Table of contents for Blackstone's guide to the Human Rights Act 1998 / John Wadham ... [et al.].

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Contents-Summary
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xi
TABLE OF CASES xiii
TABLE OF LEGISLATION xiv
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. THE FRAMEWORK OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON
HUMAN RIGHTS 19
3. THE FRAMEWORK OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 51
4. THE OPERATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 57
5. BRINGING A CLAIM UNDER THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 77
6. HUMAN RIGHTS ACT REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF
CONVENTION RIGHTS 87
7. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CONVENTION PRINCIPLES
AND EUROPEAN LAW 100
8. CONVENTION RIGHTS AND THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 111
9. BEYOND THE DOMESTIC COURTS: TAKING A CASE TO
STRASBOURG 267
10. RESEARCHING HUMAN RIGHTS JURISPRUDENCE 279
APPENDIX 1. Human Rights Act 1998 293
APPENDIX 2. The Government's White Paper 315
APPENDIX 3. Extracts from Hansard 329
APPENDIX 4. European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms 353
APPENDIX 5. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 383
APPENDIX 6. Selected Extracts from the Equality Act 2006 395
INDEX 403
Contents-Summary
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xi
TABLE OF CASES xiii
TABLE OF LEGISLATION xiv
1. INTRODUCTION
A. Introduction 1
B. Human rights In the united kingdom before the 1998 act 2
1. Rights in English Common Law before the 1998 Act 2
2. European Convention Rights in the United Kingdom before the 1998 Act 4
C. The Incorporation of the Convention [prev 1.2] 5
D. The Human Rights act as a Constitutional Instrument 7
1. Parliamentary Sovereignty and Entrenchment 7
2. Politicizing the Judiciary? 8
E. Human Rights in the United Kingdom after the 1998 act 10
1. The Convention in the United Kingdom after the 1998 Act 10
2. The Effects of the 1998 Act 11
F. The Institutional Framework-Creating a Culture of Respect for Human
Rights [prev 1.5] 12
1. A Human Rights Culture in Parliament? 13
2. A Commission for Equality and Human Rights 14
G. The Future of Human Rights Protection in the United Kingdom 15
1. The Future of the 1998 Act 15
2. Protection Gaps in the Convention 16
3. Protection Gaps in the 1998 Act 17
4. Future Developments? 18
2. THE FRAMEWORK OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN
RIGHTS
A. Introduction 19
B. Interpreting the Convention 20
1. `Object and Purpose' 21
2. Effectiveness Principle 21
3. Autonomous Concepts 22
4. Dynamic Interpretation 23
5. Recourse to Other Human Rights Instruments 24
C. The Scope of Convention Rights 24
1. Absolute, Limited and Qualified Rights 24
2. Positive Obligations 26
D. Limitations and Restrictions on Convention Rights 29
1. Underlying Principles] 30
2. Express Limitations under Qualified Rights-Articles 8-11 42
3. Express Limitations on Limited Rights 42
4. Impliedly Permitted Restrictions 43
5. Restrictions Specifically Provided for by Reservations and Derogations 44
6. Restrictions under Articles 16, 17 and 18 46
E. Margin of Appreciation and Discretionary Area of Judgment 46
1. Overview 46
2. Margin of Appreciation and `Discretionary Area of Judgment': the Role of the
National Court 48
3. THE FRAMEWORK OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT
A. Introduction 51
B. Overview of the Provisions of the 1998 Act 52
1. Section 1 and Sch 1-Definition of Convention Rights 52
2. Section 2-Interpretation of Convention Rights 52
3. Section 3-Interpretation of Legislation 52
4. Section 19-Statements of Compatibility 52
5. Sections 4, 5, 10 and Sch 2-Incompatibility of Legislation 53
6. Section 6-Acts of Public Authorities 53
7. Section 7-Proceedings against Public Authorities 53
8. Section 8-Judicial Remedies 53
9. Section 9-Judicial Acts 54
10. Section 11-Safeguard for Existing Human Rights 54
11. Sections 12 and 13-Respect for Freedoms 54
12. Designated Derogations and Reservations 54
C. Summary of the Effects of the 1998 Act 54
4. THE OPERATION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT
A. Introduction 57
B. The Human Rights Act Mechanism 58
1. Section 8 58
2. Section 3 58
3. Interplay of Sections 3 and 4 61
