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TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE CHAPTER1 WORD IDENTIFICATION IN YOUR CLASSROOM READING PROGRAM A. Key Ideas B. Key Vocabulary C. Why Do We Teach Phonics? 1. Phonics makes it easier to read and learn new words 2. Phonics helps children develop a large reading vocabulary 3. Phonics contributes to reading fluency 4. Phonics helps children become independent readers D. Word Identification in a Balanced Classroom Reading Program 1. When do we teach phonics? 2. How do we teach phonics? a. Synthetic phonics b. Analytic phonics c. Embedded phonics d. Analogy-based phonics e. Structural analysis 3. How much time should we spend teaching phonics? 4. Under what circumstances should we teach phonics? E. Semantic, Syntactic and Graphophonic Cues a.. Semantic (meaning) cues b. Syntactic (sentence structure) cues c. Graphophonic (letter and sound) cues F. How Children Read Familiar and Unfamiliar Words 1. Sight words 2. Reading unfamiliar words a.. Analogy b. Letter-sound strategy d. Structural analysis strategy G. Metacognitive Awareness H. The Five Stages of Word Learning 1. Alphabetic 2. Partial Alphabetic 3, Alphabetic 4. Consolidated 5. Automatic I. References CHAPTER 2 PHONEMIC AWARENESS: BECOMING AWARE OF THE SOUNDS OF LANGAUGE A. Key Ideas B. Key Vocabulary C. What Is Phonemic Awareness? D. What Is Phonological Awareness? E. Phonemic Awareness and Phonics F. Phonemic Awareness Develops Sequentially] G. Teaching Phonemic Awareness in Your Classroom Reading Program H. Rhyme Awareness 1. How Children Demonstrate Rhyme Awareness a. Identifying rhyming words b. Thinking of rhyming words c. Separating words into beginning sounds and rhyming sounds 2. Activities for Developing Rhyme Awareness a. Predict rhyming sounds; Match rhyming words; Rhyming (or beginning sound) bookmark; Rhyming and beginning sound picture sorts; Rhyming picture-word mobiles; Rhyming picture collage; Draw rhyming pictures; Picture-rhyme memory game; Shoe box rhyme; Rhyme toss b. Spare minute activities for developing rhyme awareness Rhyming word lists; Rhyming chains; Frame rhyming words; Use a puppet to peak interest in rhyme I. Phonemic Awareness a.. Phonemic awareness is important for reading and spelling 1. How Children Demonstrate Phonemic Awareness a. Isolating sounds b. Segmenting sounds c. Manipulating sounds d. Blending sounds 2. Best Practices for Developing Phonemic Awareness a. Teach awareness of beginning sounds, followed by awareness of ending sounds, and then awareness of middle sounds b. Teach phonemic awareness, letter names, and letter-sounds together c. Teach one or two skills at a time d. Teach phonemic awareness early, in kindergarten and first grade e. Teach in small groups f. Pace instruction to the needs of the child g. Show children how to use phonemic awareness when reading and writing new words h. Begin with short, two-sound words J. Activities for Developing Phonemic Awareness 1 Activities for developing rhyme awareness . 2. Activities for developing awareness of sounds 3. Activities for developing blending K. Phonemic Awareness Tests L. Teaching Phonemic Awareness in Your Classroom Reading Program M. References CHAPTER 3 EARLY WORD IDENTIFICATION STRATEGIES: USING LOGOS, PICTURES, WORD SHAPE, AND PARTIAL LETTER-SOUND ASSOCIATIONS TO READ NEW WORDS A. Key Ideas B. Key Vocabulary C. Environmental Cues: The Strategy of Associating Meaning with the Print in Our Everyday Surroundings D. Picture cues: The Strategy of Inferring meaning from illustrations 1. Configuration cues: The Strategy of Using word length, word shape, or eye-catching letters to read new words a. Word shape b. Word length c. Letter shape E. Prealphabetic Word Learners and Precommunicative Spellers F. Partial Alphabetic Cues: The Strategy of Using Letter-Names or One or Two Letter-Sounds to Read New Words G. Partial Alphabetic Word Learners and Semiphonetic Spellers H. Best Practices for Teaching Partial Alphabetic Word Learners 1. Teach phonemic awareness of all the sounds in words¿first, middle, and Last 2. Teach both consonant and vowel letter-sounds 3. Have children read easy, meaningful text 4. Ask questions that help children demonstrate and extend their knowledge of written language 5. Explore words 6. Have children write everyday, and ask them to think about letters and sounds when spelling new words 7. Read aloud to children H. References CHAPTER 4 ANALOGY-BASED PHONICS: THE STRATEGY OF USING PARTS OF FAMILIAR WORDS TO READ AND LEARN NEW WORDS A. Key Ideas B. Key Vocabulary C. Looking Inside Syllables D. Teaching Analogy-based Phonics E. How Children Use the Onsets and Rimes in Known Words to Read New Words F. Self-monitoring, Cross-checking, and Self-correcting for Meaning-focused Word Identification 1. Cross-checking 2. Self-monitoring 3. Self-correcting G. Understanding Rimes, Phonograms, and Word Families F. Why Children Use Onsets and Rimes to Read and Learn New Words G. Best Practices for Teaching Analogy-based Phonics 1. Use clue words 2. Show children how to use the analogy strategy 