Table of contents for Racial and ethnic groups / Richard T. Schaefer.

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Contents
Preface xv
About the Author xxiii
PART I
PERSPECTIVES ON RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS
1	Understanding Race and Ethnicity 2
What Is a Subordinate Group? 7
Types of Subordinate Groups 8
	Racial Groups 8
	Ethnic Groups 9
	Religious Groups 10
	Gender Groups 11
	Other Subordinate Groups 12
Does Race Matter? 12
	Biological Meaning 12
	Social Construction of Race 14
Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity 15
	Stratification by Class and Gender 15
	Theoretical Perspectives 16
The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status 19
	Migration 20
	Annexation 20
	Colonialism 21
The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status 22
	Extermination 22
	Expulsion 22
	Secession 23
	Segregation 23
	Fusion 25
	Assimilation 25
	The Pluralist Perspective 26
Who Am I? 29
Resistance and Change 32
¦ LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Problem of the Color Line,
W. E. B. DuBois 10
¦ RESEARCH FOCUS: Measuring Multiculturalism 30
2	Prejudice 36
Hate Crimes 39
Prejudice and Discrimination 41
	Merton's Typology 41
	LaPiere's Study 42
Theories of Prejudice 43
	Scapegoating Theory 43
	Authoritarian Personality Theory 45
	Exploitation Theory 45
	Normative Approach 46
The Content of Prejudice: Stereotypes 46
	What Are Stereotypes? 47
	Trends in Stereotypes 47
	Stereotyping in Action: Racial Profiling 49
The Extent of Prejudice 51
	The Social Distance Scale 51
	Trends in Prejudice 52
The Mood of the Oppressed 53
Intergroup Hostility 55
Reducing Prejudice 57
	Education and Mass Media 57
	Equal-Status Contact 59
	Corporate Response: Diversity Training 60
Ways to Fight Hate 63
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Gangsters, Gooks, Geishas, and Geeks, Helen Zia 48
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: What's in a Name? 62
3	Discrimination 66
Understanding Discrimination 69
	Relative Versus Absolute Deprivation 69
	Total Discrimination 70
	Institutional Discrimination 72
Low-Wage Labor 75
Discrimination Today 77
	Measuring Discrimination 78
	Eliminating Discrimination 80
Wealth Inequality: Discrimination's Legacy 83
Environmental Justice 84
Affirmative Action 85
	Affirmative Action Explained 86
	The Legal Debate 87
Reverse Discrimination 88
The Glass Ceiling 89
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Of Race and Risk, Patricia J. Williams 70
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Discrimination in Job Seeking 76
PART II
ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS SOURCES OF CONFLICT
4	Immigration and the United States 94
Immigration: A Global Phenomenon 97
Patterns of Immigration to the United States 98
Today's Foreign-Born Population 99
Early Immigration 100
	The Anti-Chinese Movement 101
Restrictionist Sentiment Increases 103
	The National Origin System 104
	The 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act 104
Contemporary Social Concerns 107
	The Brain Drain 107
	Population Growth 108
Illegal Immigration 109
The Economic Impact of Immigration 114
Women and Immigration 116
The Global Economy and Immigration 117
Refugees 118
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: The Wall That Keeps Illegal Workers In, Douglas S. Massey 110
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: How Well Are Immigrants Doing? 115
5	Ethnicity and Religion 122
Ethnic Diversity 124
Why Don't We Study Whiteness? 125
	Whiteness 125
	White Privilege 127
	The Rediscovery of Ethnicity 127
	The Third-Generation Principle 127
	Symbolic Ethnicity 128
The Price Paid by White Ethnics 129
	Prejudice Toward White Ethnic Groups 129
	The Prejudice of Ethnics 130
The Irish Americans 131
	Early Irish Immigration (before 1845) 131
	The Famine Years 132
	Becoming White 133
	Contemporary Irish Americans 134
The Italian Americans 135
Polish Americans 138
	Early Immigration 138
	Polonia 139
	The Contemporary Picture 140
The Language Divide 141
	Bilingual Education 143
	Official Language Movement 145
Religious Pluralism 146
Ethnicity, Religion, and Social Class 151
Religion in the United States 152
	Diversity Among Roman Catholics 153