4. Section 2 62
5. Interplay of Sections 2 and 3 64
6. Section 19 65
C. Exceptions and Special Cases 65
1. Article 13 65
2. Section 12 66
3. Section 13 67
D. The Effect of the Convention in Litigation 67
1. Indirect Enforcement of Convention Rights: Private Parties and the Human
Rights Act 67
2. Direct Enforcement of Convention Rights: Public Authorities and the Human
Rights Act 70
5. BRINGING A CLAIM UNDER THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT
A. Introduction 77
B. Limitation Periods: Are There Time Limits For Bringing A Claim Under
The 1998 Act? 78
C. Standing and Interventions: Who May Bring Proceedings under the 1998
Act? 78
1. Victims 79
2. Standing 80
3. Third Party Interventions 82
D. The Appropriate Forum for an Argument under the 1998 Act 84
6. HUMAN RIGHTS ACT REMEDIES FOR BREACHES OF CONVENTION
RIGHTS
A. Introduction 87
B. Section 8-Damages 88
1. Jurisdiction and Procedure 88
2. Principles of Assessment 89
3. Quantum 90
4. Claims against Judicial Bodies and Parliament 93
C. Section 4-Declarations of Incompatibility 93
1. Jurisdiction, Procedure and Notice Provisions 94
2. Examples of Declarations of Incompatibility in Specific Cases 95
3. Costs 97
D. Section 10-`Fast-Track' Procedure 98
1. Remedial Orders 98
7. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CONVENTION PRINCIPLES AND
EUROPEAN UNION LAW
A. Introduction 101
B. The Developing Doctrine of Fundamental Rights in EC and EU Law 102
C. The European Charter of Fundamental Rights 104
D. The Interaction of EC/EU Law with Application of Convention Principles
in UK Courts 106
8. CONVENTION RIGHTS AND THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT
A. Introduction 111
B. Article 2: Right to Life 112
1. `Everyone' 113
2. Obligation to Protect the Right to Life 114
3. Prohibition on Taking Life 115
4. Procedural Obligation 115
5. Exceptions to the Right to Life 116
6. Standing 117
7. Human Rights Act Decisions 117
C. Article 3: Prohibition of Torture 119
1. Scope of Article 3 119
2. State Responsibility 121
3. Positive Obligations 122
4. `Warning' Decisions 123
5. Human Rights Act Decisions 123
D. Article 4: Prohibition of Slavery and Forced Labour 126
1. Slavery and Servitude 127
2. Forced or Compulsory Labour 127
3. Human Rights Act Decisions 128
E. Article 5: Right to Liberty and Security 128
1. Deprivation of Liberty 129
2. Exceptions to the Right to Liberty 130
3. Procedural Safeguards 133
4. Right to Compensation 135
5. Human Rights Act Decisions 135
F. Article 6: Right to a Fair Trial 139
1. Article 6(1) 140
2. Determination 141
3. Criminal Charge 141
4. Civil Rights and Obligations 143
5. Fair Hearing 144
6. Public Hearings 149
7. Hearing Within a Reasonable Time 149
8. Impartiality 150
9. Presumption of Innocence 151
10. Further Specific Rights in Criminal Cases 152
11. Evidence in Criminal Proceedings 154
12. Disclosure in Criminal Proceedings 155
13. Human Rights Act Decisions 155
G. Article 7: no Punishment Without Lawful Authority 159
1. `Criminal' 160
2. Article 7(1): Retrospective Offences 160
3. Article 7(2): Heavier Penalties 161
4. Article 7(2): General Principles of Law of Civilized Nations 163
5. Human Rights Act Decisions 164
H. Article 8: Right to Respect For Private and Family Life 166
1. Private Life 167
2. Family Life 169
3. Home 172
4. Correspondence 172
5. Positive Obligations 172
6. Article 8(2)] 172
7. Human Rights Act Decisions 175
I. Article 9: Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion 181
1. `Everyone' 182
2. Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion 182
3. Manifestation of One's Religion or Beliefs 183
4. Limitations 184
5. Human Rights Act Decisions 186
J. Article 10: Freedom of Expression 190
1. `Everyone' 191
2. Scope of the Right 191
3. Exceptions to the Right to Freedom of Expression 193
4. Positive Obligations 196
5. Margin of Appreciation 196
6. Human Rights Act Decisions 197
K. Article 11: Freedom of Assembly and Association 200
1. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly 202
2. Freedom of Association 205
3. Human Rights Act Decisions 209
L. Article 12: Right to Marry 211
1. The Right to Marry 211
2. Right to Found a Family 213
3. Proportionality and Article 12 214
4. Human Rights Act Decisions 214
M. Article 13: Right to an Effective Remedy 216
1. Effective Remedy 216
2. National Authority 218
