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Contents Preface xxi 1 Introduction to Earth 1 Geography as a Field of Learning 1 Science and Geography 3 Science as a Field of Learning 3 Numbers and Measurement Systems 4 Global Environmental Change 4 The Environmental Spheres 5 The Solar System 6 The Size and Shape of Earth 9 The Geographic Grid 10 Latitude 11 Longitude 13 Earth-Sun Relations 15 Earth's Rotation on Its Axis 15 Earth's Revolution around the Sun 17 Inclination of Earth's Axis 17 Polarity of Earth's Axis 17 The Annual March of the Seasons 18 Seasonal Transitions 21 Significance of Seasonal Patterns 22 Telling Time 23 Standard Time 23 International Date Line 24 Daylight-Savings Time 25 Chapter 1 Learning Review 26 Key Terms 26 Study Questions for Key Concepts 27 Additional Resources 27 2 Portraying Earth 28 The Nature of Maps 29 Map Scale 30 Scale Types 30 Large and Small Map Scales 31 Map Essentials 31 The Role of Globes 33 Map Projections 33 The Major Dilemma: Equivalence versus Conformality 34 Families of Map Projections 35 Cylindrical Projections 35 Plane Projections 37 Conic Projections 37 Pseudocylindrical Projections 38 Computer Cartography 38 Isolines 39 The Global Positioning System 41 Remote Sensing 44 Aerial Photographs 44 Orthophoto Maps 44 Color and Color Infrared Sensing 44 Thermal Infrared Sensing 45 Microwave Sensing 46 Multispectral Remote Sensing 46 Radar and Sonar Sensing 46 Geographic Information Systems 48 The Role of the Geographer 50 Chapter 2 Learning Review 51 Key Terms 51 Study Questions for Key Concepts 51 Additional Resources 52 FOCUS Topographic Maps 41 FOCUS Stereo Aerial Photographs 43 3 Introduction to the Atmosphere 54 Size of Earth's Atmosphere 55 Composition of the Atmosphrere 56 Permanent Gases 56 Variable Gases 56 Particulates (Aerosols) 57 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 58 Thermal Layers 58 Pressure 60 Composition 60 Human-Induced Atmospheric Change 61 Depletion of the Ozone Layer 62 Air Pollution 64 Weather and Climate 67 The Elements of Weather and Climate 67 The Controls of Weather and Climate 67 The Coriolis Effect 69 Chapter 3 Learning Review 72 Key Terms 72 Study Questions for Key Concepts 72 Additional Resources 73 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT The UV Index 65 4 Insolation and Temperature 74 The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape 75 Energy, Heat, and Temperature 75 Energy 75 Temperature and Heat 76 Measuring Temperature 76 Solar Energy 78 Electromagnetic Radiation 78 Insolation 80 Basic Heating and Cooling Processes in the Atmosphere 80 Radiation 80 Absorption 81 Reflection 81 Scattering 82 Transmission 83 Conduction 84 Convection 85 Advection 85 Adiabatic Cooling and Warming 85 Latent Heat 86 The Heating of the Atmosphere 86 Variations in Heating by Latitude and Season 89 Latitudinal and Seasonal Differences 89 Latitudinal Radiation Balance 90 Land and Water Contrasts 92 Heating 92 Cooling 93 Implications 93 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 94 Atmospheric Circulation 94 Oceanic Circulation 94 Vertical Temperature Patterns 98 Environmental Lapse Rate 98 Average Lapse Rate 98 Temperature Inversions 98 Global Temperature Patterns 99 Prominent Controls of Temperature 99 Seasonal Patterns 101 Annual Temperature Range 102 Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect 102 Chapter 4 Learning Review 104 Key Terms 104 Study Questions for Key Concepts 104 Additional Resources 105 FOCUS Gathering Temperature Data 77 FOCUS Monitoring Earth's Radiation Budget 88 FOCUS Measuring Sea Surface Temperature by Satellite 97 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind 106 The Impact of Pressure and Wind on the Landscape 107 The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure 107 Factors Influencing Atmospheric Pressure 107 Mapping Pressure with Isobars 109 The Nature of Wind 110 Direction of Movement 110 Cyclones and Anticyclones 111 Wind Speed 114 Vertical Variations in Pressure and Wind 114 The General Circulation of the Atmosphere 114 Subtropical Highs 116 Trade Winds 117 Intertropical Convergence Zone 121 The Westerlies 121 Polar Highs 124 Polar Easterlies 124 Polar Front 124 Vertical Patterns of the General Circulation 124 Modifications of the General Circulation 125 Seasonal Variations in Location 126 Monsoons 126 Localized Wind Systems 128 Sea and Land Breezes 128 Valley