Table of contents for Wireless Internet and mobile computing : interoperability and performance / Yu Kwong Ricky Kwok and Vincent Lau.

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CONTENTS
List of Figures xix
List of Tables xxxv
Preface xxxvii
Acknowledgments xlvii
Acronyms xlix
PART I ESSENTIALS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
1 The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Large Scale Path-loss 3
1.3 Shadowing Effects 5
1.4 Small Scale Multipath Fading Effects 6
1.4.1 Flat Fading vs Frequency Selective Fading 8
1.4.2 Fast Fading vs Slow Fading 11
1.5 Practical Considerations 11
1.6 Summary 13
Problems 14
2 Modulation Techniques 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Signal Space and Geometric Representation of Signals 18
2.3 Modulation Design and Signal Constellations 22
2.4 Demodulation Design and Optimal Detection in AWGN Channels 25
2.5 Performance and Tradeoffs 29
2.6 Practical Illustrations 33
2.7 Summary 39
Problems 39
3 Multi-User Communications 41
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Information Theoretical Overview of Multi-user communications 42
3.2.1 Multi-Access Problem 43
3.2.2 Broadcast Problem 46
3.3 Orthogonal Resource Partition 46
3.3.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 47
3.3.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 48
3.3.3 Deterministic Code Division Multiple Access (D-CDMA) 49
3.3.4 Hybrid Design of FDMA, TDMA and D-CDMA 54
3.4 Non-Orthogonal Resource Partitioning 56
3.4.1 Random Code Division Multiple Access (R-CDMA) 56
3.4.2 Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 60
3.5 Spectral Efficiency and Performance Issues 63
3.5.1 Single Cell Comparison 63
3.5.2 Multi-Cell Comparison 67
3.6 Practical Illustrations of GSM, CDMA and Wireless LAN 70
3.6.1 Multiuser resource partitioning in GSM 71
3.6.2 Multiuser resource partitioning in IS95 72
3.6.3 Multiuser resource partitioning in Wireless LAN 72
3.7 Summary 73
Problems 74
4 Diversity Techniques 75
4.1 Introduction 75
4.2 Effects of Flat Fading on BER Performance 76
4.3 Effects of Frequency Selective Fading on BER Performance 77
4.4 Diversity: A Key Technique to Combat Flat Fading Channels 79
4.4.1 Diversity Combining 79
4.4.2 Realization of Diversity 83
4.5 Equalization* 84
4.5.1 Maximal Likelihood Sequence Estimator (MLSE) 84
4.5.2 Linear Equalization 86
4.6 Practical Illustration: RAKE Receiver 87
4.7 Summary 90
Problems 91
PART II CELLULAR WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES
5 Overview and Evolution of Cellular Technologies 95
5.1 Introduction 95
5.2 Evolution of Cellular Systems 96
5.2.1 Evolution from 1G to 2G 99
5.2.2 Evolution from 2G to 2.5G and 3G Systems 101
5.3 Technical Challenges to Realize 3G Services 104
5.3.1 Transmission over the Air 104
5.3.2 Quality-of-Service (QoS) 108
5.3.3 Infrastructure 110
5.4 Summary 112
Problems 113
6 CDMA (IS-95) 115
6.1 Introduction 115
6.2 System Architecture of IS95 116
6.3 Physical Layer and Physical Channels 117
6.3.1 Channelization in the Uplink 118
6.3.2 Channelization in the Downlink 119
6.4 Call Processing 121
6.4.1 Initialization and Cell Search State 121
6.4.2 Idle State 126
6.4.3 Access State 126
6.4.4 Traffic Conversation State 128
6.4.5 Example: Circuit Switched Connection for Voice 130
