Table of contents for Competition in energy markets : law and regulation in the European Union / Peter Duncanson Cameron.

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CONTENTS
Foreword by Professor Sir David Edward	ix
Introduction	xiii
Tables of Cases	000
Tables of Legislation	000
Abbreviations	xxix
Glossary	xxxv
PART I COMPETITION AND ENERGY LAW
1.	The Competition Objective
A.	Introduction	1.01
B.	What is Competition?	1.05
C.	Energy Markets and Government Intervention: #he Energy Paradigm	1.10
(1)	Historical Characteristics of the Electricity and Gas Industries	1.10
(2)	The Pre-Liberalization Paradigm	1.11
(3)	Beyond the Pre-Liberalization Paradigm	1.17
(4)	A Three-Stage Evolution	1.22
(5)	Crisis and the Shift Towards 'Energy Security'	1.45
(6)	Unfinished Business	1.47
(7)	A New Paradigm Emerging?	1.58
D.	Why is Energy Special?	1.60
(1)	Electricity	1.63
(2)	Gas	1.67
E.	The Requirements of Liberalization	1.75
(1)	Regulation and Access	1.76
(2)	Structure	1.83
(3)	Liberalization	1.90
(4)	Ownership	1.93
F.	Conclusions	1.95
2.	The EU Legal Order and Energy
A.	Introduction	2.01
B.	The Origins of an EU Acquis in Energy	2.05
(1)	The Treaty Context	2.09
(2)	The Single European Act	2.36
(3)	Treaty on European Union (Maastricht)	2.46
(4)	Constitutional Fatigue: From Amsterdam to Nice and Beyond	2.55
(5)	The Proposed Energy Article and the Question of Competences	2.57
(6)	Conclusions on the Development of an Energy Acquis	2.61
C.	The European Commission in its Institutional Setting	2.64
(1)	The Commission and Commissioners: Functions and Powers	2.65
(2)	Commission and Council	2.76
(3)	Commission and Parliament	2.83
(4)	Commission and Court of Justice	2.93
(5)	Legislative Acts	2.110
D.	European Economic Area Agreement	2.115
(1)	EEA Agreement: Legally Binding	2.116
(2)	The Institutions	2.119
(3)	Impacts on Energy	2.123
E.	Energy Community Treaty	2.127
F.	Energy Charter Treaty	2.131
(1)	Main Treaty Provisions	2.134
(2)	The Charter Process: An Assessment	2.153
G.	The Wider Neighbourhood of the EU	2.160
(1)	Partnership and Co-operation Agreements	2.161
(2)	Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements	2.168
H.	Conclusions	2.173
3.	The EU System of Energy Regulation
A.	Introduction	3.01
B.	Establishing an EU Energy Regulatory Network	3.05
(1)	The National Energy Regulator	3.05
(2)	Other Regulatory Bodies	3.07
(3)	The Røle of the Commission	3.09
(4)	A Centralized Energy Regulator?	3.10
C.	The Florence and Madrid Forums	3.11
(1)	The Regulators and Industry	3.11
(2)	The Florence Electricity Forum	3.18
(3)	The Madrid Gas Forum	3.28
(4)	ERGEG and the Forum Process	3.37
D.	The Regional Energy Markets Initiative	3.40
E.	Co-ordination and Co-operation among Regulators	3.41
(1)	How the Røle of the NRAs Grew	3.45
(2)	Five Key Relationships	3.47
F.	Assessing the EU System	3.59
PART II SECTOR REGULATION
4.	Introduction to Part II: Sector Regulation
5.	Electricity
A.	Introduction	5.01
B.	The Electricity Directive 2003	5.06
(1)	Aims and Scope	5.06
(2)	General Rules	5.08
(3)	Rules for Specific Activities	5.18
(4)	Unbundling	5.38
(5)	Access	5.44
(6)	Market Opening and Reciprocity	5.48
(7)	Direct Lines	5.51
(8)	The Role of the Regulators	5.55
(9)	Enforcement	5.69
C.	The Electricity Regulation 2003	5.79
(1)	The Inter-TSO Compensation Mechanism	5.84
(2)	Charges for Network Access	5.86
(3)	Congestion Management	5.90
(4)	Exemptions for New Interconnectors	5.95
(5)	Information Requirements	5.106
(6)	Guidelines	5.113
(7)	Enforcement	5.128
