary, 355
Exercises, 356
Bibliography, 358
12. Variance Estimation in Complex Sample Surveys 361
12.1 Linearization, 362
12.2 Replication Methods, 367
12.2.1 The Balanced Repeated Replication Method, 367
12.2.2 Jackknife Estimation, 375
12.2.3 Estimation of Interviewer Variability by Use of Replicated
Sampling (Interpenetrating Samples), 378
12.3 Summary, 380
Exercises, 381
Technical Appendix, 384
Bibliography, 386
PART 3 SELECTED TOPICS IN SAMPLE SURVEY
METHODOLOGY
13. Nonresponse and Missing Data in Sample Surveys 389
13.1 Effect of Nonresponse on Accuracy of Estimates, 389
13.2 Methods of Increasing the Response Rate in Sample Surveys, 391
13.2.1 Increasing the Number of Households Contacted
Successfully, 391
13.2.2 Increasing the Completion Rate in Mail Questionnaires, 392
13.2.3 Decreasing the Number of Refusals in Face-to-Face
Telephone Interviews, 392
13.2.4 Using Endorsements, 393
13.3 Mail Surveys Combined with Interviews of Nonrespondents, 394
13.3.1 Determination of Optimal Fraction of Initial Nonrespondents
to Subsample for lntensive Effort, 395
13.3.2 Determination of Sample Size Needed for aTwo-Stage Mail
Survey, 397
13.4 Other Uses of Double Sampling Methodology, 398
13.5 Item Nonresponse: Methods of Imputation, 400
13.5.1 Mechanisms by Which Missing Values Arise, 400
13.5.2 Some Methods for Analyzing Data in the Presence of Missing
Values, 403
13.5.3 Some Imputation Methods, 404
13.6 Multiple Imputation, 408
13.7 Summary, 411
Exercises, 411
Bibliography, 417
14. Selected Topics in Sample Design and Estimation
Methodology 419
14.1 World Health Organization EPI Surveys: A Modification of PPS
Sampling for Use in Developing Countries, 419
14.2 Quality Assurance Sampling, 421
14.3 Sample Sizes for Longitudinal Studies, 424
14.3.1 Simple Random Sampling, 425
14.3.2 Simple One-Stage Cluster Sampling, 426
14.3.3 Cluster Sampling with More Than One Domain, 427
14.4 Estimation of Prevalence of Diseases from Screening Studies, 428
14.5 Estimation of Rare Events: Network Sampling, 432
14.6 Estimation of Rare Events: Dual Samples, 436
14.7 Estimation of Characteristics for Local Areas: Synthetic
Estimation, 438
14.8 Extraction of Sensitive Information: Randomized Response
Techniques, 441
14.9 Summary, 443
Exercises, 443
Bibliography, 444
15. Telephone Survey Sampling 447
Michael W. Link and Mansour Fahimi
15.1 Introduction, 447
15.1.1 The Twentieth Century, 447
15.1.2 The Twenty-First Century, 448
15.2 History of Telephone Sampling in the United States, 448
15.2.1 Early Design of Telephone Surveys, 449
15.2.2 Random Digit Dialing, 449
15.2.3 Mitofsky-Waksberg Sampling Method, 450
15.2.4 List Assisted Random Digit Dialing Methods, 450
15.3 Within-Household Selection Techniques, 451
15.3.1 Probability-Based Methods, 452
15.3.2 Quasi-Probability Methods, 452
15.3.3 Non-Probability Methods, 452
15.3.4 Minimally Intrusive Method, 453
15.4 Steps in the Telephone Survey Process, 453
15.4.1 Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing, 454
15.4.2 Quality Control in Telephone Surveys, 455
15.5 Drawing and Managing a Telephone Survey, 455
15.5.1 Drawing the Sample, 455
15.5.2 Managing the Sample, 456
15.5.3 Developing an Analysis File, 457
15.5.4 Data Weighting and Adjusting, 458
15.6 Post-Survey Data Enhancement Procedures, 458
15.6.1 Data Weighting, 458
15.6.2 Steps in the Weighting Process, 458
15.6.3 Compensation for Exclusion of Nontelephone
Households, 466
15.7 Imputation of Missing Data, 468
15.8 Declining Coverage and Response Rates, 469
15.9 Addressing the Problems with Cell Phones, 470
15.9.1 Research on Cell Phone Surveys, 470
15.9.2 Sampling from the Cell Phone Frame, 471
15.10 Address-Based Sampling, 474
Exercises, 475
Bibliography, 475
16. Constructing the Sampling Weights 481
Paul P. Biemer and Sharon L. Christ
16.1 Introduction, 481
16.2 Objectives of Weighing, 484
16.2.1 Basic Concepts, 484
16.2.2 Weighting to Reduce Frame Bias, 486
16.2.3 Weighting to Recduce Nonresponse Bias, 487
16.2.4 Weighting to Reduce Sampling Variance, 488
16.3 Constructing the Sampling Weights, 490
16.3.1 Base Weights, 491
16.3.2 Nonresponse Adjustments, 493
16.3.3 Frame Coverage Adjustments, 497
16.3.4 Constructing the Final Weights, 502
16.4 Estimation and Analysis Issues, 503
16.4.1 Effect of Weighting on the Variance, 503
16.4.2 Using Weights in Analysis, 505
16.5 Summary, 506
Bibliography, 507
CONTENTS xv
17 Strategies for Design-Based Analysis of Sample Survey
Data 509
17.1 Steps Required for Performing a Design-Based Analysis, 510
17.2 Analysis Issues for ?Typical? Sample Surveys, 520
17.3 Summary, 527
Technical Appendix, 527
Bibliography, 528
Appendix 529
Answers to Selected Exercises 535
Index 563

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Population -- Statistical methods.
Sampling (Statistics).