6.4.6 Example: Circuit Switched Connection for Data 130
6.5 Power Control 133
6.5.1 Open Loop Power Control 134
6.5.2 Inner Loop Power Control 135
6.5.3 Outer Loop Power Control 137
6.5.4 Example 138
6.6 Soft Handover 141
6.6.1 Pilot Strength Measurement and Soft Handover Combining 141
6.6.2 Mobile Soft Handover Processing 143
6.6.3 Infrastructure Soft Handover Processing 144
6.6.4 Example 146
6.7 Summary 149
Problems 150
7 GSM 151
7.1 Introduction 151
7.2 GSM System Architecture 152
7.2.1 Mobile Station 153
7.2.2 Base Station Subsystem 153
7.2.3 Core Network Subsystem 154
7.3 GPRS System Architecture 154
7.3.1 GPRS Mobile 155
7.3.2 GPRS Base Station Subsystem 157
7.3.3 GPRS Support Nodes, HLR and VLR 158
7.4 Radio Interface 158
7.4.1 GSM Radio Interface 159
7.4.2 GPRS Radio Interface 165
7.5 Core Network Interface and Services 168
7.5.1 Circuit-Switched Domain?GSM Core Network 168
7.5.2 Packet-Switched Domain?GPRS Core Network 180
7.6 Summary 187
Problems 188
8 Wideband CDMA and Beyond 189
8.1 Introduction 189
8.2 UMTS Architecture 191
8.2.1 Radio Interface 192
8.2.2 PHY Layer 194
8.2.3 MAC Layer 201
8.2.4 RLC Layer 204
8.2.5 RRC Layer 207
8.3 Packet Switched Connections in UMTS (Rel 99) 210
8.3.1 Radio Bearer for Packet Switched Users 211
8.3.2 Setup of Packet Switched Connection 211
8.4 Packet Scheduling in HSDPA (Rel 5) 214
8.4.1 Key Enabling Technologies in HSDPA 214
8.4.2 Continued Evolution 219
8.5 Summary 220
Problems 221
PART III SHORT-RANGE WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES
9 IEEE 802.11x WLAN Standards 225
9.1 Introduction 225
9.2 Design Goals 226
9.3 IEEE 802 Architecture 226
9.4 IEEE 802.11 MAC Layer 229
9.4.1 Hidden Terminal and Exposed Terminal Problems 229
9.4.2 Four-Frame Sequence 233
9.4.3 DCF and PCF 234
9.5 IEEE 802.11 Physical Layers 237
9.5.1 Physical Link Features 237
9.5.2 IEEE 802.11a 239
9.5.3 IEEE 802.11b 239
9.5.4 IEEE 802.11g 240
9.5.5 IEEE 802.11ag Dual Band 240
9.6 IEEE 802.11e for QoS Provisioning 241
9.7 Advanced Developments 243
9.8 Practical Illustration: Home Network 245
9.9 Summary 246
Problems 247
10 Bluetooth WPAN 249
10.1 Introduction 249
10.2 Design Goals 250
10.3 Bluetooth Protocol Stack 250
10.4 Bluetooth Physical and MAC Layers 255
10.4.1 Bluetooth Physical Layer 255
10.4.2 Bluetooth MAC Layer 256
10.5 Piconets and Scatternets 259
10.5.1 Overview 259
10.5.2 Piconet Formation 260
10.5.3 Scatternet Formation 261
10.5.4 QoS Consideration in Piconet and Scatternet 264
10.6 Performance Issues 265
10.7 Practical Illustration: Sensor Network 266
10.8 Summary 268
Problems 268
11 Coexistence Issues 269
11.1 Introduction 269
11.2 The ISM Band Spectrum 270
11.3 Packet Collision 271
11.4 Possible Solutions 272
11.4.1 Collaborative Mechanisms 272
11.4.2 Non-Collaborative Mechanisms 274
11.5 IEEE 802.15 TG2 277
11.6 Interference Source Oriented Adaptive Frequency Hopping 278
11.7 Interference Source Oriented Master Delay MAC Scheduling 279
11.8 Performance Issues 281
11.9 Practical Illustration: Bluetooth and Wi-Fi Colocate Transmissions 282
11.10 Summary 283
Problems 285
12 Competing Technologies 287
12.1 Introduction 287
12.2 IrDA 288
12.2.1 Design Goal 288
12.2.2 Transmission techniques 288
12.2.3 IrDA Protocol Stack 290
12.2.4 IrDA Physical layer and Data Link layer 293
