Table of contents for Alternate routes to teaching / C. Emily Feistritzer, Charlene K. Haar.

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 Contents
PREFACE			i
Chapter 1 / WHAT ARE ALTERNATE ROUTES TO TEACHING?	1
	A. Questions About Alternate Routes	1
	B. What Are Alternate Routes to Teacher 
Certification?	2
		1. Definitions	4
		2. Alternate Routes and NCEI	4
			a. NCEI Documents Proliferation of State 
Alternate 	Routes	5 
 			b. Alternate Route Programs Multiply	5
			c. Participants in Alternate Route Programs 
 Increase Dramatically	5
	C. Why Alternate Routes?	6
	D. The Beginnings of Alternate Routes	7
	E. Alternate Routes Emerge: Order and Common 
 characteristics	9
	F. Alternate Routes Respond to Today's Market 
Demands	11
	G. New Teacher Graduates	13
		1. Are Bachelor's Degree Recipients a Reliable 
 Market for Teachers?	13
		2. What Happens to Education Degree Graduates?	14
	H. Alternate Routes Provide Market Efficiency	15
	I. Teacher Demand	15
		1. Projections of Teacher Shortages	16
		2. Who Are New Teachers?	17
				a. The First SASS Defines New Teachers	18
		3. SASS Later Revised New Teacher Designations	18
				a. Sources of Teacher supply Redefined	19
		4. The Alternate Route Market for Teaching	21
	J. The Context for Alternate Routes: K-12 
Education 
 in the U.S.	22
		1. Profile of U.S. Public K-12 Education 
System.	23
		2. Public School Districts	23
		3. Public School Size and Student Enrollment	25
		5. Public School Student Enrollment and 
Teachers	26
		6. Distribution of Schools, Teachers and 
Students	27
		7. Teacher Vacancies (Demand)	27
	K. The Role Alternate Routes Play	28
Chapter 2 / HOW DID ALTERNATE ROUTES DEVELOP?	29
			1. From Ecclesiastical to Civil Authority	29
	2. State-approved Teacher Education Programs	 31
 B. The Nation Reacts 	 33
 1. Expansion of the Role of the Federal Government	 33
	 2. Great Society Programs Affected Education 
 From Top to Bottom	33
	 3. National Commission on Excellence in Education	39 
 C. New Jersey Begins the Debate About Alternate Routes	45
		1. Redefining the Traditional College-based Route	45
		2. Emergence of an "Alternate Route"	47
		3. Selling the Alternate Route Concept	48
				a. Pros and Cons	49
		4. New Jersey Launches the Provisional Teacher 
Program	51
 D. California Authorizes Alternate Route	54
 E. Texas Approves Alternate Route	58
 F. Alternate Routes Provoke Scrutiny	61
		1. Haberman Justifies Support for Alternate Routes	68
		2. Groups Call for Changes in Traditional Teacher 
 Preparation Programs 	65
				a. The Holmes Group	65
				b. The Carnegie Forum	68
				c. AACTE	73
				d. U.S. Department of Education	75
				 (1) Characteristics and Career Goals of 
Participants	81
				 (2) Characteristics and Success of Programs	81
				 (3) Evaluations and Perceptions	82
				3. Alternate Routes Respond to Market Needs	84
				a. Flexibility of Local School Needs	84
				b. Favorable to Ethnic Minorities	85
		4. Some Critics Hoped Alternate Routes 
 Would Disappear Quickly	86
		5. Proponent Credits Alternate Routes a Bold Plan	89
		6. Some Saw Alternative Certification as a 
 Deregulation Effort While the NEA Favored 
 More Controls	90
H. Variations Were Characteristic as Alternate Routes 
 Showed Steady Growth	93
		1. Variations Occurred at All Levels	93
				a. Licensure Requirements	94
				b. Program Names	95
I. The National Center for Education Information 
 Sorts Out Alternate Route Data	99
		1. NCEI Produces a State-by-State Analysis of 
 Alternate Routes	100
		2. NCEI Develops a Classification System for 
 Alternate Routes	101
Chapter 3 / HOW DID NEW NATIONAL PROGRAMS AND FEDERAL 
INVOLVEMENT PROMOTE ALTERNATE ROUTE PARTICIPATION?	108
A. New National Programs Boost Alternate Route 
Participation	108
		1. Teach for America	108
		2. Troops to Teachers	113
B. The Federal Government Boosts Alternate Routes	117
C. Congress Adds Disclosure Requirements to 
 1998 Reauthorization of HEA	119
		1. Title II / Teacher Quality	121
		2. New Report Card Data Requirements	123
		3. AACTE Responds to Disclosure Requirements	126
B. Teacher Quality Issues Include K-12 Education	127
		1. Congress Probes Teacher Quality Issues	128
				a. Feistritzer Testifies about Quality 
				 Alternate Routes	129
				b. California Official Testifies about 
 Quality Assessment	129
				c. Kanstoroom Offers Changes to Improve Quality	130
C. Congress Reauthorizes ESEA A/K/A No Child Left Behind	131
		1. Title I / New Teacher Quality Requirements	132
		2. Title II / Improving Teacher Quality	133
				a. Transition to Teaching Grants Support Career-
switchers into Teaching	134
	E. U.S. Secretary of Education Issues Annual Reports on 
 Teacher quality	138
		1. State Barriers Discourage Career Switchers	138
		2. Education Secretary Highlights Innovative 
 Alternate Routes	140
		3. Secretary Commits Support for Alternate Routes	141
		4. Secretary Reports that Five States Produced 82% 
of
				Teachers Prepared Through Alternate Routes in 
2004	142
		5. Secretary Clarifies How Alternate Route 
Participants 
 Meet the Highly Qualified Teacher Requirements 
