Table of contents for African Americans in Congress : a documentary history / Eric Freedman, Stephen A. Jones.

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@TOCT:Contents
@TEXTNO: Preface	000
@CT:1. The Revolutionary War to Dred Scott: Antecedents of Political Empowerment, 17761857	1
@TEXTNODocuments
1.1	Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776		4
1.2.	Petition for Voting Rights from Seven African American Men, Dartmouth, Massachusetts, March 1780		8
1.3	Northwest Ordinance, July 13, 1787		10
1.4	Constitution of the United States, September 17, 1787		13
1.5	A Petition of 10 Free Blacks to the United States House of Representatives, as Presented to Congress on January 30, 1797		15
1.6	Conference Committee Report on the Missouri Compromise, March 6, 1820		18
1.7	Excerpt from Pamphlet by Maria W. Stewart, published in Boston, October 1831		20
1.8	William Hamilton Addresses the Fourth Annual National Negro Convention, New York, June 2, 1834		23
1.9	Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens, Threatened with Disfranchisement, to the People of Pennsylvania, 1838		26
1.10	Charles L. Remond Decries Segregation before a Committee of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1842		30
1.11a	Henry Clay¿s Resolution, January 29, 1850		33
1.11b	Fugitive Slave Act, September 18, 1850		33
1.12	Frederick Douglass Outlines His Political Philosophy for the Rochester Ladies Anti-Slavery Society, Rochester, New York, July 5, 1852		36
1.13	An Act to Organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas, May 30, 1854		39
1.14	Judgment in the U.S. Supreme Court Case Dred Scott v. John F.A. Sanford, March 6, 1857		42
@TEXTNO:Notes		46
@CT:2.	The Civil War: The Slavery Debate Erupts, 18601865		47
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
2.1	Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, Adopted December 24, 1860		50
2.2	Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America, March 11, 1861		54
2.3a	Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, September 22, 1862		58
2.3b	Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863		58
2.4	Correspondence about the Union Naval Service of Robert Smalls, May 1862 and January 1883		62
2.5	Petition of the Colored Citizens of Queens County, New York, September 1862		65
2.6	Letters about the New York City Draft Riots from Eyewitness Edward Markoe Wright to His Mother, July 1863		67
2.7	Army Appropriations Bill Mandating Equal Treatment of African American Soldiers in the Union Army, June 15, 1864	70
2.8	Thirteenth Amendment, Passed by Congress January 31, 1865, Ratified December 6, 1865		72
2.9	Confederate Authorization to Enlist Slaves, as Promulgated by the Confederate Adjutant and Inspector General¿s Office, March 23, 1865		73
2.10	Freedmen¿s Bureau Act, March 3, 1865		75
@TEXTNO:Notes		77
@CT:3.	Reconstruction: Increasing Rights and Political Empowerment for African Americans, 18681883		80
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
3.1	Articles of Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson, Presented to the Senate by Rep. John A. Bingham, R-Ohio, March 4, 1868		84
3.2	Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, Proposed to the States by Congress June 16, 1866, Ratified July 9, 1868		88
3.3	Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, Passed by Congress February 26, 1869, Ratified February 3, 1870		90
3.4	Senate Debate on the Seating of Hiram R. Revels of Mississippi, February 2325, 1870		91
3.5	Sen. Hiram R. Revels, R-Miss., Speaks in Support of School Desegregation in Washington, D.C., February 8, 1871		95
3.6	Rep. Robert C. De Large, R-S.C., Supports the Ku Klux Klan Act, April 6, 1871		98
3.7	Rep. Robert B. Elliott, R-S.C., Opposes Legislation Offering Amnesty to Former Confederates, March 14, 1871		101
3.8	P.B.S. Pinchback Argues for a Seat, June 8, 1874		104
3.9	Rep. John R. Lynch, R-Miss., Speaks in Support of the Civil Rights Bill, February 3, 1875		107
3.10	Mississippi in 1875, Report of the Senate Select Committee to Inquire into the Mississippi Election of 1875, August 7, 1876		111
3.11	Senate Select Committee Report on Freedman¿s Savings and Trust Company, April 2, 1880		114
3.12	U.S. Supreme Court Decision in the Civil Rights Cases, October 15, 1883		118
@TEXTNO:Notes		121
@CT:4.	After Reconstruction: Political Disenfranchisement and Banishment, 18801904		123