12.3 HomeRF 295
12.3.1 Design Goal 295
12.3.2 Structure of HomeRF 295
12.3.3 Protocol Stack 296
12.3.4 HomeRF PHY and MAC 297
12.4 HIPERLAN 300
12.4.1 Design Goal 300
12.4.2 Structure of HiperLAN 300
12.4.3 Protocol Stack 300
12.4.4 HiperLAN/2 PHY and DLC 303
12.4.5 QoS consideration in HiperLAN/2 307
12.5 Practical Illustrations?Implementation of HIPERLAN 307
12.6 Summary 309
Problems 310
PART IV PROTOCOL ADAPTATIONS FOR WIRELESS NETWORKING
13 Mobile IP 313
13.1 Introduction 313
13.2 Advertisement Mechanisms 314
13.3 Registration 317
13.4 Tunneling Approaches 320
13.5 Route Optimizations 324
13.6 Practical Illustrations?Hierarchical Mobility Management 325
13.7 Summary 326
Problems 326
14 IPv6 329
14.1 Introduction 329
14.2 Design Goals 330
14.3 Mobility Support 338
14.4 Home Agents Discovery 339
14.5 Practical Illustrations?IPv6 Based VTHD Network 340
14.6 Summary 343
Problems 343
15 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 345
15.1 Introduction 345
15.2 WAP Service Model 346
15.3 WAP System Architecture 349
15.4 WAP Protocol Stack 351
15.5 WAP Profiles and Caching 355
15.6 Practical Illustrations?Location-Aware Advertising System 357
15.7 Summary 358
Problems 360
16 TCP over Wireless 361
16.1 Introduction 361
16.2 TCP Congestion and Error Control 362
16.3 Deficiencies and Overview of Solutions 365
16.4 Link Layer Approaches 366
16.5 Split Connection Approaches 369
16.6 End-to-End Approaches 371
16.7 Practical Illustrations?Wireless WAN 373
16.8 Summary 375
Problems 375
PART V WIRELESS RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
17 Wireless Packet Scheduling 379
17.1 Introduction 379
17.2 The Scheduling Problem 380
17.3 System Model 383
17.4 Fairness Notions 389
17.5 Fair Queueing Approaches 392
17.6 Practical Illustrations?HSDPA 396
17.7 Summary 396
Problems 396
18 Power Management 397
18.1 Introduction 397
18.2 Characterization of Power Consumption 398
18.3 Power Conservation Schemes 399
18.3.1 Power Conservation Schemes under Active Communication 400
18.3.2 Power Conservation Schemes under Idle Period 404
18.4 Performance Issues 409
18.5 Practical Illustrations?The pcMAC Scheme 410
18.6 Summary 411
Problems 412
19 Ad Hoc Routing 413
19.1 Introduction 413
19.2 Application Scenarios 414
19.3 System Model 415
19.4 Performance Metrics 417
19.5 Routing Protocols 419
19.5.1 Table-Driven/Proactive Routing Protocols 419
19.5.2 On-Demand/Reactive Routing Protocols 423
19.5.3 Hybrid Routing Protocols 429
19.5.4 Ad Hoc Routing Protocols with Consideration of Other Constraints 430
19.5.5 Summary 432
19.6 Practical Illustrations?WLAN Based Ad Hoc Routing 432
19.7 Summary 434
Problems 435
20 Wireless Data Caching 437
20.1 Introduction 437
20.2 Application Scenarios 438
20.3 System Architecture 439
20.4 Performance Metrics 442
20.5 Data Caching Approaches 442
20.6 Practical Illustrations?Proactive Key Caching 451
20.7 Summary 451
Problems 452
21 Security Issues 453
21.1 Introduction 453
21.2 Security Considerations 454
21.2.1 Design Goals 454
21.2.2 Components of a Secure Wireless Communication System 455
21.3 Cellular Wireless Security 456
21.3.1 GSM Security 456
21.3.2 CDMA Security 458
21.3.3 3G Security 460
21.4 Short-Range Wireless Security 462
21.4.1 Bluetooth Security 462
