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Contents Preface Chapter 1: The Global Setting of American Foreign Policy Why the International System Matters The International System: Structural Constraints Decentralization Self-help System A Stratified System The International System: Cold War Trends Diffusion of Power Issue Proliferation Actor Proliferation Regional Diversity The Contemporary International System: Domineering Features Globalization American Hegemony America and the World: Attitudes and Perceptions Summary and the Future Plan of the Text Chapter 2: The Foreign Policy Agenda: Past, Present & Future Foreign Policy Problems What do Americans Want in Foreign Policy Thinking About Foreign Policy Problems The National Interest Grand Strategy Presidential Foreign Policy Doctrines The Truman Doctrine The Nixon Doctrine The Clinton Doctrine The Reagan Doctrine The Bush Doctrine Foreign Policy Doctrines Evaluated Terrorism as a Foreign Policy Problem Terrorism Combating Terrorism Strategy Summary and the Future Chapter 3: The American National Style Isolationism versus Internationalism Sources of the American National Style Patterns Unilateralism Moral Pragmatism Legalism Consequences of the American National Style A Revival of Wilsonianism? Other Voices from the Past Summary and the Future Chapter 4: Learning From the Past How Do Policy Makers Learn From the Past? Events Policy Makers Learn From Types of Calculations Made about Those Events Lessons Learned Learning from the Past: Case Studies The Cold War Vietnam Iraq Summary and the Future Chapter 5: The Domestic Context of American Foreign Policy The Media and American Foreign Policy The Media, Public Opinion, and War The New Media and American Foreign Policy Public Opinion Trends and Content Public Opinion and the Use of Force Impact Elections Voter Knowledge and Issue Voting Party and Candidate Differences Impact Interest Groups Types of Groups Impact Political Protest Policy Maker Response An Example: the Public use of Intelligence and the Iraq War Summary and Future Issues Chapter 6: The Constitution and Foreign Affairs Treaty Making Powers Senatorial Advice and Consent Executive Agreements The Role of the House in the Panama Canal Treaties Appointment Powers War Powers War Powers Resolution Civil Liberties Commerce Powers Federalism and the States Summary and Future Issues Chapter 7: The Presidency When Does the President Matter? Presidential Personality Presidential Managerial Style Presidential Bureaucracy The National Security Council The War Czar Other White House Voices The Vice President The White House Chief of Staff Presidential Decision Making Presidential Transitions Summary and Future Issues Chapter 8: Congress and Foreign Policy Congressional Structure and Foreign Policy Blunt Foreign Policy Tools Decentralization Policy Entrepreneurship Staff Aides The Influence of Party and Region Outsourcing Foreign Policy Congress and the President Constant Features Changing Relationships Summary and Future Issues Chapter 9: The Foreign Affairs Bureaucracy The State Department Structure and Growth The State Department's Value System Foreign Policy Impact The Defense Department Structure and Growth The Defense Department's Value System Foreign Policy Impact The CIA and the Intelligence Community Structure and Growth The Intelligence Community's Value System Foreign Policy Impact The Domestic Bureaucracies Treasury, Commerce and Agriculture Homeland Security Policy Maker's Response Summary and Future Issues Chapter 10: Models of Policy Making: Overview The Rational Actor Model The Bureaucratic Politics Model The Small Group Decision Making Model Elite Theory and Pluralism Summary: Integrating Models and Additional Possibilities Chapter 11: Decision Making: Case Studies The Cuban Missile Crisis Overview Three Views of the Cuban Missile Crisis Pre 9/11 Intelligence Policy on Terrorism The Intelligence Cycle Intelligence and Terrorism Prior to 9/11 Three Views of an Intelligence Failure Negotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) The Bargaining Phase The Ratification Phase Summary Chapter 12: Diplomacy Selecting a Policy Instrument Bilateral Diplomacy Incentives versus Sanctions Bilateralism versus Multilateralism Summit Diplomacy East-West Superpower Summits Economic Summits Conference Diplomacy GATT and WTO Environmental Conferences UN Diplomacy Public Diplomacy The Political Use of Force Post Cold War Coercive Diplomacy Nuclear Diplomacy Arms Transfers Summary and the Future Chapter 13: Covert Action Techniques of Covert Action Post Cold War Covert Action The Covert Action Against Osama bin Laden Renditions Controlling Covert Action Era of Trust Era of Skepticism Era of Uneasy Partnership Congress as Impatient Overseer Summary and the Future Chapter 14: The Economic Instruments Strategic Outlook Trade Strategies Monetary Strategies Economic Sanctions Inventory of Options Case Studies Rules of Economic Conflict Smart Sanctions Foreign Aid Types of Foreign Aid Cold War Foreign Aid Post Cold-War Foreign Aid 9/11 Foreign Aid Summary and the Future Chapter 15: Military Power Development of the U.S. and Soviet Nuclear Arsenals What Does It All Mean? A Historical Survey of U.S. Nuclear Strategy Post Cold War Nuclear Strategy The U.S. Strategic Nuclear Arsenal U.S. Nuclear Strategy Bridging the Nuclear-Conventional Divide Deterrence Preemption Asymmetric Conflicts Strategies for the Use of Conventional Military Force War Fighting Humanitarian/Peacekeeping Operations Terrorism/Counterinsurgency Conflicts Summary and the Future Chapter 16: Arms Control and Missile Defense Judging Success and Failure Superpower Arms Control and Disarmament 1946 to 1957 1958 to 1972 1973 to 1988 1989 to 2001 2001 to Present Defense The Strategic Defense Initiative Missile Defense Systems Counterproliferation The Post-Cold War Agenda Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation of Conventional Weapons Combining Approaches Summary and the Future Chapter 17: Alternative Futures Choices Alternative Futures The United States as an Ordinary State Reformed America The United States as Global Manager Pragmatic America Neocontainment Triumphant America American Crusader America the Balancer Disengaged America The Future
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
United States -- Foreign relations.
United States -- Foreign relations -- 1945-1989.
United States -- Foreign relations -- 1989-.
United States -- Foreign relations administration.