Table of contents for European human rights law : text and materials / Mark W. Janis, Richard S. Kay, Anthony W. Bradley.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface x
Acknowledgements xxiii
Table of Cases 00
Table of Statutes 00
Table of International Instruments 00
PART I THE CONVENTION AND THE COURT
1 THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 3
A. Human Rights Law 4
B. The Negotiation of the Convention 12
C. The Progress of the Convention 19
2 STRASBOURG'S LEGAL MACHINERY 24
A. The European Commission of Human Rights: 1953-1999 24
B. Admissibility 27
1. Earl Spencer's case 30
2. Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies 36
3. The Icelandic Electoral System Case 38
4. Manifestly Ill-Founded 41
5. The Bankovic Case 43
6. Strasbourg's Jurisdiction 48
C. Friendly Settlement 50
1. The Giama Case 51
2. Negotiations at Strasbourg 56
D. Fact-Finding 58
1. The Greek Case 58
2. Shame at Strasbourg 66
3 THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS 69
A. The Constitution of the Court 70
B. The Role of the Court 74
1. The Sunday Times Case 76
2. Acceptance of the Court 84
C. Remedies 89
1. The Barthold Case 89
2. Remedies at Strasbourg 98
D. The Efficacy of the Court 103
1. Measuring Efficacy 103
2. Efficacy and Legitimacy 108
3. Strasbourg and the efficacy of International Law 111
PART II SUBSTANTIVE ADJUDICATION IN THE COURT
4 THE RIGHT TO LIFE 119
A. When Does 'Life' Begin? 120
1. VO v. France 120
2. The Extent of Article 2 129
B. State Obligations Under Article 2 130
1. Gul v. Turkey 131
2. Excessive Use of Force 137
3. Defects in Planning and Control 139
a. McCann and Others v. United Kingdom 139
b. Judicial Review of Public Safety Decisions 147
4. The Duty to Investigate 148
a. Regina (Amin) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department 148
b. The Need for an Investigation 154
C. Positive Obligations to Protect Life 155
1. Edwards v. United Kingdom 155
2. State Obligations to Prevent Suicide 161
D. The Death Penalty 163
E. Fact Finding in the European Court of Human Rights 165
5 TORTURE; INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT AND SLAVERY 170
A. Defining the Terms 172
1. Ireland v. United Kingdom 172
2. Peers v. Greece 180
3. Judicial Distinctions 183
4. Fact Finding 194
5. Comparisons 196
6. The United Nations Convention 204
B. Corporal Punishment 208
1. Tyrer v. United Kingdom 208
2. Degrading Treatment 212
3. Public Opinion 215
C. Extradition, Expulsion or Deportation 217
1. The Responsibility of the Deporting State 217
2. D. v. United Kingdom 222
3. The U.N. Refugee Convention 228
D. The Death Penalty 229
E. Article 4: Slavery and Forced Labour 233
6 FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION 236
A. INTRODUCTION 236
B. JUSTIFYING LIMITS ON EXPRESSION 238
1. Handyside v. United Kingdom 239
2. The Justification of Interferences with Convention Rights 243
a. The Margin of Appreciation 243
b. Comparisons 246
c. Levels of Justification 250
3. The protection of morals and the relativity of value 251
4. Maintaining the Authority and Impartiality of the Judiciary 253
5. The Nature of the Violation 254
6. Comparisons 255
C. Categories of Expression 258
1. Political Expression 258
a. Lingens v. Austria 258
b. Barfod v. Denmark 262
c. The Special Protection of Political Expression and the Press 264
d. Free Expression and the Judicial Process 266
3. Freedom of Expression and Protection against Defamation 270
a. Defamation and Matters of Public Interest 270
4. Freedom of Expression and National Security 280
5. Hate Speech and Blasphemy 284
a. Witzsch v. Germany 284
b. Giniewski v. France 287
6. Commercial Speech 293
a. Markt Intern and Beermann v. Germany 293
b. Comparisons 299
7. Artistic Expression 303
8. Broadcasting 305
D. Expression and Public Employment 309
E. Interferences 'Prescribed by Law' 312
F. Prior Restraints 317
G. Article 11: Freedom of Association 318
7 FREEDOM OF THOUGHT, CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION 327
A. The Landmark Judgment 327
1. Kokkinakis v. Greece 327
2. Waiting for Article 9 327
B. The Definition of 'Religion' 339
1. Buscarini v. San Marino 339
2. Pretty v. United Kingdom 341
3. The Failure to Define 342
C. The Freedom to Manifest One's Religion 344
1. Otto-Preminger Institute v. Austria 344
2. Article 10 or Article 9? 351
3. Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) v. Turkey 352
4. Murphy v. Ireland 360
5. Leyla Sahin v. Turkey 366
6. Religious Preferences? 372
7. An American Comparison 375
8 RESPECT FOR PRIVATE AND FAMILY LIFE; MARRIAGE 377