21.4.2 IEEE 802.11b Security 466
21.5 Practical Illustrations?Wireless LAN Security Auditing 470
21.6 Summary 472
Problems 473
PART VI MOBILE COMPUTING APPLICATION ISSUES
22 VoIP on Wireless 477
22.1 Introduction 477
22.2 iGSM VoIP Approach 478
22.3 iGSM System Architecture 478
22.4 iGSM Call Processing 479
22.4.1 Registration Procedures 480
22.4.2 Deregistration Procedures 482
22.4.3 Call-Setup Procedures 483
22.4.4 Problems in iGSM 484
22.5 Practical Illustrations?Problems and Solutions for VoIP over IEEE 802.11 486
22.6 Summary 490
Problems 490
23 Wireless Video 491
23.1 Introduction 491
23.2 Real-Time Service Goals 492
23.3 System Constraints 492
23.4 Error Concealment Techniques 493
23.4.1 Forward Techniques 494
23.4.2 Postprocessing Techniques 497
23.4.3 Interactive Techniques 501
23.5 Joint Source Channel Coding Techniques 501
23.6 Practical Illustrations?Rate Adaptation for MPEG-4 Video 502
23.7 Summary 503
Problems 505
24 Wireless File Systems 507
24.1 Introduction 507
24.2 File System Service Model 508
24.3 General Principles for the Design of a Distributed File System 510
24.4 Replication Services and Mechanisms 510
24.5 Disconnected Operations and Caching 514
24.6 Weakly Connected Operations 515
24.7 Practical Illustrations?Mobile Distributed Database 517
24.8 Summary 521
Problems 521
25 Location Dependent Services 523
25.1 Introduction 523
25.2 Mobile Location Service Model 524
25.2.1 In-Vehicle Mobile Location Service 524
25.2.2 Personal Mobile Location Service 525
25.2.3 Government Enforcement 525
25.2.4 Components of Mobile Location Services 526
25.3 Spatial Analysis Techniques 526
25.3.1 Geocoding and Reverse Geocoding 527
25.3.2 Routing 528
25.3.3 Other Operations 528
25.4 Mobile Positioning Techniques 529
25.4.1 Cellular Location Techniques 529
25.4.2 GPS Location Techniques 531
25.4.3 Hybrid Location Techniques 531
25.5 Practical Illustrations?The Cricket Location Support System 531
25.6 Summary 536
Problems 537
26 Trust Bootstrapping in Wireless Sensor Networks 539
26.1 Introduction 539
26.2 Key Predistribution 543
26.3 Key Predistribution with Deployment Knowledge 547
26.4 Key Establishment 551
26.5 Discussions and Future Work 562
26.6 Summary 562
Problems 563
27 Peer-to-Peer Computing over Wireless 565
27.1 Introduction 565
27.2 A Taxonomy of P2P Systems 566
27.3 Wired P2P Systems 568
27.4 Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 570
CONTENTS xvii
27.4.1 Graph Theoretical Approach 570
27.4.2 Non-Graph Theoretical Approach 572
27.5 Media Objects Replication Techniques 572
27.6 Practical Illustrations?Localized Topology Control 574
27.7 Summary 579
Problems 579
28 Incentives in Peer-to-Peer Computing 581
28.1 Introduction 581
28.2 Incentive Issues in P2P Systems over the Internet 584
28.2.1 File Sharing Systems 584
28.2.2 Media Streaming Systems 598
28.3 Incentive Issues in Wireless P2P Systems 603
28.3.1 Routing and Data Forwarding 603
28.3.2 Wireless Information Sharing Systems 605
28.3.3 Network Access Sharing 607
28.4 Discussion and Future Work 608
28.5 Summary 609
Problems 609
Appendix A: Optimality of Minimum Distance Decoder 611
References 613
Topic Index 631

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Wireless communication systems.
Mobile computing.
Internetworking (Telecommunication).