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Contents PREFACE i Chapter 1 / WHAT ARE ALTERNATE ROUTES TO TEACHING? 1 A. Questions About Alternate Routes 1 B. What Are Alternate Routes to Teacher Certification? 2 1. Definitions 4 2. Alternate Routes and NCEI 4 a. NCEI Documents Proliferation of State Alternate Routes 5 b. Alternate Route Programs Multiply 5 c. Participants in Alternate Route Programs Increase Dramatically 5 C. Why Alternate Routes? 6 D. The Beginnings of Alternate Routes 7 E. Alternate Routes Emerge: Order and Common characteristics 9 F. Alternate Routes Respond to Today's Market Demands 11 G. New Teacher Graduates 13 1. Are Bachelor's Degree Recipients a Reliable Market for Teachers? 13 2. What Happens to Education Degree Graduates? 14 H. Alternate Routes Provide Market Efficiency 15 I. Teacher Demand 15 1. Projections of Teacher Shortages 16 2. Who Are New Teachers? 17 a. The First SASS Defines New Teachers 18 3. SASS Later Revised New Teacher Designations 18 a. Sources of Teacher supply Redefined 19 4. The Alternate Route Market for Teaching 21 J. The Context for Alternate Routes: K-12 Education in the U.S. 22 1. Profile of U.S. Public K-12 Education System. 23 2. Public School Districts 23 3. Public School Size and Student Enrollment 25 5. Public School Student Enrollment and Teachers 26 6. Distribution of Schools, Teachers and Students 27 7. Teacher Vacancies (Demand) 27 K. The Role Alternate Routes Play 28 Chapter 2 / HOW DID ALTERNATE ROUTES DEVELOP? 29 1. From Ecclesiastical to Civil Authority 29 2. State-approved Teacher Education Programs 31 B. The Nation Reacts 33 1. Expansion of the Role of the Federal Government 33 2. Great Society Programs Affected Education From Top to Bottom 33 3. National Commission on Excellence in Education 39 C. New Jersey Begins the Debate About Alternate Routes 45 1. Redefining the Traditional College-based Route 45 2. Emergence of an "Alternate Route" 47 3. Selling the Alternate Route Concept 48 a. Pros and Cons 49 4. New Jersey Launches the Provisional Teacher Program 51 D. California Authorizes Alternate Route 54 E. Texas Approves Alternate Route 58 F. Alternate Routes Provoke Scrutiny 61 1. Haberman Justifies Support for Alternate Routes 68 2. Groups Call for Changes in Traditional Teacher Preparation Programs 65 a. The Holmes Group 65 b. The Carnegie Forum 68 c. AACTE 73 d. U.S. Department of Education 75 (1) Characteristics and Career Goals of Participants 81 (2) Characteristics and Success of Programs 81 (3) Evaluations and Perceptions 82 3. Alternate Routes Respond to Market Needs 84 a. Flexibility of Local School Needs 84 b. Favorable to Ethnic Minorities 85 4. Some Critics Hoped Alternate Routes Would Disappear Quickly 86 5. Proponent Credits Alternate Routes a Bold Plan 89 6. Some Saw Alternative Certification as a Deregulation Effort While the NEA Favored More Controls 90 H. Variations Were Characteristic as Alternate Routes Showed Steady Growth 93 1. Variations Occurred at All Levels 93 a. Licensure Requirements 94 b. Program Names 95 I. The National Center for Education Information Sorts Out Alternate Route Data 99 1. NCEI Produces a State-by-State Analysis of Alternate Routes 100 2. NCEI Develops a Classification System for Alternate Routes 101 Chapter 3 / HOW DID NEW NATIONAL PROGRAMS AND FEDERAL INVOLVEMENT PROMOTE ALTERNATE ROUTE PARTICIPATION? 108 A. New National Programs Boost Alternate Route Participation 108 1. Teach for America 108 2. Troops to Teachers 113 B. The Federal Government Boosts Alternate Routes 117 C. Congress Adds Disclosure Requirements to 1998 Reauthorization of HEA 119 1. Title II / Teacher Quality 121 2. New Report Card Data Requirements 123 3. AACTE Responds to Disclosure Requirements 126 B. Teacher Quality Issues Include K-12 Education 127 1. Congress Probes Teacher Quality Issues 128 a. Feistritzer Testifies about Quality Alternate Routes 129 b. California Official Testifies about Quality Assessment 129 c. Kanstoroom Offers Changes to Improve Quality 130 C. Congress Reauthorizes ESEA A/K/A No Child Left Behind 131 1. Title I / New Teacher Quality Requirements 132 2. Title II / Improving Teacher Quality 133 a. Transition to Teaching Grants Support Career- switchers into Teaching 134 E. U.S. Secretary of Education Issues Annual Reports on Teacher quality 138 1. State Barriers Discourage Career Switchers 138 2. Education Secretary Highlights Innovative Alternate Routes 140 3. Secretary Commits Support for Alternate Routes 141 4. Secretary Reports that Five States Produced 82% of Teachers Prepared Through Alternate Routes in 2004 142 5. Secretary Clarifies How Alternate Route Participants Meet the Highly Qualified Teacher Requirements of NCLB 144 F. Groups Weigh-in on Teacher Preparation 147 1. The Teacher Unions Set Criteria for Alternate Routes 147 G. Alternate Routes Today 149 1. Newest Routes Have Unique Characteristics 149 a. The American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence (ABCTE) 149 b. Temporary Teacher Certificate in Texas 151 c. California Teaching Foundations Examinations 152 2. Most States Now Share Common characteristics 153 Chapter 4 / WHAT CONSTITUTES STATE ALTERNATIVE ROUTES TO TEACHER CERTIFICATION? 