Table of contents for Transnational organized crime : a commentary on the UN Convention and its protocols / David McClean.

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Contents
Table of Cases xxvi
Table of Statutes xxvii
Table of Treaties and Conventions xxviii
INTRODUCTION
Background 1
Role of the United Nations 2
Towards a Convention 4
The Polish Initiative 6
Preparatory Work 8
The Ad Hoc Committee 9
Observations on the Process 11
Interpretative Notes 13
Safeguard Clauses and other Easing Mechanisms 13
Some Fundamental Difficulties 14
The Trafficking Protocol: Background 15
The Trafficking Protocol: The Negotiations 18
The Migrants Protocol: Background 21
The Migrants Protocol: The Negotiations 24
The Firearms Protocol: Background 26
The Firearms Protocol: The Negotiations 29
Subsequent Work 29
The Shape of this Commentary 30
A Final Assessment 30
PART I THE CONVENTION
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME 35
Article 1. Statement of Purpose 35
Negotiating History 35
Commentary 36
Article 2. Use of Terms 37
(a)Organized Criminal Group 38
(b)Serious Crime 42
(c)Structured Group 43
(d)Property 43
(e)Proceeds of Crime 44
(f)Freezing and Seizure 44
(g)Confiscation 45
(h)Predicate Offence 45
(i)Controlled Delivery 45
(j)Regional Economic Integration Organization 46
Article 3. Scope of Application 47
Negotiating History 47
Paragraph 1 51
Paragraph 2 52
Article 4. Protection of Sovereignty 57
Paragraph 1 57
Paragraph 2 58
Article 5. Criminalization of Participation in an Organized Criminal Group 59
Negotiating History 60
Paragraph 1, introductory words 61
Paragraph 1(a), opening words 62
Paragraph 1(a)(i) 62
Paragraph 1(a)(ii) 63
Paragraph 1(b) 64
Paragraph 2 65
Paragraph 3 66
Implementation 67
Article 6. Criminalization of the Laundering of Proceeds of Crime 68
Negotiating History 69
The Financial Action Task Force 72
Money-Laundering Generally 74
Paragraph 1, opening words 76
Paragraph 1(a)(i) 77
Conversion 78
Transfer 78
The Mens Rea 79
Paragraph 1(a)(ii) 79
Paragraph 1(b), opening words 80
Paragraph 1(b)(i) 80
Paragraph 1(b)(ii) 81
Paragraph 2(a) and (b) 83
Paragraph 2(c) 84
Paragraph 2(d) 85
Paragraph 2(e) 85
Paragraph 2(f) 86
Implementation 86
The Position of Lawyers and other Professional Advisers 88
Tipping off 89
Other Countries 90
Article 7. Measures to Combat Money-Laundering 92
Negotiating History 93
Paragraph 1(a) 94
Due Diligence 94
Due Diligence: EU Action 96
Due Diligence: UK Legislation 97
Record-Keeping 99
Record-Keeping: EU Action 100
Record-Keeping: UK Legislation 100
Reporting of Suspicious Transactions 101
Australian Legislation 101
Reporting Obligations: EU Action 102
Reporting Obligation: UK Legislation 103
Paragraph 1(b) 104
Paragraph 2 104
Paragraph 3 105
Paragraph 4 105
Article 8. Criminalization of Corruption 109
Previous International Action 109
Inter-American Activity 110
European Union 111
OECD Recommendations and Convention 113
The Council of Europe 114
Africa 116
Negotiating History 116
Paragraph 1(a) 118
Paragraph 1(b) 119
Paragraph 2 119
Paragraph 3 120
Paragraph 4 121
Article 9. Measures against Corruption 122
Negotiating History 122
Paragraph 1 123
Paragraph 2 124
Article 10. Liability of Legal Persons 126
Negotiating History 126
Paragraph 1 128
Paragraph 2 129
Paragraph 3 129
Paragraph 4 129
Article 11. Prosecution, Adjudication and Sanctions 130
Negotiating History 130
Paragraph 1 132
Paragraph 2 133
Paragraph 3 133
Paragraph 4 134
Paragraph 5 134
Paragraph 6 135
Article 12. Confiscation and Seizure 136
Negotiating History 137
Paragraph 1, opening words 139
Paragraph 1(a) 141
Paragraph 1(b) 143
Paragraph 2 144
Paragraph 3 145
Paragraph 4 145
Paragraph 5 146
Paragraph 6 146
Paragraph 7 147
Paragraph 8 150
Paragraph 9 151
Article 13. International Cooperation for Purposes of Confiscation 152
