Table of contents for Physical geography : a landscape appreciation / Tom L. McKnight, Darrel, Hess.

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Contents
Preface	xxi
1
Introduction to Earth		1
Geography as a Field of Learning	1
Science and Geography		3
	Science as a Field of Learning		3
	Numbers and Measurement Systems		4
Global Environmental Change		4
The Environmental Spheres	5
The Solar System		6
The Size and Shape of Earth		9
The Geographic Grid	10
	Latitude	11
	Longitude	13
Earth-Sun Relations	15
	Earth's Rotation on Its Axis	15
	Earth's Revolution around the Sun	17
	Inclination of Earth's Axis	17
	Polarity of Earth's Axis		17
The Annual March of the Seasons	18
	Seasonal Transitions	21
	Significance of Seasonal Patterns	22
Telling Time		23
	Standard Time	23
	International Date Line	24
	Daylight-Savings Time	25
Chapter 1 Learning Review	26
Key Terms		26
Study Questions for Key Concepts		27
Additional Resources	27
2
Portraying Earth		28
The Nature of Maps	29
Map Scale		30
	Scale Types		30
	Large and Small Map Scales	31
Map Essentials	31
The Role of Globes	33
Map Projections		33
	The Major Dilemma: Equivalence versus Conformality	34
Families of Map Projections	35
	Cylindrical Projections	35
	Plane Projections		37
	Conic Projections		37
	Pseudocylindrical Projections	38
Computer Cartography		38
Isolines	39
The Global Positioning System		41
Remote Sensing		44
	Aerial Photographs	44
	Orthophoto Maps		44
	Color and Color Infrared Sensing	44
	Thermal Infrared Sensing		45
	Microwave Sensing	46
	Multispectral Remote Sensing		46
	Radar and Sonar Sensing		46
Geographic Information Systems	48
The Role of the Geographer	50
Chapter 2 Learning Review	51
Key Terms		51
Study Questions for Key Concepts		51
Additional Resources		52
FOCUS	Topographic Maps		41
FOCUS	Stereo Aerial Photographs	43
3
Introduction to the Atmosphere		54
Size of Earth's Atmosphere		55
Composition of the Atmosphrere		56
	Permanent Gases		56
	Variable Gases		56
	Particulates (Aerosols)		57
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere	58
	Thermal Layers		58
	Pressure		60
	Composition		60
Human-Induced Atmospheric Change		61
	Depletion of the Ozone Layer		62
	Air Pollution		64
Weather and Climate		67
	The Elements of Weather and Climate	67
	The Controls of Weather and Climate		67
	The Coriolis Effect		69
Chapter 3 Learning Review	72
Key Terms		72
Study Questions for Key Concepts	72
Additional Resources		73
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	The UV Index	65
4
Insolation and Temperature	74
The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape	75
Energy, Heat, and Temperature	75
	Energy	75
	Temperature and Heat		76
	Measuring Temperature		76
Solar Energy	78
	Electromagnetic Radiation	78
	Insolation	80
Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere		80
	Radiation	80
	Absorption		81
	Reflection		81
	Scattering		82
	Transmission	83
	Conduction		84
	Convection		85
	Advection		85
	Adiabatic Cooling and Warming		85
	Latent Heat		86
The Heating of the Atmosphere	86
Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season	89
	Latitudinal and Seasonal Differences		89
	Latitudinal Radiation Balance		90
Land and Water Contrasts	92
	Heating	92
	Cooling	93
	Implications		93
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer		94
	Atmospheric Circulation		94
	Oceanic Circulation	94
Vertical Temperature Patterns		98
	Environmental Lapse Rate	98
	Average Lapse Rate	98
	Temperature Inversions		98
Global Temperature Patterns		99
	Prominent Controls of Temperature		99
	Seasonal Patterns		101
	Annual Temperature Range	102
Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect		102
Chapter 4 Learning Review	104
Key Terms 		104
Study Questions for Key Concepts	104
Additional Resources	105
FOCUS	Gathering Temperature Data		77
FOCUS	Monitoring Earth's Radiation Budget		88
FOCUS	Measuring Sea Surface Temperature by Satellite		97
5
Atmospheric Pressure and Wind		106
The Impact of Pressure and Wind on the Landscape	107
The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure		107
	Factors Influencing Atmospheric Pressure		107
	Mapping Pressure with Isobars		109
The Nature of Wind	110
	Direction of Movement		110
	Cyclones and Anticyclones	111
	Wind Speed		114
Vertical Variations in Pressure and Wind	114
The General Circulation of the Atmosphere		114
	Subtropical Highs		116
	Trade Winds		117
	Intertropical Convergence Zone	121
	The Westerlies	121
	Polar Highs		124
	Polar Easterlies	124
	Polar Front		124
	Vertical Patterns of the General Circulation		124
