Table of contents for Syntactic gradience : the nature of grammatical indeterminacy / Bas Aarts.

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Contents
List of Abbreviationsx
Acknowledgements xii
1Introduction 1
Part I.Theoretical Background 7
2Categorization in Linguistics 9
2.1Introduction 9
2.2The classical philosophical tradition of categorization 11
2.3The linguistic tradition: early grammarians 14
2.4Twentiethcentury approaches to linguistic categorization 17
2.4.1Bloomfield and American structuralism 17
2.4.2Transformational grammar 18
2.4.3Generative Semantics 23
2.4.4Descriptive grammar 25
2.4.5Cognitive approaches to categorization 26
2.4.6Functionaltypological and discourse typological linguistics 30
2.4.7Other frameworks: Phrase Structure Grammar and Construction Grammar 32
3Grammatical Gradience 34
3.1Introduction 34
3.2Notions of gradience in ancient and modern philosophy 35
3.3The linguistic tradition: early grammarians 38
3.4Twentiethcentury approaches to gradience 39
3.4.1The postBloomfieldians and Bolinger 39
3.4.2Firth and Halliday 42
3.4.4Transformational Grammar 43
3.4.5Generative Semantics 52
3.4.6Logical approaches to linguistic vagueness: the Prague school, Zadeh, and Ross 58
3.4.7Descriptive grammar 62
3.4.8Cognitive approaches to gradient phenomena 68
3.4.9Functionaltypological and discoursetypological linguistics 71
3.4.10Optimality Theory 72
3.4.11Probability Theory 73
3.4.12Other frameworks: Phrase Structure Grammar, Word Grammar, LexicalFunctional Grammar and Construction Grammar 75
3.5Two types of gradience 79
4Gradience and Related Notions 80
4.1Introduction 80
4.2Serial relationship 80
4.3Syntactic mixing: mergers 83
4.4Multiple analysis and reanalysis 86
4.5Gradience and Prototype Theory 87
4.6Gradience and Markedness Theory (MT) 90
Part II.Gradience in English Case Studies 95
5Subsective Gradience 97
5.1SG within word classes 97
5.1.1Verbs 98
5.1.2Nouns 101
5.1.3Adjectives 105
5.1.4Prepositions 107
5.2SG within phrases 111
5.3SG within clauses 117
5.4SG in grammar 121
6Intersective Gradience 124
6.1IG between word classes 124
6.1.1Gradience between prehead elements within noun phrases 124
6.1.1.1Determinatives and pronouns 125
6.1.1.2Determinatives and adjectives 125
6.1.1.3Determinatives and adverbs 127
6.1.1.4Adjectives and nouns 129
6.1.1.5Adjectives and adverbs 136
6.1.2Gradience between verbs and other word classes 138
6.1.2.1Verbs and adjectives 138
6.1.2.2Verbs and nouns 143
6.1.2.3Verbs and prepositionsconjunctions 145
6.1.2.4Verbs and adverbs 149
6.1.3Further cases 150
6.1.3.1Adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions 150
6.1.3.2Adverbs and nouns 155
6.1.3.3Adjectives and prepositions 156
6.2IG between phrases 158
6.2.1Adjective phrases and noun phrases 158
6.2.2Adjective phrases and prepositional phrases 160
6.2.3Noun phrases and prepositional phrases 161
6.3IG in grammar 162
7Constructional Gradience 164
7.1Introduction 164
7.2A brief history of the notion construction 164
7.2.1Structuralism and Transformational Grammar 164
7.2.2Descriptive grammar 166
7.2.3Cognitive Linguistics 167
7.2.4Constructionist frameworks 168
7.3The notion construction 170
7.4Constructional Gradience 171
7.4.1Subsective Constructional Gradience (SCG) 171
7.4.1.1Pseudoclefts 172
7.4.1.2Constructions involving subjectauxiliary inversion (SAI) 173
7.4.1.3{\rm Verb}\,{+}\,{\rm NP} and {\rm Verb}\,{+}\,{\rm NP}\,{+}\,{\rm NP} constructions 173
7.4.1.4Transitive constructions 174
7.4.1.5The possessive construction 175
7.4.1.6Complex prepositions 176
7.4.1.7The passive gradient 178
7.4.2Intersective Constructional Gradience (ICG) 180
7.4.2.1Genitival constructions 180
7.4.2.2Taylors possessive constructions gradient 181
7.4.2.3Coordination and subordination 182
7.4.2.4Verb complementation: monotransitive, ditransitive, and complex transitive constructions 185
7.4.2.5Complements and adjuncts 186
7.4.2.6Syntactic blends and fusions 187
7.5Constructional Gradience in grammar 192
7.5.1Vague meaning 193
7.5.2Too much meaning 194
7.5.3Too little meaning 195
7.6A purely syntactic approach to constructions 196
Part III.Formalization 199
8Modelling Syntactic Gradience 201
8.1Introduction 201
8.2Vagueness, representations, and gradience 202
8.2.1Eliminating vagueness by looking more closely: apparent sameness 203
8.2.2Eliminating vagueness by looking more closely: apparent differences 203
8.2.3Determinatives: a further case of apparent sameness? 204
8.3A formalization of Subsective Gradience and Intersective Gradience 205
8.3.1Subsective Gradience 205
8.3.2Intersective Gradience 207
8.4Some applications 208
8.4.1Subsective Gradience in the adjective class 209
8.4.2IG between verbs and nouns: the English gerund 210
8.4.3IG between verbs and adjectives 214
8.4.4IG between adjectives and prepositions: near and like 215
8.4.5Complementizers and prepositions 219
8.4.6Constructions: V NP [toinfinitive] vs. V [NP+toinfinitive] 222
8.5The present account vs. the Aristotelian and Sorites models 223
8.6The syntactic properties of the categories 225
8.6.1How can we be sure to identify all the relevant properties, and are all the properties equally relevant? 225
8.6.2How can we know that a particular property is an independent one and not merely a variant of an already identified property? 227
8.6.3Is it indeed the case that the syntactic properties that characterize a particular form class are unique to that class? 227
8.6.4Is it true that an element belonging to a particular class can converge on at most one other word class in any one syntactic configuration? 228
8.7True hybridity 228
8.8The nature of grammatical categories 234
8.9The contiguity of grammatical categories 235
8.10Conclusion 241
References 243
Index 265

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Grammar, Comparative and general -- Gradation.
Grammar, Comparative and general -- Syntax.
Categorization (Linguistics).