D.	Conclusions	5.140
6.	Gas
A.	Introduction	6.01
B.	The Gas Directive 2003	6.03
(1)	Aims and Scope	6.03
(2)	General Rules	6.05
(3)	Rules for Specific Activities	6.21
(4)	Unbundling	6.36
(5)	Access	6.38
(6)	Market Opening and Reciprocity	6.63
(7)	Direct Lines	6.65
(8)	Regulation	6.68
(9)	Enforcement	6.69
C.	The Gas Regulation 2005	6.115
(1)	Tariffs for Network Access	6.118
(2)	Third Party Access Services	6.122
(3)	Principles of Capacity Allocation and Congestion #anagement	6.125
(4)	Transparency Requirements	6.128
(5)	Balancing Rules and Imbalance Charges	6.129
(6)	Trading of Capacity Rights	6.130
(7)	Guidelines	6.132
(8)	Enforcement	6.142
D.	Conclusions	6.148
7.	Oil
A.	Introduction	7.01
B.	Hydrocarbons Licensing	7.03
(1)	Aims and Scope	7.04
(2)	Common Rules	7.09
C.	Conclusions	7.26
8.	Coal
A.	Introduction	8.01
B.	Competition versus Intervention	8.05
C.	The Post-ECSC Treaty Arrangements	8.10
(1)	Transition	8.10
(2)	Key Features of the New Regime	8.12
(3)	State Aids	8.18
(4)	Decision-Making	8.22
D.	Conclusion	8.27
9.	Nuclear Energy
A.	Introduction	9.01
B.	Euratom: A Lex Specialis	9.04
(1)	Purpose	9.04
(2)	Objectives and Implementation	9.07
(3)	Institutional Features	9.12
(4)	Assessment	9.14
C.	Competition Issues	9.16
 (1)	Supplies	9.17
 (2)	State Aids	9.29
D.	Conclusions	9.38
10.	Renewable Energy
A.	Introduction	10.01
B.	The Renewables Directive	10.04
 (1)	Aims and Scope	10.04
 (2)	National Indicative Targets	10.07
 (3)	Support Schemes	10.09
 (4)	Guarantee of Electricity Origin	10.21
 (5)	Regulation	10.24
 (6)	Grid System Issues	10.28
 (7)	Reporting Requirements	10.32
 (8)	The Relevance of State Aid Control	10.34
 (9)	Implementation	10.38
(10)	Conclusions	10.39
PART III COMPETITION LAW
11.	The Application of Competition Law
A.	Introduction	11.01
B.	The 'Modernized' Legal Framework	11.06
 (1)	Regulation 1/2003	11.06
 (2)	The Competition Network	11.19
C.	Defining the Relevant Market	11.21
 (1)	Market Definition in Energy	11.21
D.	The Energy Sector Review	11.38
 (1)	The Inquiry: Data Collection, Scope and Compliance	11.42
 (2)	Significance	11.47
 (3)	The Preliminary Report	11.48
E.	Conclusions	11.66
12.	Competition in Upstream Markets
A.	Introduction	12.01
B.	Joint Marketing of Gas	12.04
 (1)	The GFU Case	12.05
 (2)	The Corrib Case	12.11
 (3)	The DUC/DONG Case	12.14
C.	Joint Marketing of Electricity	12.30
D.	Territorial Sales Restrictions: 'Destination Clauses'	12.33
(1)	Norwegian Producers	12.38
(2)	The NLNG Case	12.39
(3)	The Gazprom Cases	12.42
(4)	GDF/ENEL and GDF/ENI	12.55
(5)	Sonatrach	12.58
E.	Conclusions	12.60
13.	Competition in Downstream Markets
A.	Introduction	13.01
B.	Long-Term Agreements	13.04
(1)	Long-Term Agreements: Gas	13.04
(2)	Long-Term Agreements: Electricity	13.15
C.	Transmission Pricing	13.31
(1)	Electricity Agreement: Verbøndevereinbarung	13.34
(2)	Gas VV Agreement	13.40
(3)	Assessment	13.45
D.	Interconnector Use and Access	13.46
(1)	Methods of Allocating Available Capacity	13.49
(2)	Long-Term Capacity Reservations	13.52
(3)	Refusal to Build	13.87
E.	Refusal of Access	13.88
(1)	The Issues	13.88
(2)	The Marathon Case	13.101
F.	Conclusions	13.139
14.	Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions
A.	Introduction	14.01
B.	The Rules	14.07
(1)	The Merger Regulation	14.07
(2)	Jurisdiction over Mergers	14.35
C.	The Practice	14.56
(1)	Electricity	14.62
(2)	Gas	14.74
(3)	Convergence of Gas and Electricity	14.85
D.	Remedies	14.99
(1)	General	14.99
(2)	Remedies used in the Energy Sector	14.104