Modifications of the General Circulation	125
	Seasonal Variations in Location		126
	Monsoons		126
Localized Wind Systems		128
	Sea and Land Breezes		128
	Valley and Mountain Breezes		130
	Katabatic Winds		130
	Foehn/Chinook Winds		131
El Ni¿o-Southern Oscillation	131
	Normal Pattern	132
	El Ni¿o Pattern	133
	La Ni¿a	134
	Causes of ENSO		134
	Teleconnections		136
Other Multi-Year Atmospheric and Oceanic Cycles		137
	Pacific Decadal Oscillation	137
	The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation		137
Chapter 5 Learning Review	138
Key Terms		138
Study Questions for Key Concepts	138
Additional Resources	139
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Wind Energy	113
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Forecasting El Ni¿o	135
6
Atmospheric Moisture	142
The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape		143
The Nature of Water: Commonplace but Unique		143
	The Water Molecule	144
	Properties of Water	144
Phase Changes of Water		145
Water Vapor and the Hydrologic Cycle	147
	The Hydrologic Cycle	147
Evaporation		148
	Rates of Evaporation	148
	Evapotranspiration	149
Measures of Humidity		151
	Absolute Humidity		151
	Specific Humidity		151
	Vapor Pressure	151
	Relative Humidity		151
	Related Humidity Concepts	153
Condensation	153
Adiabatic Processes	155
Clouds	157
	Classifying Clouds		157
Fog		159
Dew		161
The Buoyancy of Air	161
	Atmospheric Stability	161
	Determining Air Stability		164
Precipitation	164
	The Processes	165
	Forms of Precipitation	167
Atmospheric Lifting and Precipitation		169
	Convective Lifting		169
Orographic Lifting		170
Frontal Lifting	170
Convergent Lifting		171
Global Distribution of Precipitation	171
	Average Annual Precipitation		171
	Seasonal Precipitation Patterns		172
	Precipitation Variability		173
Acid Rain		174
Chapter 6 Learning Review	178
	Key Terms		178
	Study Questions for Key Concepts	178
	Additional Resources	179
FOCUS	GOES Weather Satellites		150
FOCUS	Water Vapor Satellite Images		154
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Global Dimming	162
7
Transient Atmospheric Flows and Disturbances		180
The Impact of Storms on the Landscape	181
Air Masses		181
	Characteristics	181
	Origin		181
	Classification	182
	Movement and Modification	182
	North American Air Masses	184
Fronts	184
	Warm Fronts	185
	Cold Fronts		185
	Stationary Fronts		187
	Occluded Fronts		187
Atmospheric Disturbances	187
Midlatitude Cyclones	187
	Characteristics	187
	Weather Changes with the Passing of a Front	189
	Movements		189
	Life Cycle	189
	Occurrence and Distribution	191
Midlatitude Anticyclones		193
	Characteristics	193
	Relationships of Cyclones and Anticyclones		193
Minor Tropical Disturbances: Easterly Waves	193
Major Tropical Disturbances: Hurricanes	195
	Characteristics	196
	Origin		197
	Movement		199
	Damage and Destruction		200
Localized Severe Weather	202
	Thunderstorms	202
	Tornadoes		206
Chapter 7 Learning Review	210
	Key Terms		210
	Study Questions for Key Concepts	210
	Additional Resources		211
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Hurricane Katrina		198
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Hurricanes and Global Warming	 201
FOCUS	Forecasting Severe Storms with NEXRAD	204
FOCUS	Forecasting Severe Storms with the Oklahoma Mesonetwork 207
8
Climatic Zones and Types		212
Climate Classification		213
	The Purpose of Classifying Climates		213
	Early Classification Schemes		213
The K¿ppen Climate Classification System		214
	The Modified K¿ppen System		214
	Climographs		217
World Distribution of Major Climate Types		217
	Tropical Humid Climates (Group A)		218
	Dry Climates (Group B)		224
	Mild Midlatitude Climates (Group C)		229
	Severe Midlatitude Climates (Group D)	237
	Polar Climates (Group E)		241
	Highland Climate (Group H)	245
Global Patterns Idealized		247
	Climatic Distribution in Africa: A Practically Perfect Pattern	248
Global Climate Change		249
	Determining Climates of the Past	250
	Causes of Long-Term Climate Change	253
	Climate Models	255
	Evidence of Current Global Warming		255
	Consequences of Global Warming	258
Chapter 8 Learning Review	259
	Key Terms		259
	Study Questions for Key Concepts	259
	Additional Resources		261
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Climate Change in the Arctic	243
FOCUS	Paleoclimatology at Dome C, Antactica	252
9
The Hydrosphere		
The Hydrologic Cycle
	Surface-to-Air Water Movement
	Air-to-Surface Water Movement
	Movement on and beneath Earth's Surface
	Residence Times
The Oceans	
	How Many Oceans?
