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<hr> <hr> Contents <BR><HR><BR> <TOC> Preface A Note on Editing List of Maps List of Plates Chapter One. The Beginnings Prelude to Settlement 1. The Rationale for Colonization 2. Supplies the Colonists Took to Virginia 3. The First Settlers 4. Instructions from the Virginia Company to the First Settlers, November 1606 5. George Percy's Account of the Voyage to Virginia and the Colony's First Days 6. Some Contemporary Explanations for Virginia's Early Failures The Struggle for Survival 7. A Share of Stock in the London Company, 1610 8. The <"Starving Time," 1609@-1610 9. Excerpts from the Lawes Divine, Morall, and Martiall, 1612 10. Sir Thomas Dale's Plan for Revitalizing the Colony, 1611 11. John Rolfe Experiments with Tobacco Growing, 1612 Virginia Transformed 12. The Beginning of Representative Government: The Virginia Company Creates a General Assembly Chapter Two. The Evolution of Self-Government in Virginia: The Governor and the General Assembly The Governor 1. Instructions to Sir William Berkeley, August 1641 The Council of State 2. The Governor and Council as Court, 1674 3. The Burgesses Elect the Governor and Council, 1652 The House of Burgesses 4. Election of Burgesses, 1636 5. Freeholders Ordered to Meet with Their Burgesses, 1671 6. The Evolution of Burgess Representation A. An Act Authorizing Collection of Taxes for Burgesses' Salaries, March 1642/3 B. An Act Limiting the Number of Burgesses a County Can Elect and Defining Other Election Procedures, November 1645 C. An Act Authorizing the Assessment of Charges for Parochial Burgesses, March 1658/9 D. An Act Limiting Counties to Elect Only Two Burgesses, March 1660/1 E. An Act Requiring Counties to Elect Two Burgesses, October 1669 F. An Act Fining Counties for Failing to Elect Burgesses, October 1670 7. Control over Legislative Procedures A. Members Freed from Arrest during Assembly Sessions, 1623/4 B. Control over Members' Qualifications, 1663 C. Election of the Speaker, 1653 D. Rules of Debate in the House of Commons, 1656 E. Rules of Debate in the House of Burgesses, 1658/9 8. Initiation of Legislation A. Edmund Scarburgh's Petition to the House of Burgesses, 1663 B. Scarburgh's Petition Becomes Law, 1663 9. Control over Taxation A. A Right Established, 1623/4 B. A Right Reasserted, 1666 10. Control over Local Affairs: The General Assembly Creates the County Court System, 1634 Chapter Three. The Evolution of Self-Government in Virginia: Local Government The Organization of County Government 1. The Creation of Rappahannock County, 1656 2. The Appointment of County Officers A. Commission of the Peace, May 1652 B. Sheriff's Commission, 1674 C. Nominations for Sheriff, 1636 D. The Justices' Control over Appointments to Their Courts, 1672 The Growth of the County Courts' Statutory Control of Local Affairs 3. Acts of the Assembly, 1642/3@-1661/2 A. An Act Requiring Counties to Maintain Ferries and Bridges, March 1642/3 B. An Act Empowering County Courts to Probate Wills, November 1645 C. An Act Authorizing County Courts to Try All Cases at Common Law and in Equity, November 1645 D. An Act Establishing County Courts and Their Justices, March 1661/2 E. An Act Authorizing County Courts to Enact Local Bylaws, March 1661/2 The County Court as a Place of Record 4. A Land Deed Recorded, 1638 5. A Deed of Sale, 1664 6. A Will Recorded and Probated, 1680 7. Mary Allen's Power of Attorney, 1665 8. Cattle Registry, 1665 9. A Coroner's Inquest, 1647 The