3. Teach rimes from large, often-used word families 4. Teach rimes along with the letter-sound relationships within rimes H. Activities for Teaching Analogy-based Phonics I. Looking Beyond Analogy-based Phonics J. References CHAPTER 5 LETTER-SOUND PHONICS: THE STRATEGY OF USING LETTER-SOUNDS TO READ AND LEARN NEW WORDS A. Key Ideas B. Key Vocabulary 1. Phonics and fluency C. Phonics Letter-Sound Patterns D. Teaching Letter-Sound Phonics in Your Classroom E. How Children Use Letter-Sound Patterns to Read and Learn New Words 1. Correcting misidentifications 2. Minor mistakes F. Best Practices for Teaching Letter-Sound Phonics 1. Teach letter-sound patterns early 2. Teach directly 3. Follow a logical, planful sequence 4. Teach phonemic awareness, when needed 5. Pace instruction to the needs of each child 6. Teach the same letter-sound patterns in spelling as you teach in reading 7. Integrate phonics into your classroom reading program G. A Sequence for Teaching Letter-Sound Patterns 1. Least challenging patterns a. Single consonants b. CVC short vowel pattern 2. Somewhat more challenging patterns a. Consonant digraphs b. Consonant clusters c. VCe long vowel pattern d. VV long vowel pattern e. CV long vowel pattern f. Double oo pattern g. Diphthongs 3. Most challenging patterns a. C or g plus a vowel b. Vr vowel pattern c. VCCe short vowel pattern d. Au, aw, eu, ew patterns H. Do Phonics Rules Belong in Your Classroom Reading Program? I. Alphabetic Word Learners and Phonetic Spellers J. Decodable Books and Your Classroom Reading Program K. Activities for Teaching Letter-Sound Based Phonics L. Moving Toward Using the Multiletter Chunks in Word Structure to Read and Spelling Long Words M. References CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: USING CHUNKING STRATEGY TO READ AND LEARN LONG WORDS A. Key Ideas B. Key Vocabulary 1. Roots of the Multiletter Chunk Strategy 2. Seven Multiletter Chunks a. Prefixes b. Suffixes c. Base Words d. Greek and Latin Roots e. Compound Words f. Contractions g. Syllables 3. Free and Bound Morphemes D. Why Readers Chunk Letters Together E. Teaching Multiletter Chunks in Your Classroom Reading Program F. How Children Use the Multiletter Chunks in Word Structure 1. Correcting Misidentifications G. Consolidated Word Learners and Transitional Spellers 1. Shania 2. Kristen H. Prefixes, Suffixes, and Base Words 1. Prefixes 2. Suffixes 3. Base Words I. Best Practices for Teaching Prefixes and Suffixes 1. Break Words into Meaningful Parts, Talk About the Parts, and Put the Words Back Together Again 2. Teach Readers How to Peel Away Prefixes and Suffixes to Reveal Familiar Base Words a. Do I see a prefix? b. Do I see a suffix? c. Do I know this base word? d. Put the word back together 3. Teach inflectional suffixes in the first and second grade 4. Give children practice reading and writing many different words with the same prefixes and suffixes 5. Teach base word meaning J. Greek and Latin Roots K. Compound Words L. Contractions M. Syllables 1. Syllable patterns a. CV ¿ open long vowel syllable b. CVC ¿ closed short vowel syllable c. Prefix and suffix syllables d. C + le syllable e. Compound word syllable 2. Accent patterns 3. Best practices for teaching readers about syllables a. Use clue words to illustrate syllable patterns b. Teach the syllables and accent patterns only after readers have a good understanding of phonics letter-sound patterns c. Give readers opportunities to apply their syllable knowledge when reading and writing N. Activities for Teaching the Multiletter Chunks in Word Structure O. Insight into Word Meaning and Pronunciation P. References CHAPTER 7 TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS AND CHILDREN AT RISK A. Key Ideas B. English Language Learners a. Phonemic awareness b. Phonics c. Structural analysis d. Word meaning 1. Children¿s home language influences learning to read and write English 2. Best practices for teaching reading and sharing literacy with English language learners a. Adapt instruction to children¿s English language proficiency, culture, and experiences b. Use culturally familiar text to assess reading ability c. Connect children¿s life experiences and home language with your classroom reading program d. Develop children¿s ability to speak their home language and English e. Use predictable books to practice and reinforce English language patterns and vocabulary f. Read aloud to children g. Have children write for a variety of purposes C. Children at risk 1. Children who over-rely on picture cues a. Shandra What Shandra needs to learn Teaching phonemic awareness Teaching Shandra to pay attention to print 2. Children who do not effectively use analogy-based phonics and letter-sound phonics b. Raymond What Raymond needs to learn Teaching phonemic awareness Teaching phonics c. Melissa What Melissa needs to learn Teaching phonemic awareness Teaching phonics d. Mike What Mike needs to learn Teaching blending Teaching letter-sound phonics and structural analysis D. References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Reading -- Phonetic method.