A. The Scope of Family and Private Life 377
B. Family Life 379
1. Johnston v. Ireland 379
2. The Definition of the Family 384
3. Positive Obligations 393
a. X and Y v. The Netherlands 393
b. The Reach of Positive Obligations 395
4. Aspects of Family Life 407
a. The home 407
b. Language rights 409
c. Immigration and Deportation 411
d. Gul v. Switzerland 415
e. Parental Rights 421
C. Private Life 425
1. Dudgeon v. United Kingdom 425
2. The Definition of 'Private Life' 430
3. Private Acts and the Protection of Morals 432
4. Private Life and Sexual Preferences 434
5. Privacy Rights and Abortion 439
D. Private Life and Personal Identity 441
1. Sexual Identity 441
a. Christine Goodwin v. United Kingdom 441
b. Personal Identity and Gender Re-Assignment 447
2. Article 12 and the Right to Marry 448
a. Christine Goodwin v. United Kingdom 448
b. Restrictions on Marriage 449
3. Personal Identity and Choice of Name 451
E. Public Disclosure or Investigation of Private Information 453
9 THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION (ARTICLE 14) 461
A. The 'Parasitic' Quality of Article 14 461
1. Abdulaziz v. United Kingdom 462
2. Gaygusuz v. Austria 468
3. R. (Reynolds) v. Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 470
4. Botta v. Italy 472
B. The Protected Grounds 474
1. Re. (Clift and Others) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department 475
C. 'Discrimination': the Role of Comparison 478
1. Fredin v. Sweden 478
2. Van der Mussele v. Belgium 481
3. Loving v. Virginia 485
4. Paulik v. Slovakia 488
D. Indirect Discrimination 489
1. Griggs v. Duke Power Co. 490
2. Thlimmenos v. Greece 492
E. Proving Discrimination 493
1. DH and Others v. Czech Republic 494
2. Nachova and Others v. Bulgaria 497
F. The Justification of Differential Treatment 501
1. Introduction 501
2. Palmore v. Sidoti 504
3. Petrovic v. Austria 507
4. Frette v. France 509
G. 'Positive' Discrimination 510
1. Grutter v. Bollinger 512
2. Stec and Others v. United Kingdom 516
H. Protocol 12 520
10 PROPERTY: ARTICLE 1 OF PROTOCOL NO. 1 523
A. Determining Whether there has been an 'Interference' with Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 525
1. The Court's General Approach in Property Cases 525
2. Sporrong and Lonnroth v. Sweden 525
3. The Meaning of 'Property' for the Purposes of the Guarantee 529
4. Interferences with Property Rights: the Three Rules 532
a. The First Rule: Peaceful Enjoyment of Property 532
b. The Second Rule: Deprivation of Property 533
c. The Third Rule: Control Over the Use of Property 533
5. Pine Valley Developments Ltd and Others v. Ireland 534
6. Tre Traktorer Aktiebolag v. Sweden 535
7. Gasus Dosier- und Fodertechnik v. Netherlands 537
B. Assessing Whether an Interference is Justified: Legal Certainty; and the Public Interest 543
1. The Requirement of Lawfulness 544
2. Determining the 'General' or 'Public' Interest for an Interference with Property Rights 545
3. James and Others v. United Kingdom 546
4. Stran Greek Refineries and Stratis Andreadis v. Greece 550
5. Beyeler v. Italy 553
C. Assessing Whether an Interference is Justified: Proportionality 558
1. Lithgow and Others v. United Kingdom 560
2. Jahn and Others v. Germany 565
11. THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION 574
A. Introduction 574
B. The Belgian Linguistic Case (No. 2) 576
C. Kjeldsen, Busk Madsen and Pedersen v. Denmark 580
D. Campbell and Cosans v. United Kingdom 586
E. Valsamis v. Greece 594
F. Sahin v. Turkey 598
G. Some Consequences of the Convention Right to Education 603
12 THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY OF PERSON 607
A. Introduction 608
1. Kurt v. Turkey 608
2. Cyprus v. Turkey 611
B. Has There Been a Deprivation of Liberty? 616
1. Guzzardi v. Italy 616
2. Engel and Others v. The Netherlands 620
3. H.M. v. Switzerland 624
C. Detention After Conviction 627
1. Van Droogenbrooeck v. Belgium 628
2. Weeks v. United Kingdom 630
3. Thynne, Wilson and Gunnell v. United Kingdom 634
4. Stafford v. United Kingdom 638
D. Detention of Mental Patients 645
1. Winterwerp v. The Netherlands 645
2. X v. United Kingdom 649
3. Johnson v. United Kingdom 652
E. Other Permitted Grounds of Detention 657
1. Lawful Arrest or Detention or Reasonable Suspicion of Having Committedan Offence 657
a. Loukanov v. Bulgaria 659
b. Steel and Others v. United Kingdom 661
c. Fox, Campbell and Hartley v. United Kingdom 664
2. Jablonski v. Poland 667
3. Arrest or Detention to Secure the Fulfilment of an Obligation Prescribed by Law 670
a. Benham v. United Kingdom 670