	Characteristics of Ocean Waters
Movement of Ocean Waters
	Tides
	Currents
	Waves
Permanent Ice--The Cryosphere
	Permafrost
Surface Waters
	Lakes
	Swamps and Marshes
	Rivers and Streams
Underground Water
	Zone of Aeration
	Zone of Saturation
	Zone of Confined Water
	Waterless Zone
	Groundwater Mining
Chapter 9 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Oceans Becoming More Acidic
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Thawing Permafrost in Alaska
FOCUS	The Aral Sea and Lake Chad
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Subsidence from Groundwater Extraction
10
Cycles and Patterns in the Biosphere
The Impact of Plants and Animals on the Landscape
The Geographic Approach to the Study of Organisms
	The Search for a Meaningful Classification Scheme
	Seeking Pertinent Patterns
Biogeochemical Cycles
	The Flow of Energy
	The Hydrologic Cycle
	The Carbon Cycle
	The Oxygen Cycle
	The Nitrogen Cycle
	Other Mineral Cycles
Food Chains
Natural Distributions
	Evolutionary Development
	Migration/Dispersal
	Reproductive Success
	Extinction
Environmental Relationships
	The Influence of Climate
	Edaphic Influences
	Topographic Influences
	Wildfire
	Environmental Correlations: Example of Selva
Chapter 10 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Changing Climate Affects Bird Populations
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Wildfires in Yellowstone
11
Terrestrial Flora and Fauna
Ecosystems and Biomes
	Ecosystem: A Concept for all Scales
	Biome: A Scale for All Biogeographers
Terrestrial Flora
	Characteristics of Plants
	Floristic Terminology
	Environmental Adaptations
	The Critical Role of Competition
	Spatial Groupings of Plants
Terrestrial Fauna
	Characteristics of Animals
	Kinds of Animals
	Environmental Adaptations
	Competition among Animals
	Cooperation among Animals
Zoogeographic Regions
The Major Biomes
	Tropical Rainforest
	Tropical Deciduous Forest
	Tropical Scrub
	Tropical Savanna
	Desert
	Mediterranean Woodland and Shrub
	Midlatitude Grassland
	Midlatitude Deciduous Forest
	Boreal Forest
	Tundra
Human Modification of Natural Distribution Patterns
	Physical Removal of Organisms
	Habitat Modification
	Artificial Translocation of Organisms
Chapter 11 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
FOCUS	Desert Adaptations of the Amazing Camel
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Rainforest Loss in Brazil
12
Soils
Soil and Regolith
	Soil as a Component of the Landscape
Soil-Forming Factors
	The Geologic Factor
	The Climatic Factor
	The Topographic Factor
	The Biological Factor
	The Chronological Factor
Soil Components
	Inorganic Materials
	Organic Matter
	Soil Air
	Soil Water
Soil Properties
	Color
	Texture
	Structure
Soil Chemistry
	Colloids
	Cation Exchange
	Acidity/Alkalinity
Soil Profiles
Pedogenic Regimes
	Laterization
	Podzolization
	Gleization
	Calcification
	Salinization
	Climate and Pedogenic Regimes
Soil Classification
	The Soil Taxonomy
	The Mapping Question
Global Distribution of Major Soils
	Entisols (Very Little Profile Development)
	Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features)
	Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils)
	Gelisols (Permafrost Layer)
	Histosols (Organic Soils)
	Aridisols (Dry Soils)
	Vertisols (Swelling and Cracking Clays)
	Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands)
	Alfisols (Clay Accumulation with High Bases)
	Ultisols (Clay Accumulation with Low Bases)
	Spodosols (Acid, Sandy Forest Soils)
	Oxisols (Highly Weathered and Leached)
Distribution of Soils in the United States
Chapter 12 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
FOCUS	Earthworms in the Soil
13
Introduction to Landform Study
The Structure of Earth
	The Crust
	The Mantle
	The Inner and Outer Cores
	Plate Tectonics and the Structure of Earth
The Composition of Earth
	Minerals
	Rocks
	Igneous Rocks
	Sedimentary Rocks
	Metamorphic Rocks
	The Rock Cycle
	Continental and Ocean Floor Rocks
	Isostasy
The Study of Landforms
Some Critical Concepts
	Internal and External Geomorphic Processes
	Uniformitarianism
	Geologic Time
Scale and Pattern
	An Example of Scale
	The Pursuit of Pattern
Chapter 13 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
14
The Internal Processes
The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape
From Rigid Earth to Plate Tectonics
	Wegener's Continental Drift
Plate Tectonics
	The Evidence
	Plate Boundaries
	The Rearrangement
	The Pacific Ring of Fire
	Additions to the Basic Plate Tectonic Theory
	The Questions
Vulcanism
	Volcanism