Negotiating History 153
Paragraph 1, opening words 154
Paragraph 1(a) 155
Paragraph 1(b) 156
Paragraph 2 156
Paragraph 3 157
Paragraph 4 158
Paragraph 5 158
Paragraph 6 158
Paragraph 7 159
Paragraph 8 159
Paragraph 9 159
Article 14. Disposal of Confiscated Proceeds of Crime or Property 160
Negotiating History 160
Paragraph 1 161
Paragraph 2 161
Paragraph 3 162
Article 15. Jurisdiction 163
Terminology 164
Negotiating History 165
Paragraph 1 167
Paragraph 2, opening words 168
Paragraph 2(a) 168
Paragraph 2(b) 168
Paragraph 2(c) 169
Paragraph 3 170
Paragraph 4 171
Paragraph 5 171
Paragraph 6 172
Article 16. Extradition 173
Negotiating History 175
Paragraph 1 177
Paragraph 2 178
Paragraph 3 179
Paragraph 4 179
Paragraph 5 180
Paragraph 6 180
Paragraph 7 181
Paragraph 8 181
Paragraph 9 183
Paragraph 10 183
Paragraph 11 184
Paragraph 12 185
Paragraph 13 186
Paragraph 14 186
Paragraph 15 189
Paragraph 16 189
Paragraph 17 190
Article 17. Transfer of Sentenced Persons 191
Negotiating History 191
Commentary 191
Article 18. Mutual Legal Assistance 195
Negotiating History 201
International Agreements on Mutual Assistance 202
Paragraph 1 206
Paragraph 2 207
Paragraph 3 208
Paragraph 3(a) 208
Paragraph 3(b) 209
Paragraph 3(c) 209
Paragraph 3(d) 210
Paragraph 3(e) 210
Paragraph 3(f) 211
Paragraph 3(g) 211
Paragraph 3(h) 211
Paragraph 3(i) 212
Paragraph 4 212
Paragraph 5 213
Paragraph 6 214
Paragraph 7 214
Paragraph 8 215
Paragraph 9 216
Paragraph 10 217
Paragraph 11 219
Paragraph 12 220
Paragraph 13 220
Paragraph 14 222
Paragraph 15 224
Paragraph 16 225
Paragraph 17 225
Paragraph 18 226
Paragraph 19 228
Paragraph 20 229
Paragraph 21 229
Paragraph 22 231
Paragraph 23 231
Paragraph 24 231
Paragraph 25 232
Paragraph 26 232
Paragraph 27 233
Paragraph 28 234
Paragraph 29 236
Paragraph 30 237
Article 19. Joint Investigations 238
Negotiating History 238
Commentary 238
Article 20. Special Investigative Techniques 241
Negotiating History 241
Paragraph 1 243
Paragraph 2 245
Paragraph 3 246
Paragraph 4 247
Article 21. Transfer of Criminal Proceedings 248
Negotiating History 248
Commentary 248
Article 22. Establishment of Criminal Record 252
Negotiating History 252
Commentary 253
Article 23. Criminalization of Obstruction of Justice 255
Negotiating History 255
Opening Words 256
Paragraph (a) 256
Paragraph (b) 258
Article 24. Protection of Witnesses 259
Negotiating History 259
Paragraph 1 260
Paragraph 2, opening words 261
Paragraph 2(a) 261
Paragraph 2(b) 263
Paragraph 3 264
Paragraph 4 265
Article 25. Assistance to and Protection of Victims 266
Negotiating History 266
Paragraph 1 267
Paragraph 2 267
Paragraph 3 268
Article 26. Measures to Enhance Cooperation with Law Enforcement Authorities 270
Negotiating History 271
Paragraph 1 271
Paragraph 2 272
Paragraph 3 273
Paragraph 4 273
Paragraph 5 274
Article 27. Law Enforcement Cooperation 275
Negotiating History 276
Paragraph 1, opening words 277
Paragraph 1(a) 277
Paragraph 1(b) 278
Paragraph 1(c) 279
Paragraph 1(d) 280
Paragraph 1(e) 280
Paragraph 1(f) 280
Paragraph 2 281
Paragraph 3 281
Article 28. Collection, Exchange, and Analysis of Information on the Nature of Organized Crime 283
Negotiating History 283
Commentary 284
Article 29. Training and Technical Assistance 285
Negotiating History 286
Paragraph 1 287
Paragraph 2 288
Paragraph 3 288
Paragraph 4 289
Article 30. Other Measures: Implementation of the Convention through Economic Development and Technical Assistance 290
Negotiating History 291
Commentary 291
Article 31. Prevention 293
Negotiating History 294
Commentary 295
Article 32. Conference of the Parties to the Convention 296
Negotiating History 297
Commentary 298
Article 33. Secretariat 299
Negotiating History 299
Commentary 299
Article 34. Implementation of the Convention 301
Negotiating History 301
Commentary 302
Articles 35-41.