and Mountain Breezes 130 Katabatic Winds 130 Foehn/Chinook Winds 131 El Ni¿o-Southern Oscillation 131 Normal Pattern 132 El Ni¿o Pattern 133 La Ni¿a 134 Causes of ENSO 134 Teleconnections 136 Other Multi-Year Atmospheric and Oceanic Cycles 137 Pacific Decadal Oscillation 137 The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation 137 Chapter 5 Learning Review 138 Key Terms 138 Study Questions for Key Concepts 138 Additional Resources 139 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Wind Energy 113 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Forecasting El Ni¿o 135 6 Atmospheric Moisture 142 The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape 143 The Nature of Water: Commonplace but Unique 143 The Water Molecule 144 Properties of Water 144 Phase Changes of Water 145 Water Vapor and the Hydrologic Cycle 147 The Hydrologic Cycle 147 Evaporation 148 Rates of Evaporation 148 Evapotranspiration 149 Measures of Humidity 151 Absolute Humidity 151 Specific Humidity 151 Vapor Pressure 151 Relative Humidity 151 Related Humidity Concepts 153 Condensation 153 Adiabatic Processes 155 Clouds 157 Classifying Clouds 157 Fog 159 Dew 161 The Buoyancy of Air 161 Atmospheric Stability 161 Determining Air Stability 164 Precipitation 164 The Processes 165 Forms of Precipitation 167 Atmospheric Lifting and Precipitation 169 Convective Lifting 169 Orographic Lifting 170 Frontal Lifting 170 Convergent Lifting 171 Global Distribution of Precipitation 171 Average Annual Precipitation 171 Seasonal Precipitation Patterns 172 Precipitation Variability 173 Acid Rain 174 Chapter 6 Learning Review 178 Key Terms 178 Study Questions for Key Concepts 178 Additional Resources 179 FOCUS GOES Weather Satellites 150 FOCUS Water Vapor Satellite Images 154 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Global Dimming 162 7 Transient Atmospheric Flows and Disturbances 180 The Impact of Storms on the Landscape 181 Air Masses 181 Characteristics 181 Origin 181 Classification 182 Movement and Modification 182 North American Air Masses 184 Fronts 184 Warm Fronts 185 Cold Fronts 185 Stationary Fronts 187 Occluded Fronts 187 Atmospheric Disturbances 187 Midlatitude Cyclones 187 Characteristics 187 Weather Changes with the Passing of a Front 189 Movements 189 Life Cycle 189 Occurrence and Distribution 191 Midlatitude Anticyclones 193 Characteristics 193 Relationships of Cyclones and Anticyclones 193 Minor Tropical Disturbances: Easterly Waves 193 Major Tropical Disturbances: Hurricanes 195 Characteristics 196 Origin 197 Movement 199 Damage and Destruction 200 Localized Severe Weather 202 Thunderstorms 202 Tornadoes 206 Chapter 7 Learning Review 210 Key Terms 210 Study Questions for Key Concepts 210 Additional Resources 211 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Hurricane Katrina 198 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Hurricanes and Global Warming 201 FOCUS Forecasting Severe Storms with NEXRAD 204 FOCUS Forecasting Severe Storms with the Oklahoma Mesonetwork 207 8 Climatic Zones and Types 212 Climate Classification 213 The Purpose of Classifying Climates 213 Early Classification Schemes 213 The K¿ppen Climate Classification System 214 The Modified K¿ppen System 214 Climographs 217 World Distribution of Major Climate Types 217 Tropical Humid Climates (Group A) 218 Dry Climates (Group B) 224 Mild Midlatitude Climates (Group C) 229 Severe Midlatitude Climates (Group D) 237 Polar Climates (Group E) 241 Highland Climate (Group H) 245 Global Patterns Idealized 247 Climatic Distribution in Africa: A Practically Perfect Pattern 248 Global Climate Change 249 Determining Climates of the Past 250 Causes of Long-Term Climate Change 253 Climate Models 255 Evidence of Current Global Warming 255 Consequences of Global Warming 258 Chapter 8 Learning Review 259 Key Terms 259 Study Questions for Key Concepts 259 Additional Resources 261 PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Climate Change in the Arctic 243 FOCUS Paleoclimatology at Dome C, Antactica 252 9 The Hydrosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Surface-to-Air Water Movement Air-to-Surface Water Movement Movement on and beneath Earth's Surface Residence Times The Oceans How Many Oceans? Characteristics of Ocean Waters Movement of Ocean Waters Tides Currents Waves Permanent Ice--The Cryosphere Permafrost Surface Waters Lakes Swamps and Marshes Rivers