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
4.1	Benjamin Singleton Testifies before the Senate Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States, April 17, 1880		126
4.2	The Ku-Klux Cases, Ex parte Yarbrough, March 3, 1884		130
4.3	Rep. James E. O¿Hara, R-N.C., Speaks against a Bill to Regulate the Oleomargarine Industry, June 2, 1886		133
4.4	Excerpts from House Debate on the Federal Elections Bill, July 1890		135
4.5	U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, May 18, 1896		139
4.6	Afro-American Sentinel Editorial on William Jennings Bryan and His Support of Rep. Henry P. Cheatham, R-N.C., August 29, 1896		142
4.7	Amended Constitution of Louisiana, 1898		144
4.8	The Democratic Hand Book, 1898, North Carolina		147
4.9	Newspaper Accounts Chronicling Lynching and Vigilantism, 18911904		151
4.10	Rep. George H. White, R-N.C., Delivers His Valedictory Speech on the Floor of the House of Representatives, January 29, 1901		155
4.11	A Republican Text-book for Colored Voters, 1901		158
4.12	George E. Taylor Accepts the National Liberty Party¿s Presidential Nomination, July 1904		162
@TEXTNO:Notes		165
@CT:5.	The Early Twentieth Century to the Civil Rights Movement: A Slow Return to Washington, 19131964		167
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
5.1	Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, Passed by Congress May 13, 1912, Ratified April 8, 1913		171
5.2	U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Nixon v. Herndon, March 7, 1927		172
5.3	Rep. Oscar S. De Priest Challenges Segregation of the Restaurant of the Capitol, March 21, 1934		174
5.4	Rep. Arthur W. Mitchell, D-Ill., Addresses Declining Support among Blacks for the Republican Party, June 1, 1936		176
5.5	Mary McLeod Bethune Reports to President Franklin D. Roosevelt on the Recommendations of the National Conference on the Problems of the Negro and Negro Youth, January 18, 1937		179
5.6	Executive Order 8802, Prohibition of Discrimination in the Defense Industry, June 25, 1941		184
5.7	¿Civil War II,¿ from Marching Blacks, by Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, D-N.Y., 1945		186
5.8	Executive Order 9981, Desegregation of the Armed Forces, July 26, 1948		189
5.9	U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Brown v. Board of Education, May 17, 1954		192
5.10	Rep. Charles C. Diggs Jr., D-Mich., Argues for Voter Rights Legislation, June 10, 1957		195
5.11	Civil Rights Act of 1964, July 2, 1964		199
@TEXTNO:Notes		203
@CT:6.	The Civil Rights Movement and Beyond: Equal Rights and Political Empowerment, 19651993		204
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
6.1	Voting Rights Act of 1965, August 6, 1965		207
6.2	Rep. Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., Describes the Founding of the Congressional Black Caucus in 1971		211
6.3	President Richard M. Nixon¿s Letter to Members of the Congressional Black Caucus, May 18, 1971		213
6.4	Rep. Ronald V. Dellums, D-Calif., Recalls the Fight for a Prized Committee in January 1973		215
6.5	Opening Statements of House Judiciary Committee Members John Conyers Jr., D-Mich., Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., and Barbara C. Jordan, D-Texas, on the Impeachment of President Richard M. Nixon, July 1974		218
6.6	Office of Management and Budget Analyzes Congressional Black Caucus Proposals, September 1974		222
6.7	Excerpts from the 1975 Congressional Black Caucus Legislative Agenda, March 5, 1975		226
6.8	President Jimmy Carter¿s Remarks at the Swearing-in of Rep. Andrew J. Young Jr., D-Ga., as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, January 30, 1977		230
6.9	Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act, October 27, 1978		232
6.10	Legislation Creating the Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday, November 2, 1983		236
6.11	Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986, October 2, 1986		237
6.12	Congressional Black Caucus Fiscal Year 1991 Alternative Budget, April 1990		242
@TEXTNO:Notes		246
@CT:7.	The Modern Era: The Congressional Black Caucus and the ¿Republican Revolution,¿ 19942007		248
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
7.1	Letter by House Committee Chairpersons Opposing the Appointment of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court, September 11, 1991		252
7.2	Republican Contract with America, September 27, 1994		254