156 A. Alternative Routes, State-by-State 156 1. Not all State Alternate Routes are the Same 156 2. Regional differences 161 B. Lessons Learned From Successful Alternate Routes 162 C. Profiles of Selected State Alternate Routes 163 1. New Jersey 164 a. Production of Teachers through Alternate Route in New Jersey 164 b. Retention of Provisional Teacher Program Teachers 165 c. Revisions in New Jersey's Alternate Route 166 2. California 166 a. Production of Teachers Through California Intern Routes 168 b. Retention of Intern Teachers 169 c. Revisions in California's Alternate Routes 170 d. Study of District Intern Program Confirms Value of California's Alternate Routes 170 3. Texas 171 a. Production of Teachers Through Texas Alternate Route 172 b. Retention of Alternate Route Teachers in Texas 173 4. Florida 174 a. School Districts Call for Help 176 5. New York 177 6. Kentucky 180 a. Production of Teachers through Kentucky's Alternate Routes 182 Chapter 5 / HOW DO PROVIDERS IMPLEMENT STATE ALTERNATE ROUTES? .183 A. How Do Providers Implement State Alternate Routes? 183 1. State-approved Providers Vary from State-to-State 183 2. Providers Report to NCAC Through a Data Template 186 B. Analyses of Selected NCAC Data Template Responses from Alternate Route Program Providers 187 1. Analysis of Program Provider Data 187 2. Who Administers the Alternate Route Program? 188 3. Requirements and Program Features 189 a. Entry Requirements 189 b. Grade Levels 190 c. Subject Areas 191 d. Courses Required and Delivery Options 191 e. Learning Components 193 f. Cohorts 194 g. Teaching While Learning 194 h. Candidate Support 194 i. Candidate Assessments 195 j. Criteria for Certification 196 k. Type of Certificate Received 197 l. Program Completion Time 197 m. Program Costs 198 3. The Bottom Line 199 Chapter 6 / WHO ARE ALTERNATE ROUTE TEACHERS? 200 A. Profile of Alternate Route Teachers 200 1. NCEI Conducted a National Survey of Alternate Route Teachers 202 2. Findings from Profile of Alternate Route Teachers 203 a. Half of Participants Would Not Have Become Teachers Without an Alternate Route 203 b. Most Participants Come from Outside Education 204 c. Some Participants Had Been in Education-related Jobs 205 d. Some Alternate Route Participants Had Been Students 206 e. Alternate Route Program Participants Held Various Degrees 207 f. How Age Affects Entry into an Alternate Route Program 208 g. Why Do Participants Choose an Alternate Route Program? 208 h. Alternate Routes Appeal to Men and Minorities 210 i. Geographic Areas Where Alternate Route Teachers Teach 211 j. Mobility of Alternate Route Teachers 212 k. Alternate Routes Appeal to Career Changers 213 l. Alternate Route Teachers Teach Subjects and Grade Levels Where Demand is Greatest 213 m. Reasons Why Alternate Route Teachers Teach 214 n. Alternate Route Teachers Take Fewer Education Courses 215 o. What is Valuable in Developing Competence to Teach? 217 p. Satisfaction by Alternate Route Participants 218 q. Alternate Route Teachers Strongly Recommend Alternate Route Programs 218 Chapter 7 / WHAT DOES THE RESEARCH SAY ABOUT ALTERNATE ROUTES? 220 A. Different Studies Yield Similar Results 220 B. Compilations of Research on Alternate Routes 222 a. AERA Conclusions Were Similar to Others' Findings 228 b. SRI Finds Variations Within Training Pathways and Importance of School Context 229 C. Two Significant Studies of Alternate Routes Are On- Going 230 1. How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement 230 2. The Evaluation of Teacher Preparation Models 234 D. Sharing Research 235 1. National Association for Alternative Certification 235 2. National Center for Alternative Certification 236 Chapter 8 / WHERE WILL ALTERNATE ROUTES GO FROM HERE? 238 1. Why Alternative Routes Work 238 2. Going Forward 241 A. Looking Ahead at Alternate Routes 243 1. Federal Requirements for Highly Qualified Teachers (HQT) Could Play a Significant Role 243 2. Role of Community colleges 246 3. Reciprocity Issues 248 4. Potential Teachers 250 B. Conclusions 252 APPENDIX A 255
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Teachers -- Training of -- United States.
Career changes -- United States.
Alternative education -- United States.