4. Arrest or Detention for the prevention of the Spreading of Infectious Diseases 672
a. Enhorn v. Sweden 672
5. Arrest or Detention to prevent an Unauthorized Entry into the Country or with a View to Deportation or Extradition 676
a. Amuur v. France 676
b. Conka v. Belgium 679
c. Chahal v. United Kingdom 683
F. Right to be Brought Promptly before a Judge or other Officer Authorized to Exercise Judicial Power 687
1. Who may Exercise Judicial Power for the Purposes of Article 5(3)? 687
a. Huber v. Switzerland 688
2. The Meaning of 'Promptly' in Article 5(3) 691
a. Brogan v. United Kingdom 692
G. The Right to a Decision by a Court as to the Legality of Detention 696
1. Sanchez-Reisse v. Switzerland 698
2. Bouamar v. Belgium 701
3. Megyeri v. Germany 704
H. The Challenge of Terrorism and the Right of States to Derogate from the Convention 708
1. Lawless v. Republic of Ireland (No. 3) 709
2. The Sequel to Brogan v. United Kingdom 712
3. Brannigan v. United Kingdom 712
4. Aksoy v. Turkey 718
5. Habeas Corpus in Emergency Situations 721
13 RIGHT TO A FAIR AND PUBLIC HEARING IN THE DETERMINATION OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND CRIMINAL CHARGES 724
A. Introduction 725
B. Criminal Charges and Civil Rights 726
1. Ozturk v. Germany 727
2. Benham v. United Kingdom 731
3. When has a Criminal Charge been Determined? 732
4. Do Disciplinary and other Punitive Procedures Involve the Determination of Criminal Charges? 736
5. Campbell and Fells v. United Kingdom 737
6. Civil Rights and Public Rights 744
7. Feldbrugge v. The Netherlands 751
8. Employment in the Public Service 761
9. Eskelinen v. Finland 762
10. Further Aspects of the Scope of Article 6(1) 768
C. An Independent and Impartial Tribunal 772
1. The Problem of Prior Involvement 772
a. Piersack v. Belgium 772
2. Notes and Comments 775
3. Notes and Comments 780
4. Objective Impartiality 781
a. Sigurdsson v. Iceland 781
5. Independence 789
6. Administrative Agencies and Disciplinary Bodies 793
D. Equality of Arms 797
1. Dombo Beheer B.V. v. The Netherlands 799
2. Aspects of Equality 803
3. Regina (Roberts) v. Parole Board and Another 805
4. The Right to Confront Witnesses 813
5. The Right to Counsel 817
a. Granger v. United Kingdom 817
E. The Requirements of Prompt Adjudication 821
PART III THE IMPACT OF THE STRASBOURG SYSTEM
14 THE EFFECT IN NATIONAL LAW OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 835
A. The Diverse Legal Systems in Europe 835
B. The Duty of States to Give Effect to the Convention in National Law 837
1. Does the Convention Require States (A) to Give Direct Effect in National Law to the Substantive Rights and Freedoms Protected by the Convention? and (B) To Provide a Procedure in National Law for Enabling Individuals to Remedy Breaches of their Convention Rights? 837
a. Klass v. Germany 840
b. Silver v. United Kingdom 843
c. Chahal v. United Kingdom 848
2. Is it the Duty of a State to Comply with Remedial Measures Required Following a Breach of the Convention? 851
a. Vermeire v. Belgium 852
C. Incorporation of the Convention-the Practice of States 855
D. The Effect of the Convention in the Law of the United Kingdom 860
1. Malone v. Metropolitan Police Commissioner 861
2. R. v. Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Brind 862
3. Giving Effect to the Convention in United Kingdom Law 865
a. Rights brought home: the Human Rights Bill 865
E. The Human Rights Act 1998 870
F. The Duty to Interpret Legislation in Accordance with the Convention 872
1. Ghaidan v. Godin-Mendoza 872
G. Judicial Review of Legislation that is Inconsistent with the Convention 875
1. A v. Secretary of State for the Home Department 875
H. The Relation between the Convention and Community Law 879
15 PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS 884
A. What to Do About Case Load and Coherence? 884
1. The Flood of Applications 885
2. A Victim of Its own Success? 887
3. Pilot Judgments 889
4. Coping with the Case Load and Coherence 890
B. What to Do About Coverage and Compliance? 891
1. Extending the Rights Protected 891
2. Adding the European Union 892
3. Implementing Judgments 895
4. Addressing Systemic Violations of the Convention 901
5. Improving Coverage and Compliance 903
APPENDIX A Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 905
APPENDIX B Proposed protocol 14 to the convention 933
APPENDIX C The Human Rights Act 1998 (United Kingdom) 940
Index 00

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human rights -- Europe.
Human rights -- Europe -- Cases.
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950).