 of NCLB	 144
	F. Groups Weigh-in on Teacher Preparation	147
		1. The Teacher Unions Set Criteria for 
 Alternate Routes	 147
	G. Alternate Routes Today	149
		1. Newest Routes Have Unique Characteristics	149
				a. The American Board for Certification of 
Teacher 
 Excellence (ABCTE)	149
		b. Temporary Teacher Certificate in Texas	151
		c. California Teaching Foundations Examinations	152
	2. Most States Now Share Common characteristics	153
Chapter 4 / WHAT CONSTITUTES STATE ALTERNATIVE ROUTES TO 
TEACHER CERTIFICATION?	156
	A. Alternative Routes, State-by-State	156
		1. Not all State Alternate Routes are the Same	156
		2. Regional differences	161
	B. Lessons Learned From Successful Alternate Routes	162
	C. Profiles of Selected State Alternate Routes	163
		1. New Jersey	164
				a. Production of Teachers through Alternate 
 Route in New Jersey	164
				b. Retention of Provisional Teacher Program 
 Teachers	165
				c. Revisions in New Jersey's Alternate Route	166
		2. California	166
				a. Production of Teachers Through California 
 Intern Routes	168
				b. Retention of Intern Teachers	169
				c. Revisions in California's Alternate Routes	170
				d. Study of District Intern Program Confirms 
Value 
 of California's Alternate Routes	170
		3. Texas	171
				a. Production of Teachers Through Texas 
 Alternate Route	172
				b. Retention of Alternate Route Teachers in Texas	173
		4. Florida	174
				a. School Districts Call for Help	176
		5. New York	177
		6. Kentucky	180
				a. Production of Teachers through Kentucky's 
 Alternate Routes	182
 Chapter 5 / HOW DO PROVIDERS IMPLEMENT STATE ALTERNATE 
 ROUTES?	.183
	A. How Do Providers Implement State Alternate Routes?	183
		1. State-approved Providers Vary from State-to-State	183
		2. Providers Report to NCAC Through a Data Template	186
	B. Analyses of Selected NCAC Data Template Responses 
from Alternate Route Program Providers	187
		1. Analysis of Program Provider Data	187
		2. Who Administers the Alternate Route Program?	188
		3. Requirements and Program Features	189
				a. Entry Requirements	189
				b. Grade Levels	190
				c. Subject Areas	191
				d. Courses Required and Delivery Options	191
				e. Learning Components	193
				f. Cohorts	194
				g. Teaching While Learning	194
				h. Candidate Support	194
				i. Candidate Assessments	195
				j. Criteria for Certification	196
				k. Type of Certificate Received	197
				l. Program Completion Time	197
				m. Program Costs	198
		3. The Bottom Line	 199
Chapter 6 / WHO ARE ALTERNATE ROUTE TEACHERS?	200
	A. Profile of Alternate Route Teachers	200
		1. NCEI Conducted a National Survey of Alternate 
Route Teachers		202
		2. Findings from Profile of Alternate Route Teachers	203
			a. Half of Participants Would Not Have Become 
Teachers
Without an Alternate Route	203
			b. Most Participants Come from Outside Education	204
			c. Some Participants Had Been in Education-related 
Jobs	205
			d. Some Alternate Route Participants Had Been 
Students	206 
		e. Alternate Route Program Participants Held 
Various Degrees	207
		f. How Age Affects Entry into an Alternate 
 Route Program	208
		g. Why Do Participants Choose an Alternate 
 Route Program?	208
		h. Alternate Routes Appeal to Men and Minorities	210
		i. Geographic Areas Where Alternate Route 
 Teachers Teach	211
		j. Mobility of Alternate Route Teachers	212
		k. Alternate Routes Appeal to Career Changers	213
		l. Alternate Route Teachers Teach Subjects and 
Grade Levels Where Demand is Greatest	213
		m. Reasons Why Alternate Route Teachers Teach	214
		n. Alternate Route Teachers Take Fewer Education 
Courses	215
		o. What is Valuable in Developing Competence 
 to Teach?	217
		p. Satisfaction by Alternate Route Participants	218
		q. Alternate Route Teachers Strongly Recommend 
 Alternate Route Programs	218
Chapter 7 / WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH SAY ABOUT ALTERNATE 
ROUTES?	220
	A. Different Studies Yield Similar Results	220
B. Compilations of Research on Alternate Routes	222
			a. AERA Conclusions Were Similar to Others' 
Findings	228
			b. SRI Finds Variations Within Training Pathways 
and Importance of School Context	229
C. Two Significant Studies of Alternate Routes Are On-
Going	230
		1. How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the 
Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement	230
		2. The Evaluation of Teacher Preparation Models	234
D. Sharing Research	235
		1. National Association for Alternative 
Certification	235
		2. National Center for Alternative Certification	236
Chapter 8 / WHERE WILL ALTERNATE ROUTES GO FROM HERE?	238
		1. Why Alternative Routes Work	238
		2. Going Forward	241
 A. Looking Ahead at Alternate Routes	243
		1. Federal Requirements for Highly Qualified 
Teachers (HQT) Could Play a Significant Role	243
		2. Role of Community colleges	246
		3. Reciprocity Issues	248
		4. Potential Teachers	250
	B. Conclusions	252
APPENDIX A	255

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Teachers -- Training of -- United States.
Career changes -- United States.
Alternative education -- United States.