and Streams Underground Water Zone of Aeration Zone of Saturation Zone of Confined Water Waterless Zone Groundwater Mining Chapter 9 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Oceans Becoming More Acidic PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Thawing Permafrost in Alaska FOCUS The Aral Sea and Lake Chad PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Subsidence from Groundwater Extraction 10 Cycles and Patterns in the Biosphere The Impact of Plants and Animals on the Landscape The Geographic Approach to the Study of Organisms The Search for a Meaningful Classification Scheme Seeking Pertinent Patterns Biogeochemical Cycles The Flow of Energy The Hydrologic Cycle The Carbon Cycle The Oxygen Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle Other Mineral Cycles Food Chains Natural Distributions Evolutionary Development Migration/Dispersal Reproductive Success Extinction Environmental Relationships The Influence of Climate Edaphic Influences Topographic Influences Wildfire Environmental Correlations: Example of Selva Chapter 10 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Changing Climate Affects Bird Populations PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Wildfires in Yellowstone 11 Terrestrial Flora and Fauna Ecosystems and Biomes Ecosystem: A Concept for all Scales Biome: A Scale for All Biogeographers Terrestrial Flora Characteristics of Plants Floristic Terminology Environmental Adaptations The Critical Role of Competition Spatial Groupings of Plants Terrestrial Fauna Characteristics of Animals Kinds of Animals Environmental Adaptations Competition among Animals Cooperation among Animals Zoogeographic Regions The Major Biomes Tropical Rainforest Tropical Deciduous Forest Tropical Scrub Tropical Savanna Desert Mediterranean Woodland and Shrub Midlatitude Grassland Midlatitude Deciduous Forest Boreal Forest Tundra Human Modification of Natural Distribution Patterns Physical Removal of Organisms Habitat Modification Artificial Translocation of Organisms Chapter 11 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources FOCUS Desert Adaptations of the Amazing Camel PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Rainforest Loss in Brazil 12 Soils Soil and Regolith Soil as a Component of the Landscape Soil-Forming Factors The Geologic Factor The Climatic Factor The Topographic Factor The Biological Factor The Chronological Factor Soil Components Inorganic Materials Organic Matter Soil Air Soil Water Soil Properties Color Texture Structure Soil Chemistry Colloids Cation Exchange Acidity/Alkalinity Soil Profiles Pedogenic Regimes Laterization Podzolization Gleization Calcification Salinization Climate and Pedogenic Regimes Soil Classification The Soil Taxonomy The Mapping Question Global Distribution of Major Soils Entisols (Very Little Profile Development) Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features) Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils) Gelisols (Permafrost Layer) Histosols (Organic Soils) Aridisols (Dry Soils) Vertisols (Swelling and Cracking Clays) Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands) Alfisols (Clay Accumulation with High Bases) Ultisols (Clay Accumulation with Low Bases) Spodosols (Acid, Sandy Forest Soils) Oxisols (Highly Weathered and Leached) Distribution of Soils in the United States Chapter 12 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources FOCUS Earthworms in the Soil 13 Introduction to Landform Study The Structure of Earth The Crust The Mantle The Inner and Outer Cores Plate Tectonics and the Structure of Earth The Composition of Earth Minerals Rocks Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks The Rock Cycle Continental and Ocean Floor Rocks Isostasy The Study of Landforms Some Critical Concepts Internal and External Geomorphic Processes Uniformitarianism Geologic Time Scale and Pattern An Example of Scale The Pursuit of Pattern Chapter 13 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources 14 The Internal Processes The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape From Rigid Earth to Plate Tectonics Wegener's Continental Drift Plate Tectonics The Evidence Plate Boundaries The Rearrangement The Pacific Ring of Fire Additions to the Basic Plate Tectonic Theory The Questions Vulcanism Volcanism Volcanic Peaks Volcanic Hazards Igneous Features Diastrophism Folding Faulting