Final Clauses 303
Article 35. Settlement of Disputes 303
Article 36. Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval and Accession 304
Article 37. Relation with Protocols 304
Article 38. Entry into Force 305
Article 39. Amendment 305
Article 40. Denunciation 306
Article 41. Depository and Languages 306
PART II THE TRAFFICKING PROTOCOL
PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME 309
Preamble 309
Negotiating History 310
Commentary 310
I GENERAL PROVISIONS 311
Article 1. Relation with the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 311
Negotiating History 311
Paragraph 1 312
Paragraph 2 312
Paragraph 3 312
Article 2. Statement of Purpose 314
Negotiating History 314
Commentary 314
Article 3. Use of Terms 315
Negotiating History 315
Paragraph (a) 323
(i)The Threat or Use of Force or Other Forms of Coercion 324
(ii)Abduction 324
(iii)Fraud and (iv) Deception 324
(v)The Abuse of Power or of a Position of Vulnerability 325
(vi)The Giving or Receiving of Payments or Benefits to Achieve
the Consent of a Person having Control over Another Person 325
Paragraph (b) 328
Paragraph (c) 329
Paragraph (d) 329
Article 4. Scope of Application 330
Negotiating History 330
Commentary 330
Article 5. Criminalization 331
Negotiating History 331
Paragraph 1 332
Paragraph 2 332
II PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 335
Article 6. Assistance to and Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Persons 335
Negotiating History 336
Paragraph 1 337
Paragraph 2 338
Paragraph 3 338
Paragraph 4 340
Paragraph 5 341
Paragraph 6 341
Article 7. Status of Victims of Trafficking in Persons in Receiving States 342
Negotiating History 342
Paragraph 1 342
Paragraph 2 343
Article 8. Repatriation of Victims of Trafficking in Persons 344
Negotiating History 344
Paragraph 1 345
Paragraph 2 347
Paragraph 3 348
Paragraph 4 349
Paragraph 5 349
Paragraph 6 350
III PREVENTION, COOPERATION, AND OTHER MEASURES 351
Article 9. Prevention of Trafficking in Persons 351
Negotiating History 351
Commentary 352
Article 10. Information Exchange and Training 354
Negotiating History 354
Paragraph 1 355
Paragraph 2 356
Paragraph 3 356
Article 11. Border Measures 357
Negotiating History 357
Paragraph 1 358
Paragraph 2 359
Paragraph 3 360
Paragraph 4 360
Paragraph 5 361
Paragraph 6 361
Article 12. Security and Control of Documents 363
Negotiating History 363
Commentary 363
Article 13. Legitimacy and Validity of Documents 365
Negotiating History 365
Commentary 365
IV FINAL PROVISIONS 367
Article 14. Saving Clause 367
Negotiating History 367
Paragraph 1 368
Paragraph 2 368
Articles 15-20. Final Clauses 370
Article 15. Settlement of Disputes 370
Article 16. Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval and Accession 370
Article 17. Entry into Force 371
Article 18. Amendment 371
Article 19. Denunciation 372
Article 20. Depositary and Languages 372
PART III THE MIGRANTS PROTOCOL
PROTOCOL AGAINST THE SMUGGLING OF MIGRANTS BY LAND, SEA AND AIR, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME 375
Preamble 375
Negotiating History 376
I GENERAL PROVISIONS 377
Article 1. Relation with the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 377
Negotiating History 377
Commentary 378
Article 2. Statement of Purpose 379
Negotiating History 379
Commentary 380
Article 3. Use of Terms 381
Negotiating History 381
Paragraph (a) 383
Paragraph (b) 384
Paragraph (c) 384
Paragraph (d) 385
Article 4. Scope of Application 386
Negotiating History 386
Commentary 387
Article 5. Criminal Liability of Migrants 388
Negotiating History 388
Commentary 389
Article 6. Criminalization 390
Negotiating History 391
Paragraph 1 393
Paragraph 2 395
Paragraph 3 395
Paragraph 4 397
II SMUGGLING OF MIGRANTS BY SEA 399
Article 7. Cooperation 399
Negotiating History 399
Commentary 401
Article 8. Measures against the Smuggling of Migrants by Sea 402
Negotiating History 403
Paragraph 1 405
Paragraph 2 406
Paragraph 3 408
Paragraph 4 408
Paragraph 5 408