7.3	Rep. Sanford D. Bishop Jr., D-Ga., Supports the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, July 31, 1996		257
7.4	Rep. J.C. Watts Jr., R-Okla., Delivers the GOP Reply to President Bill Clinton¿s State of the Union Address, February 4, 1997		259
7.5	Minority Report of the House Committee on the Judiciary on the Impeachment of President Bill Clinton, December 16, 1998		263
7.6	Black Caucus Members Challenge Florida Electoral College Votes in the 2000 Election, January 6, 2001		266
7.7	Rep. John Conyers, D-Mich., Attacks Challenge to Affirmative Action, April 1, 2003		270
7.8	Congressional Black Caucus Opposes the Nomination of John G. Roberts Jr., September 20, 2005		273
7.9	Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., on ¿Teaching Our Kids in a 21st Century Economy,¿ October 25, 2005		275
7.10	Renewal of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, July 27, 2006		278
@TEXTNO:Notes		281
@CT:8.	African Americans Run for Office: Campaigns and Elections		282
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
8.1	J. Willis Menard of Louisiana Defends His Claim to a Seat in Congress, February 27, 1869		285
8.2	Rep. John R. Lynch, R-Miss., Recollects His Election Campaigns of 18721882		288
8.3	James W. Ford Accepts the 1936 Communist Party Nomination for Vice President, June 1936		291
8.4	Edward W. Brooke III of Massachusetts on Republican Conservatism, 1966		293
8.5a	Campaign Flyer for Charles B. Rangel in New York¿s Nineteenth Congressional District, June 1972		296
8.5b	Campaign Flyer for Livingston L. Wingate in New York¿s Nineteenth Congressional District, June 1972		296
8.6	Harold Washington Delivers His First Inaugural Address as Mayor of Chicago, April 29, 1983		299
8.7	Republican Reps. Gary A. Franks of Connecticut and J. C. Watts Jr. of Oklahoma Describe Their First Campaigns in 1990 and 1994		302
8.8	Republican Alan Keyes and Democrat Barack Obama Debate the Issues in the Illinois Election for U.S. Senate, October 21, 2004		304
8.9	Political Endorsements for Democratic House Candidate Keith Ellison of Minnesota, 2006		308
8.10	Sen. Elizabeth H. Dole, R-N.C., and Sen. Charles E. Schumer, D-N.Y., Discuss the Ford and Steele Campaigns with Tim Russert on Meet the Press, November 5, 2006		310
@TEXTNO:Notes		313
@CT:9.	African Americans Face a Political Reality: Ethics and Corruption Investigations		315
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
9.1a	Editorial and Letter to the Editor Opposing Rep. William L. Dawson, D.-Ill., as Potential Postmaster General, Chicago Daily News, December 1960		318
9.1b	Letters to President-elect John F. Kennedy, Opposing Consideration of Rep. William L. Dawson as Possible Postmaster General, December 1960		318
9.2	House Resolution to Seat Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr., D-N.Y., January 3, 1969		322
9.3	Appeals Court Affirms the Corruption Conviction of Rep. Charles C. Diggs Jr., D-Mich., in U.S. v. Diggs, November 14, 1979		324
9.4	Articles of Impeachment against Judge Alcee L. Hastings, October 20, 1989		327
9.5	Resolution of House Committee on Official Standards Authorizing an Investigation of Rep. Gus Savage, D-Ill., August 3, 1989, and Savage¿s Letter of Apology, November 20, 1989		331
9.6	Judge¿s Decision Upholding Mistrial in Criminal Case against Rep. Harold E. Ford, D-Tenn., in U.S. vs. Ford, April 10, 1991		333
9.7	Federal Indictment of Rep. Mel Reynolds, D-Ill., in U.S. vs. Melvin J. Reynolds and Marisol C. Reynolds, November 7, 1996		334
9.8	Opening Appellate Brief of Former Rep. Walter R. Tucker III, D-Calif., in U.S. vs. Walter R. Tucker, May 13, 1997		337
9.9	Justice Department Press Release Announces Criminal Case against Del. Walter E. Fauntroy, D-D.C., March 22, 1995		340
9.10	Congressional Accountability Project Letter Accusing Rep. Barbara-Rose Collins, D-Mich., of Ethics Violations	, October 3, 1995	343
9.11a	Rep. Frank W. Ballance Jr.¿s Resignation Letter, June 8, 2004		347
9.11b	Statement of House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., on Rep. Balance¿s Resignation, June 8, 2004		347
9.12	U.S. Court of Appeals Decision on the Search of the Capitol Hill Office of Rep. William J. Jefferson, D-La., August 3, 2007		349
@TEXTNO:Notes		354
@CT:10. African American Women in Congress: A Long Road to Office		356
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
10.1	Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, Passed by Congress on June 4, 1919, Ratified August 18, 1920		359
