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Table of Contents List of Maps ABBREVIATIONS PREFACE Tehran, May 2002 Halabja, May 2002 Amman, September 2006 Acknowledgments INTRODUCTION: THE HALABJA CONTROVERSY Witness to a Gas Attack The Fog of War Sparring at the United Nations Why It Matters A Note on Sources and Methodology CHAPTER I: CROSSING THE CHEMICAL TRHRESHOLD The Iran-Iraq War and Iraq's Need for a New Weapon First Documented Mustard Gas Attacks: Summer 1983 The World's First Battlefield Use of Nerve Gas: Winter 1984 CHAPTER II: SETTING THE VOLUME CONTROL Flushing Out the Reagan Administration A Growing Tilt Donald Rumsfeld Visits Baghdad Consummating the Affair: US Policy in 1984 The UN Investigates A Missed Opportunity CHAPTER III: CHEMICAL INTERLUDE The Badr Offensive (March 1985) The Occupation of Faw (February 1986) Betrayal: The Iran-Contra Affair Setting a New Course CHAPTER IV: WAR IN KURDISTAN Gas Attacks Against Kurds in Iran The Spreading Rebellion in Iraqi Kurdistan Ali Chemical's Reign "Special" Communications Channels An Internal Matter CHAPTER V: HALABJA A Marriage of Convenience Conflicting Accounts Middle Ground "To Protect Our Own People": Responsibility CHAPTER VI: THE HALABJA DEMONSTRATION EFFECT Blowing Smoke Gas as an Integral Part of Anfal Anfal and US Intelligence The Use of Gas to End the War The Threat to Gas Tehran CHAPTER VII: IRAN AND THE USE OF GAS Black Sheep Bleating Did Iran Use Gas? Experimenting with Kurds? The Blow-Back Ruse Iran, Iraq, and Halabja On Balance CHAPTER VIII: FIXING THE EVIDENCE The Pentagon and Halabja Intercepts and Informants Blue Lips vs. Red Lips Inside the Pentagon CHAPTER IX: THE ROAD TO KUWAIT "Preventing" Genocide A Transcendent Interest Chemical Legacy CONCLUSION: FALL-OUT The Kurds: Resurgent Nationalism Iran: Nuclear Quest The United States: Failure to Intervene Early Targeting Civilians: A Growing Culture of Impunity EPILOGUE United States, August 2006 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Halabjah (Iraq) -- History -- Bombardment, 1988.
Kurds -- Crimes against -- Iraq.
Iraq -- Ethnic relations.
United States -- Foreign relations -- Iraq.
Iraq -- Foreign relations -- United States.