	Volcanic Peaks
	Volcanic Hazards
	Igneous Features
Diastrophism
Folding
Faulting
	Types of Faults
	Landforms Associated with Normal Faulting
	Landforms Associated with Strike-Slip Faulting
	Earthquakes
The Complexities of Crustal Configuration
Chapter 14 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
FOCUS	Mount St. Helens
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Monitoring Volcanic Hazards
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Earthquake Forecasting
15
Preliminaries to Erosion: Weathering and Mass Wasting
Denudation
The Impact of Weathering and Mass Wasting on the Landscape
Weathering and Rock Openings
	The Importance of Jointing
Weathering Agents
	Mechanical Weathering
	Chemical Weathering
	Biological Weathering
	Climate and Weathering
Mass Wasting
	Fall
	Slide
	Flow
	Creep
Chapter 15 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	The Madison Valley Landslide
16
The Fluvial Process
The Impact of Fluvial Processes on the Landscape
Streams and Stream Systems
	Streamflow and Overland Flow
	Valleys and Interfluves
	Drainage Basins
	Stream Orders
	Fluvial Erosion and Deposition
	The Role of Floods
Stream Channels
	Channel Flow
	Stream Channel Patterns
Structural Relationships
	Stream Drainage Patterns
The Shaping and Reshaping of Valleys
	Valley Deepening
	Valley Widening
	Valley Lengthening
	Deposition in Valleys
Floodplains
	Floodplain Landforms
	Modifying Rivers for Flood Control
Stream Rejuvenation
Theories of Landform Development
	Davis' Geomorphic Cycle
	Penck's Theory of Crustal Change and Slope Development
	Equilibrium Theory
Chapter 16 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
FOCUS	Niagara Falls
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	The Bird's-foot of the Mississippi
17
Solution Processes and Karst Topography
The Impact of Solution Processes on the Landscape
Solution and Precipitation
Caverns and Related Features
Karst Topography
Hydrothermal Features\
	Hot Springs
	Geysers
	Fumaroles
	Hydrothermal Features in Yellowstone
Chapter 17 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Sinkholes in Florida
18
The Topography of Arid Lands
A Specialized Environment
	Special Conditions in Deserts
Running Water in Waterless Regions
	Surface Water in the Desert
	Fluvial Erosion in Arid Lands
	Fluvial Deposition in Arid Lands
Characteristic Desert Surfaces--Ergs, Regs, and Hamadas
	Erg--A Sea of Sand
	Reg--Stony Deserts
	Hamada--Barren Bedrock
The Work of the Wind
	Aeolian Erosion
	Aeolian Transportation
	Aeolian Deposition
Two Characteristic Desert Landform Assemblages
	Basin-and-Range Terrain
	Mesa-and-Scarp Terrain
Chapter 18 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Desertification
19
Glacial Modification of Terrain
The Impact of Glaciers on the Landscape
Glaciations Past and Present
	Pleistocene Glaciation
	Contemporary Glaciation
Types of Glaciers
	Continental Ice Sheets
	Mountain Glaciers
Glacier Formation and Movement
	Changing Snow to Ice
	Glacial Movement
The Effects of Glaciers
	Erosion by Glaciers
	Transportation by Glaciers
	Deposition by Glaciers
	Deposition by Meltwater
Continental Ice Sheets
	Development and Flow
	Erosion by Ice Sheets
	Deposition by Ice Sheets
	Glaciofluvial Features
Mountain Glaciers
	Development and Flow
	Erosion by Mountain Glaciers
	Deposition by Mountain Glaciers
The Periglacial Environment
Causes of the Pleistocene
	Are We Still in an Ice Age?
Chapter 19 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	Disintegration of Antarctic Ice Shelves
FOCUS	Shrinking Alaskan Glaciers
20
Coastal Processes and Terrain
The Impact of Waves and Currents on the Landscape
Coastal Processes
	Waves
	Tides
	Changes in Sea Level and Lake Level
	Ice Push
	Organic Secretions
	Stream Outflow
	Currents and Coastal Sediment Transport
	Coastal Deposition
Coastal Landforms
	Depositional Landforms
	Shorelines of Submergence
	Shorelines of Emergence and Erosion
	Coral Coasts
Chapter 20 Learning Review
	Key Terms
	Study Questions for Key Concepts
	Additional Resources
PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT	The Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004
FOCUS	Bleaching of Coral Reefs
Appendix I The International System of Units (SI)
Appendix II U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps
Appendix III Meteorological Tables
Appendix IV The Weather Station Model
Appendix V K¿ppen Climate Classification
Appendix VI Biological Taxonomy
Appendix VII The Soil Taxonomy
Glossary
Index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Physical geography.