10.2	Rep. Shirley A. Chisholm, D-N.Y., Speaks on the House Floor in Support of the Equal Rights Amendment, August 10, 1970		360
10.3	Letter to President Reagan from the Congressional Caucus on Women¿s Issues, September 28, 1982		363
10.4	Rep. Katie B. Hall, D-Ind., Leads Debate on Bill to Establish a National Holiday Honoring Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., August 2, 1983		365
10.5	Rep. Barbara C. Jordan, D-Texas, Reflects on President Lyndon B. Johnson¿s Great Society, April 1985		366
10.6	Sen. Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., Pleads the Case of Battered Women, March 30, 1990		369
10.7	Rep. Cardiss Collins, D-Ill., Urges the House to Approve the Child Safety Protection Act, May 23, 1994		371
10.8	Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee, D-Texas, Eulogizes Rep. Barbara Jordan, January 24, 1996		373
10.9	Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee, D-Texas, Argues against Impeaching President Bill Clinton, October 6, 1998		376
10.10	Rep. Maxine Waters, D-Calif., Attacks Republicans on Iraq War Policies in House Debate, June 14, 2006		379
10.11	Rep. Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, D-Mich., Pleads for Action on Darfur Crisis, September 20, 2006		381
10.12	Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, D-D.C., Introduces the D.C. House Voting Rights Bill of 2007, March 12, 2007		383
@TEXTNO:Notes		385
@CT:11. Black Lawmakers Fight Racism in America: Representatives of an Excluded People		386
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
11.1	Sen. Blanche K. Bruce, R-Miss., Discusses American Indian Policy on the Senate Floor, April 6, 1880		389
11.2	Rep. James Edward O¿Hara, R-N.C., Seeks to End Segregation on Railroads, December 17, 1884		392
11.3	Rep. Thomas Ezekiel Miller, R-S.C., Calls for Civil Rights Protections, January 12, 1891		394
11.4	Opponents Filibuster Gavagan Anti-Lynching Bill, January 7, 1938		397
11.5	Letter to Rep. Oscar S. De Priest, R-Ill. from Rep. J.C. Shaffer, R-Va., June 18, 1929		400
11.6	Rep. William L. Dawson¿s Letter to Assistant Secretary of War John J. McCloy, February 28, 1944		401
11.7	Rep. Charles C. Diggs Jr., D-Mich., Comments on Emmett Till Murder Trial as He Enters Look Magazine Article into the Congressional Record, January 12, 1956		403
11.8	African American Lawmakers Oppose the Hanging of Howard W. Smith Portrait in House Rules Committee Room, January 24 and 25, 1995		404
11.9	Democrats Express Their Opposition to the Effective Death Penalty Act of 1995, February 8, 1995		406
11.10	Sen. Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., Argues for Resolution on Church Burnings, June 13, 1996		410
11.11	Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, D-D.C., Speaks on Racial Profiling Prohibition Act, May 17, 2001		413
11.12	Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr., D-Ill., Attacks the Comments Made by Sen. Trent Lott, R-Miss., December 14, 2002		415
@TEXTNO:Notes		419
@CT:12. African American Lawmakers Address War: Peace, War and Patriotism		420
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
12.1	Sen. Blanche K. Bruce, R-Miss., Condemns the Mutilation, Court-Martial, and Expulsion of a Black Cadet at West Point, April 9, 1880		422
12.2	House Committee on Internal Security Hearings about Students for a Democratic Society, July 1969		424
12.3	Dellums Committee Hearings on U.S. Military Policy and War Crimes in Vietnam, 1971		428
12.4	Rep. Ralph H. Metcalfe, D-Ill., Questions Rep. Robert C. Eckhardt, D-Texas, about Passenger Searches before the House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee¿s Subcommittee on Transportation and Aeronautics, February 27, 1973		431
12.5	U.S. District Court Decision in Dellums v. Bush, December 13, 1990		434
12.6	Religious Freedom Peace Tax Fund Act, October 9, 1997		437
12.7	African Americans Lawmakers Speak on the House Floor about the Attacks of September 11, 2001		440
12.8	Congressional Black Caucus Members Engage in House Debate on the USA PATRIOT Act, October 12, 2001		443
12.9	Rep. Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., Justifies Resumption of the Military Draft, November 21, 2006		446
12.10	Members of the Congressional Black Caucus Participate in the House Debates U.S. Military Intervention in Iraq, March 19, 2003		448
@TEXTNO:Notes		451