Types of Faults Landforms Associated with Normal Faulting Landforms Associated with Strike-Slip Faulting Earthquakes The Complexities of Crustal Configuration Chapter 14 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources FOCUS Mount St. Helens PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Monitoring Volcanic Hazards PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Earthquake Forecasting 15 Preliminaries to Erosion: Weathering and Mass Wasting Denudation The Impact of Weathering and Mass Wasting on the Landscape Weathering and Rock Openings The Importance of Jointing Weathering Agents Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering Biological Weathering Climate and Weathering Mass Wasting Fall Slide Flow Creep Chapter 15 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT The Madison Valley Landslide 16 The Fluvial Process The Impact of Fluvial Processes on the Landscape Streams and Stream Systems Streamflow and Overland Flow Valleys and Interfluves Drainage Basins Stream Orders Fluvial Erosion and Deposition The Role of Floods Stream Channels Channel Flow Stream Channel Patterns Structural Relationships Stream Drainage Patterns The Shaping and Reshaping of Valleys Valley Deepening Valley Widening Valley Lengthening Deposition in Valleys Floodplains Floodplain Landforms Modifying Rivers for Flood Control Stream Rejuvenation Theories of Landform Development Davis' Geomorphic Cycle Penck's Theory of Crustal Change and Slope Development Equilibrium Theory Chapter 16 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources FOCUS Niagara Falls PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT The Bird's-foot of the Mississippi 17 Solution Processes and Karst Topography The Impact of Solution Processes on the Landscape Solution and Precipitation Caverns and Related Features Karst Topography Hydrothermal Features\ Hot Springs Geysers Fumaroles Hydrothermal Features in Yellowstone Chapter 17 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Sinkholes in Florida 18 The Topography of Arid Lands A Specialized Environment Special Conditions in Deserts Running Water in Waterless Regions Surface Water in the Desert Fluvial Erosion in Arid Lands Fluvial Deposition in Arid Lands Characteristic Desert Surfaces--Ergs, Regs, and Hamadas Erg--A Sea of Sand Reg--Stony Deserts Hamada--Barren Bedrock The Work of the Wind Aeolian Erosion Aeolian Transportation Aeolian Deposition Two Characteristic Desert Landform Assemblages Basin-and-Range Terrain Mesa-and-Scarp Terrain Chapter 18 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Desertification 19 Glacial Modification of Terrain The Impact of Glaciers on the Landscape Glaciations Past and Present Pleistocene Glaciation Contemporary Glaciation Types of Glaciers Continental Ice Sheets Mountain Glaciers Glacier Formation and Movement Changing Snow to Ice Glacial Movement The Effects of Glaciers Erosion by Glaciers Transportation by Glaciers Deposition by Glaciers Deposition by Meltwater Continental Ice Sheets Development and Flow Erosion by Ice Sheets Deposition by Ice Sheets Glaciofluvial Features Mountain Glaciers Development and Flow Erosion by Mountain Glaciers Deposition by Mountain Glaciers The Periglacial Environment Causes of the Pleistocene Are We Still in an Ice Age? Chapter 19 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Disintegration of Antarctic Ice Shelves FOCUS Shrinking Alaskan Glaciers 20 Coastal Processes and Terrain The Impact of Waves and Currents on the Landscape Coastal Processes Waves Tides Changes in Sea Level and Lake Level Ice Push Organic Secretions Stream Outflow Currents and Coastal Sediment Transport Coastal Deposition Coastal Landforms Depositional Landforms Shorelines of Submergence Shorelines of Emergence and Erosion Coral Coasts Chapter 20 Learning Review Key Terms Study Questions for Key Concepts Additional Resources PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT The Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004 FOCUS Bleaching of Coral Reefs Appendix I The International System of Units (SI) Appendix II U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps Appendix III Meteorological Tables Appendix IV The Weather Station Model Appendix V K¿ppen Climate Classification Appendix VI Biological Taxonomy Appendix VII The Soil Taxonomy Glossary Index
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