	Diversity Among Protestants 154
	Women and Religion 156
	Religion and the U.S. Supreme Court 157
Limits of Religious Freedom: The Amish 159
	The Amish Way of Life 159
	The Amish and Larger Society 160
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: I Was Born in Tirana, Harallamb Terba 142
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Measuring the Importance of Religion 150
PART III
MAJOR RACIAL AND ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES
6	The Native Americans 164
Early European Contacts 167
Treaties and Warfare 168
	The Case of the Sioux 170
Ruling the Native Americans 172
	The Allotment Act 172
	The Reorganization Act 173
Reservation Life and Federal Policies 174
	Native American Legal Claims 175
	The Termination Act 176
	Employment Assistance Program 177
Collective Action 178
	Protest Efforts 178
	Pan-Indianism: An Overview 180
Sovereignty 181
Native Americans Today 182
	Economic Development 183
	Education 187
	Health Care 190
	Religious and Spiritual Expression 192
	Environment 193
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: The Scalpel and the Silver Bear, Lori Arviso Alvord 191
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Learning the Navajo Way 189
7	The Making of African Americans in a White America 198
Slavery 201
	Slave Codes 202
	African Americans and Africa 204
	The Attack on Slavery 204
	Slavery's Aftermath 205
	Reparations for Slavery 206
The Challenge of Black Leadership 208
	The Politics of Accommodation 208
	The Niagara Movement 209
Reemergence of Black Protest 211
The Civil Rights Movement 214
	Struggle to Desegregate the Schools 214
	Civil Disobedience 215
Urban Violence and Oppression 218
Black Power 219
The Religious Force 222
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Letter from Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr. 217
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Sundown Towns, USA 212
8	African Americans Today 226
Education 228
	Quality and Quantity of Education 229
	School Segregation 230
	Acting White, Acting Black, or Neither 231
	Higher Education 232
The Economic Picture 234
	Income and Wealth 234
	Employment 236
Family Life 238
	Challenges to Family Stability 238
	Strengths of African American Families 240
	The African American Middle Class 241
Housing 243
	Residential Segregation 243
Criminal Justice 245
Health Care 245
Politics 248
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: When Work Disappears, William Julius Wilson 237
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: The Ultimate Penalty: Execution 246
9	Hispanic Americans 252
Latino Identity 255
The Economic Picture 257
The Growing Political Presence 261
The Borderlands 262
Cuban Americans 264
	Immigration 264
	The Present Picture 266
Central and South Americans 268
	Immigration 268
	The Present Picture 269
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Leaving Cuba, Alfredo Jimenez 265
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Latinas: American Style 258
10	Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans 272
Mexican Americans 275
	The Immigrant Experience 275
	The Economic Picture 278
	Political Organizations 280
Puerto Ricans 282
	The Bridge Between the Island and the Mainland 283
	The Island of Puerto Rico 284
	The Island Economy 289
The Contemporary Picture of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans 290
	Education 290
	Family Life 292
	Health Care 292
	Religion 294
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: "¡Viva Vieques!", Martín St. Espada 288
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Assimilation May Be Hazardous to Your Health 293
11	Muslim and Arab Americans: Diverse Minorities 298
Muslim and Arab People 300
Arab Americans 301
Muslim Americans 304
	Black Muslims 307
Immigration to the United States 310
Contemporary Life in the United States 311
	Family Life and Gender 312
	Education 314
	Politics 314
Being Arab or Muslim in the United States 316
Issues of Prejudice and Discrimination 319
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Pendulum Swings on Civil Rights, James Zogby 317
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Christian and Muslim Arab American Women's Gender Roles 313
12	Asian Americans: Growth and Diversity 322