@CT:13. African American Lawmakers and International Affairs: America as a World Power		453
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
13.1	Rep. Josiah T. Walls, R-Fla., Speaks on Cuban Belligerency, January 24, 1874		455
13.2	Rep. George H. White, R-N.C., Calls for Annexation of the Philippines, January 26, 1899		458
13.3	Rep. Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., Questions Administration Witnesses during House Committee Hearings on Southeast Asian Narcotics, July 1977		461
13.4a	Court Decision in Crockett v. Reagan Rejecting Challenge to U.S. Policy in El Salvador, October 4, 1982		463
13.4b	Federal Judge Rebuffs Challenge to U.S. Policy in Nicaragua in Sanchez-Espinoza v. Reagan, August 1, 1983		463
13.5	Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, D-D.C., Discusses Problem of Fighting AIDS in Africa on the House Floor, March 14, 2001		467
13.6	Rep. Gregory W. Meeks, D-N.Y., Attacks U.S. Role in the Ouster of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, March 3, 2004		468
13.7	Congressional Black Caucus¿s Letter to British Prime Minister Tony Blair, June 7, 2005		471
13.8	Rep. Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick, D-Mich., Criticizes CAFTA Trade Legislation, July 27, 2005		473
13.9	Congressional Black Caucus Members Are Arrested in Darfur Protest, May 16, 2006		474
13.10	Rep. Barbara Lee, D-Calif., and Rep. Al Green, D-Texas, Speak about Attacks on Israel, July 19, 2006		477
13.11	Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., Speaks about the Secure Fence Act, September 21, 2006		479
@TEXTNO:Notes		481
@CT:14. At the Heart of the African American Experience: The Struggle for Economic Justice		483
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
14.1	Rep. Benjamin Sterling Turner Proposes a Refund of the Cotton Tax on the House Floor, May 31, 1872		486
14.2	Rep. George Washington Murray, R-S.C., Discusses Impact of Monetary Policy, August 24, 1893		489
14.3	Rep. George H. White, R-N.C., Supports Tariffs to Protect Southern Laborers, March 31, 1897		492
14.4	NAACP Executive Secretary Walter White¿s Letter to President Herbert Hoover, February 4, 1932		494
14.5	Rep. Shirley Chisholm, D-N.Y., Campaigns for the Democratic Party¿s Presidential Nomination, 1972		496
14.6	Rep. Charles B. Rangel, D-N.Y., Calls for Greater Attention to the Needs of the Poor, May 1973		499
14.7	Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans Act, Introduced in House November 20, 1989		501
14.8	Rep. Major R.O. Owens Raps about the War in Iraq on the Floor of the House of Representatives, July 18, 2003		504
14.9	The Fair Pay Act of 2005, Introduced April 19, 2005		507
14.10	Rep. Barbara Lee, D-Calif., Urges Relief for Hurricane Katrina Victims, March 14, 2006		510
@TEXTNO:Notes		513
@CT:15. Visions of America: The Dream and the Reality		514
@TEXTNO:Documents
@TEXT:
15.1	Rep. Josiah T. Walls, R-Fla., Discusses America¿s Centennial Celebration, May 7, 1874		517
15.2	Rep. Richard H. Cain, R-S.C., Speaks on Civil Rights Legislation, January 10, 1874		520
15.3	Rep. Shirley A. Chisholm, D-N.Y., Addresses the Needs of America¿s Young People, 1970		523
15.4	Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, D-N.Y., Explains Black Political and Social Activism, 1971		526
15.5	Rep. Barbara Jordan, D-Texas, Delivers the Keynote Speech at the 1976 Democratic National Convention		529
15.6	Rep. Louis Stokes, D-Ohio, Comments on the ¿Peace Dividend,¿ February 7, 1990		533
15.7	Rep. Gary Franks, R-Conn., Discusses Black Empowerment, February 24, 1993		535
15.8	Rep. J. C. Watts Jr., D-Okla., Describes His Vision of the American Dream, August 13, 1996		537
15.9	Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., Discusses the ¿Beloved Community,¿ 1998		539
15.10	Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., Discusses the Importance of Leadership and Universal Health Care, January 25, 2007		542
@TEXTNO:Notes		545
@TEXTNO:
Appendix A: Chronology of Major Events		546
Appendix B: African American Members of the 110th U.S. Congress		549
Appendix C: African American Members of Congress, 18702007		550
Selected Bibliography		553
Text Credits		561
Index		563

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

United States. Congress -- History -- Sources.
African American legislators -- History -- Sources.
Legislators -- United States -- History -- Sources.
African Americans -- Politics and government -- Sources.