3. Human Rights Act Implications 218
N. Article 14: Prohibition on Discrimination 219
1. Scope of Article 14 219
2. Discrimination 221
3. Justification 222
4. Indirect Discrimination 224
5. Human Rights Act Decisions 227
O. Article 15: Exceptions in Time of War 231
1. Non-derogable Rights 232
2. Time of War or Public Emergency 232
3. Strictly Required by the Exigencies of the Situation 233
4. International law obligations 234
5. Procedural requirements 234
6. Derogations and the Human Rights Act 234
P. Article 16: Restrictions on Political Activity of Aliens 237
1. Human Rights Act Decisions 238
Q. Article 17: Prohibition of Abuse of Rights 238
1. Human Rights Act Decisions 239
R. Article 18: Limitation on Use of Restrictions on Rights 240
1. Human Rights Act Decisions 241
S. Protocol 1, Article 1: Protection of Property 241
1. The Three Rules 242
2. Possessions 242
3. Interference with the Right to Property 245
4. Limitations 246
5. Human Rights Act Decisions 248
T. Protocol 1, Article 2: The Right to Education 250
1. Scope of the Right 251
2. Parental Right to Educate Children in Conformity with Convictions 252
3. Other Limitations 253
4. Discrimination 253
5. The Right to Education and the Human Rights Act 254
U. Protocol 1, Article 3: Right to Free Elections 255
1. `Legislature' 256
2. `Elections' 256
3. The Right to Vote 256
4. The Right to Stand for Election 257
5. Electoral Systems 257
6. Human Rights Act Decisions 258
V. Protocol 4 258
1. Protocol 4, Article 1 258
2. Protocol 4, Article 2 259
3. Protocol 4, Article 3 259
4. Protocol 4, Article 4 260
5. Ratification of Protocol 4 by the UK 260
W. Protocol 7 260
1. Protocol 7, Article 1 261
2. Protocol 7, Article 2 262
3. Protocol 7, Article 3 263
4. Protocol 7, Article 4 263
5. Protocol 7, Article 5 264
X. Protocol 12 265
Y. Protocol 13 265
9. BEYOND THE DOMESTIC COURTS: TAKING A CASE TO
STRASBOURG
A. Introduction 267
B. The Structure and Jurisdiction of the Court 269
C. Making a Complaint 269
1. Urgent Cases 270
2. Court's Response to a Letter of Introduction 270
3. Representation 270
4. Application Form 271
D. Admissibility 271
1. Who is a `Victim'? 271
2. Against Whom Can a Complaint be Brought? 272
3. Extent of Jurisdiction 272
4. Complaint Must Concern a Convention Issue 272
5. Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies 272
6. Six-Month Time Limit 272
7. Other Inadmissibility Grounds 273
8. New Provision on Admissibility to be Introduced by Protocol 14 274
9. Decision on Admissibility 274
10. Consideration by a Chamber and Communication to the Government 274
11. Friendly Settlements 275
E. The Merits Stage 275
1. Assessing the Merits 275
2. Court's Investigative Powers 275
3. Third-Party Interventions 275
4. Oral Hearing 276
5. Judgment 276
6. Appeals to the Grand Chamber 276
7. Remedies 276
F. Funding for Cases in Strasbourg 277
1. Domestic Legal Services Commission Funding 277
2. Other Sources of Funding 277
3. Strasbourg Legal Aid 277
10. RESEARCHING HUMAN RIGHTS JURISPRUDENCE
A. Introduction 279
B. Convention Jurisprudence 280
1. Pre-Protocol 11 280
2. Protocol 11 280
3. Weight of Authorities 281
4. Referencing System 282
C. Finding Convention Case Law 282
1. European Court Judgments: Official Reports 282
2. European Commission 282
3. Website 283
4. Bibliographic Resources on Convention Case Law 283
5. Travaux Preparatoires 284
D. Finding Human Rights Act Materials 284
1. Law Reports, Journals and Books 284
2. Electronic and Online Resources 285
3. Use of Hansard 286
E. Finding Relevant Materials from Other Jurisdictions 287
1. Canada 288
2. New Zealand 288
3. South Africa 288
4. Australia 288
5. Hong Kong 289
6. United States 289
F. Finding Other International and Regional Human Rights Materials 289
1. EC/EU Law 289
2. International Human Rights Law 290
3. UN Charter and Treaty Body System 290
4. Inter-American System 291
5. African Charter on Human and People's Rights 291
APPENDIX 1. Human Rights Act 1998 293
APPENDIX 2. The Government's White Paper 315
APPENDIX 3. Extracts from Hansard 329
APPENDIX 4. European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms 353
APPENDIX 5. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 383
APPENDIX 6. Equality Act 2006 395
INDEX 403

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human rights -- Great Britain.
Human rights -- Europe.