The "Model Minority" Image Explored 325
	Education and the Economy 326
	The Door Half Open 329
Political Activity 331
Diversity Among Asian Americans 333
Asian Indians 334
	Immigration 334
	The Present Picture 335
Filipino Americans 335
	Immigration Patterns 335
	The Present Picture 337
Southeast Asian Americans 339
	The Refugees 339
	The Present Picture 339
C	ase Study: A Hmong Community 341
Korean Americans 342
	Historical Background 342
	The Present Picture 343
Hawaii and Its People 345
	Historical Background 345
	The Present Picture 346
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Being Pakistani, Muslim, and Female in America, Fatima Arain 326
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Arranged Marriages in America 336
13	Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans 350
Chinese Americans 352
	Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans 353
	Chinatowns Today 354
	Family and Religious Life 357
Japanese Americans 359
	The Wartime Evacuation 360
	The Economic Picture 364
	Family and Religious Life 365
Remnants of Prejudice and Discrimination 366
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: From Kawasaki to Chicago, Miku Ishii 366
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Chinese Christians or Christian Chinese? 358
14	Jewish Americans: Quest to Maintain Identity 372
The Jewish People: Race, Religion, or Ethnic Group? 376
Immigration of Jews to the United States 377
Anti-Semitism: Past and Present 379
	Origins 379
	The Holocaust 381
	U.S. Anti-Semitism: Past 382
	Contemporary Anti-Semitism 384
Position of Jewish Americans 386
	Employment and Income 387
	Education 388
	Organizational Activity 388
	Political Activity 389
Religious Life 389
	The Orthodox Tradition 390
	The Reform Tradition 392
Jewish Identity 393
	Role of the Family 394
	Role of Religion 395
	Role of Cultural Heritage 397
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Night, Elie Wiesel 382
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Intermarriage: The Final Step to Assimilation? 395
PART IV
OTHER PATTERNS OF DOMINANCE
15	Women: The Oppressed Majority 400
Gender Roles 403
Sociological Perspectives 404
The Feminist Movement 405
	The Suffrage Movement 406
	The Women's Liberation Movement 406
The Economic Picture 407
	Sources of Discrimination 410
	Sexual Harassment 413
	Feminization of Poverty 414
Education 415
Family Life 416
	Child Care and Housework 416
	Abortion 420
Political Activity 420
Matrix of Domination: Minority Women 421
¦	LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Time for Change, Arlie Russell Hochschild 408
¦	RESEARCH FOCUS: Housework and the Gender Divide 418
16	Beyond the United States:
The Comparative Perspective 424
Mexico 426
	The Mexican Indian People and the Color Gradient 429
	The Status of Women 430
Canada 431
	The First Nation 432
	The Québécois 433
	Immigration and Race 435
Brazil: Not a Racial Paradise 436
	Legacy of Slavery 436
	The "Racial Democracy" Illusion 437
	Brazilian Dilemma 438
Israel and the Palestinians 440
	Arab-Israeli Conflicts 441
	The Intifada 442
	The Search for Solutions Amid Violence 443
	Republic of South Africa 445
	The Legacy of Colonialism 445
	Apartheid 446
The Era of Reconciliation and Moving On 448
¦ LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: Africa, It Is Ours!, Nelson Mandela 447
¦ RESEARCH FOCUS: Listening to the People 449
17	Overcoming Exclusion 452
The Aged: A Social Minority 455
	Who Are the Elderly? 455
	Ageism 456
	The Economic Picture 458
	Advocacy Efforts by the Elderly 459
People with Disabilities: Moving On 460
	Disability in Contemporary Society 461
	Labeling the Disabled 462
	Advocacy for Disability Rights 464
Gays and Lesbians: Coming Out for Equality 466
	Being Gay and Lesbian in the USA 467
	Prejudice and Discrimination 468
	Advocacy for Gay and Lesbian Rights 469
The Glass Half Empty 471
¦ LISTEN TO OUR VOICES: The Magic Wand, Lynn Manning 463
¦ RESEARCH FOCUS: The Face of Ageism 457
Internet Resource Directory 476
Glossary 479
References 484
Photo Credits 000
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Minorities -- United States.
United States -- Ethnic relations.
United States -- Race relations.
Prejudices -- United States.