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CONTENTS PREFACE 1 THE UNIVERSAL LINK Energy and energetics 1.1 Evolution of energetics: from Aristotle to Einstein 1.2 Approaches to understanding: concepts, variables, units 2 PLANETARY ENERGETICS Hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere 2.1 Sun: the star and its radiation 2.2 Energy balance of the Earth: radiation fluxes 2.3 Hydrosphere and atmosphere: thermal and mass fluxes 2.4 Water and air in motion: kinetic fluxes 2.5 Geoenergetics: heat, plate tectonics, volcanoes, earthquakes 3 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Bioenergetics of primary production 3.1 Photosynthetic pathways 3.2 Global primary productivity 3.3 Productivities of ecosystems and plants 3.4 Phytomass stores 3.5 Autotrophic scaling 4 HETEROTROPHIC CONVERSIONS Consumer bioenergetics 4.1 Metabolic capabilities 4.2 Ectotherms and endotherms 4.3 Locomotion 4.4 Biomasses and productivities 4.5 Heterotrophs in ecosystems 5 HUMAN ENERGETICS Man as a simple heterotoph 5.1 Energy sources and basal metabolism 5.2 Requirements and uncertainties 5.3 Thermoregulation 5.4 Limits of human performance 5.5 Gathering, hunting and fishing 6 TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTION Man as a solar farmer 6.1 Extensive practices 6.2 Permanent cropping 6.3 Muscles, implements, machines 6.4 Cropping intensification 6.5 Traditional agricultures 7 PREINDUSTRIAL COMPLEXIFICATION Prime movers and fuels in traditional societies 7.1 Animate power: human and animal muscles 7.2 Water and wind: wheels and mills 7.3 Phytomass fuels and metallurgy: wood, charcoal, crop residues 7.4 Construction: methods and structures 7.5 Transportation: roads and ships 8 FOSSIL FUELS Heat, light and prime movers 8.1 Coals: the earliest modern fuels 8.2 Hydrocarbons: crude oils and natural gases 8.3 From extraction to combustion: modern fossil-fuel industries 8.4 Mechanical prime movers: engines and turbines 8.5 Fossil-fueled electricity: generation and transmission 9 FOSSIL-FUELLED CIVILIZATION Patterns and trends 9.1 Fuels ad fossil-fueled electricity : Energy production and trade 9.2 Non-fossil contributions: biomass and primary electricity 9.3 Global consumption patterns: growth and inequality 9.4 Qualitative changes: transitions and efficiencies 9.5 Energy conservation: gains and rebounds 10 ENERGY COSTS Valuations and changes 10.1 Energy cost of energy: net gains 10.2 Basic materials: from concrete to fertilizers 10.3 Structures and products: from buildings to computers 10.4 Crops and animal foods: subsidized diets 10.5 Modern food system: gains, costs, efficiencies 11 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Metabolism of fossil-fueled civilization 11.1 Power densities: energy and land 11.2 Energy conversions and heat rejection 11.3 Energy and water 11.4 Energy and the atmosphere: 11.5 Interferences in grand biospheric cycles 12 ENERGETIC CORRELATES Complexities of high-energy civilization 12.1 Energy and the economy 12.2 Energy and value 12.3 Energy and the quality of life 12.4 Energy and war 12.5 Energy and the future 13 GRAND PATTERNS Energetic (and other) essentials 13.1 Energy in the biosphere 13.2 Energy and the civilization 13.3 Challenges ahead APPENDICES ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS REFERENCES INDEX
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Energy budget (Geophysics).