(3)	Effectiveness of Energy Remedies	14.120
E.	Golden Shares as Barriers	14.136
(1)	The 2002 Judgments	14.137
(2)	The 2003 Judgments	14.165
F.	Conclusions	14.168
15.	State Aid
A.	Introduction	15.01
B.	An Overview of the State Aid Rules	15.04
C.	Liberalization and State Aids	15.10
(1)	Stranded Costs	15.12
(2)	State Guarantees: the EDF Case	15.56
(3)	Public Service Obligations	15.60
D.	Environmental Aid	15.62
(1)	Promoting Renewable Energy	15.63
(2)	Promoting Biofuels and Wave Power	15.73
(3)	Climate Change	15.75
E.	Aid for Rescue and Restructuring	15.79
(1)	The British Energy Case 2004	15.81
(2)	BNFL 2006	15.86
F.	Conclusions	15.90
16.	Special and Exclusive Rights
A.	Introduction	16.01
B.	Article 86 and its Context	16.05
(1)	Article 86	16.06
(2)	The Context	16.09
(3)	Winds of Change	16.11
C.	The Limits of Article 86(3)	16.14
(1)	The Telecoms Case	16.18
(2)	The Issues	16.20
(3)	Effects	16.26
D.	Clarification of Monopoly Rights and their Limits	16.31
(1)	Høfner v Macrotron	16.32
(2)	ERT	16.34
(3)	Port of Genoa	16.37
(4)	The RTT case	16.40
(5)	The Corbeau case	16.43
E.	Import and Export of Electricity and Gas	16.46
(1)	Early Enforcement in Energy	16.48
(2)	Electricity and Gas Import/Export Monopolies	16.51
(3)	Assessment	16.81
F.	Conclusions	16.87
PART IV COMPETING OBJECTIVES
17.	Environmental Protection
A.	Introduction	17.04
B.	Renewable Energy	17.05
(1)	Combining Internal Market and Renewables Regulation	17.06
(2)	Trade	17.09
(3)	State Aid	17.10
C.	Energy Taxation	17.17
(1)	The Carbon Tax	17.19
(2)	The Energy Products Directive	17.22
(3)	National Measures and State Aid	17.33
(4)	Current Approaches to EU Carbon Taxation	17.39
D.	The Emissions Trading Scheme	17.42
(1)	The Scheme	17.43
(2)	Implementation	17.46
(3)	Impacts on Competition and the Internal Energy Market	17.49
E.	Conclusions	17.51
18.	Energy Security
A.	Introduction	18.01
B.	Secondary Legislation	18.07
(1)	The Electricity Directive	18.11
(2)	The Gas Directive	18.23
(3)	Electricity Security	18.29
(4)	Gas Security	18.49
(5)	Oil Security	18.60
(6)	Infrastructure	18.68
C.	Treaty Provisions	18.81
(1)	Import and Export	18.83
(2)	Services of General Economic Interest	18.99
(3)	Euratom	18.104
D.	Conclusions	18.107
PART V THE FUTURE OF COMPETITION LAW IN #NERGY MARKETS
19.	Conclusions
A.	Introduction	19.01
B.	The Sector-Specific Framework	19.06
(1)	The Regional Setting	19.06
(2)	The Balancing of Objectives	19.13
(3)	Relationship to the EC Treaty	19.17
C.	The Support Role of Competition Law	19.20
(1)	An Interventionist Trend	19.20
(2)	Cautionary Assessments of Instruments	19.23
D.	Regulation by Co-operation	19.30
(1)	Who Regulates?	19.30
(2)	The Management of Complexity	19.31
(3)	The Potential for Regulatory Co-operation	19.35
E.	Other Energy Sources	19.38
(1)	Oil	19.39
(2)	Coal	19.40
(3)	Nuclear Energy	19.41
F.	The Market Distorting Effects of Environmental Measures	19.42
G.	Dealing with Non-Compliance	19.45
(1)	A Stronger Network of Energy Regulators	19.47
(2)	Stricter Competition Law Enforcement	19.48
(3)	Regional Focus Not EU-Wide	19.49
(4)	Improvement of Sector-Specific Legislation	19.50
APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Electricity Directive	573
Appendix 2 Electricity Regulation	599
Appendix 3 Gas Directive	611
Appendix 4 Gas Regulation	637
Select Bibliography	649
Index	661

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Energy industries -- Law and legislation -- European Union countries.
Competition -- European Union countries.