Paragraph 6 408
Paragraph 7 410
Article 9. Safeguard Clauses 411
Negotiating History 411
Paragraph 1 412
Paragraph 2 413
Paragraph 3 414
Paragraph 4 414
III PREVENTION, COOPERATION, AND OTHER MEASURES 415
Article 10. Information 415
Negotiating History 416
Commentary 416
Article 11. Border Measures 417
Negotiating History 417
Commentary 418
Article 12. Security and Control of Documents 419
Negotiating History 419
Commentary 420
Article 13. Legitimacy and Validity of Documents 421
Negotiating History 421
Commentary 421
Article 14. Training and Technical Cooperation 422
Negotiating History 422
Commentary 423
Article 15. Other Prevention Measures 424
Negotiating History 424
Paragraph 1 424
Paragraph 2 425
Paragraph 3 425
Article 16. Protection and Assistance Measures 426
Negotiating History 426
Paragraph 1 427
Paragraph 2 428
Paragraph 3 428
Paragraph 4 429
Paragraph 5 429
Article 17. Agreements and Arrangements 430
Negotiating History 430
Commentary 430
Article 18. Return of Smuggled Migrants 431
Negotiating History 432
Commentary 432
Paragraph 1 433
Paragraph 2 433
Paragraph 3 434
Paragraph 4 434
Paragraph 5 434
Paragraph 6 435
Paragraphs 7 and 8 435
IV FINAL PROVISIONS 437
Article 19. Saving Clause 437
Negotiating History 437
Commentary 438
Articles 20-25 441
Article 20. Settlement of Disputes 441
Article 21. Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval and Accession 441
Article 22. Entry into Force 442
Article 23. Amendment 442
Article 24. Denunciation 443
Article 25. Depositary and Languages 443
PART IV THE FIREARMS PROTOCOL
PROTOCOL AGAINST THE ILLICIT MANUFACTURING OF AND TRAFFICKING IN FIREARMS, THEIR PARTS AND COMPONENTS AND AMMUNITION, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME 447
Preamble 447
Negotiating History 448
Commentary 448
I GENERAL PROVISIONS 449
Article 1. Relation with the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 449
Negotiating History 449
Commentary 449
Article 2. Statement of Purpose 451
Negotiating History 451
Commentary 452
Article 3. Use of Terms 453
Negotiating History 454
(a) Firearm 454
(b) Parts and Components 457
(c) Ammunition 458
(d) Illicit Manufacturing 459
(e) Illicit Trafficking 460
(f) Tracing 460
Article 4. Scope of Application 462
Negotiating History 462
Paragraph 1 464
Paragraph 2 464
Article 5. Criminalization 465
Negotiating History 465
Paragraph 1 466
Paragraph 2 467
Article 6. Confiscation, Seizure and Disposal 468
Negotiating History 468
Paragraph 1 469
Paragraph 2 469
II PREVENTION 471
Article 7. Record-Keeping 471
Negotiating History 471
Commentary 472
Article 8. Marking of Firearms 473
Negotiating History 473
Paragraph 1, opening words 475
Paragraph 1(a) 475
Paragraph 1(b) 476
Paragraph 1(c) 476
Paragraph 2 476
Article 9. Deactivation of Firearms 477
Negotiating History 477
Commentary 478
Article 10. General Requirements for Export, Import, and Transit Licensing or Authorization Systems 479
Negotiating History 480
Paragraph 1 481
Paragraph 2 482
Paragraph 3 483
Paragraph 4 483
Paragraph 5 483
Paragraph 6 484
Article 11. Security and Prevention Measures 485
Negotiating History 485
Commentary 486
Article 12. Information 487
Negotiating History 488
Paragraph 1 488
Paragraph 2 489
Paragraph 3 489
Paragraph 4 490
Paragraph 5 490
Article 13. Cooperation 492
Negotiating History 492
Paragraph 1 493
Paragraph 2 493
Paragraph 3 494
Article 14. Training and Technical Assistance 496
Negotiating History 496
Commentary 496
Article 15. Brokers and Brokering 497
Negotiating History 497
Paragraph 1 500
Paragraph 2 500
III FINAL PROVISIONS 501
Article 16. Settlement of Disputes 501
Article 17. Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval, and Accession 501
Article 18. Entry into Force 502
Article 19. Amendment 502
Article 20. Denunciation 503
Article 21. Depositary and Languages 503
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Organized crime.
Transnational crime.
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (2000).