County Courts' Administrative Duties 10. County Court Procedure, 1675 11. Justices Fined for Failing to Attend Their Court, 1663/4 12. The Regulation of a Public House, 1667 13. The Care of the Indigent and the Infirm A. Poor Relief, 1659 B. The Care of an Idiot, 1661 C. Tax Relief for an Aged Subject, 1660 14. County Defense, 1674 15. Tax Collection, 1672 The Problems of Law and Order 16. Civil Justice A. A Debt Suit, 1655/6 B. A Character Defamation, 1634 C. Fighting in the Courthouse Yard, 1684 D. A Justice Slandered, 1637 E. A Chancery Suit, 1685 F. A Violation of the Navigation Acts, 1685 17. Criminal Justice A. Lower Norfolk Justices Assist in Capturing a Robber, 1685 B. A Suspected Felon Is Bound over to the General Court, 1658 C. Grand Jury Presentments, 1684 D. Petty Theft, 1650 E. Petty Fraud, 1656 F. An Assault, 1639 G. Punishment of Fornication, 1641 H. The Penalty for Adultery, 1642 I. The Northumberland Court Stops an Illicit Affair, 1665 Chapter Four. The Structure of Society The Character of Virginia's Population 1. An Excerpt from the Census of 1624/5 2. Virginia's Population in 1634 3. Sir William Berkeley's Estimate of Virginia's Population, 1670 4. A Tithing List 5. A Land Patent The Willoughby Family, 1610@-1699 6. The Original English Residence of Thomas Willoughby 7. Thomas Willoughby Arrives in Virginia 8. An Early Land Patent of Thomas Willoughby 9. Offices Held by Thomas Willoughby A. Commander of Forces Sent to Attack the Indians, 1627 B. Monthly Court Judge, 1628/9 C. Burgess, 1627/8@-1631/2 D. Justice of the Peace E. Member of the Council of State 10. Some Debts Owed to Thomas Willoughby 11. The Lower Norfolk Justices Appoint Thomas Willoughby to Recruit a Minister, 1655 12. Death of Thomas Willoughby, 1658 13. Thomas Willoughby's Children 14. Thomas Willoughby II Apprenticed as a Merchant Tailor, 1644 15. Thomas Willoughby II Refuses the Office of Justice of the Peace, 1656 16. Thomas Willoughby II Refuses Jury Service, 1656 17. Offices Held by Thomas Willoughby II A. Appointment to the Bench of Lower Norfolk County, 1661 B. Sheriff, 1666 C. Fort Commissioner, 1667 18. The Wife of Thomas Willoughby II 19. Thomas Willoughby II's Children 20. Death of Thomas Willoughby II, 1672 21. Thomas Willoughby III's Appointment to the Bench of Lower Norfolk County, 1698 Wider Kin Connections of the Willoughby Family 22. The Husbands of Elizabeth, Daughter of Thomas Willoughby A. Simon Overzee: Dutch Merchant B. George Colclough: London Merchant, Justice of the Peace, and Burgess for Northumberland County, Virginia C. Isaac Allerton: New England Merchant, Justice of the Peace, Burgess for Northumberland County, Virginia, and Councillor of State Chapter Five. Bound Labor: Indentured Servitude Procurement of Indentured Servants 1. Richard Garford's Contract to Provide a Servant for Thomas Workman, 1654 2. Servants Imported by Headright, 1652 3. Roger Jones's Indenture, 1688 4. Richard Willis Agrees to Teach John Talbert a Trade, 1680 5. The Custom of the Country, 1656 6. The Sale of a Servant without an Indenture, 1665 The Hazards of Servitude 7. An Assault on Charity Dallen, 1649 8. James Revel Describes the Servant's Plight, circa 1680 9. Edward Whittell Commits Suicide, 1664 Problems Created by the Use of Servant Labor 10. A Runaway, 1680 11. Bastard Children, 1663 12. A Frivolous Lawsuit, 1681 13. Theft of Master's Goods, 1684 14. A Servant Assaults His Mistress, 1679 15. The Gloucester County Conspiracy, 1663 A. Indictment of the Conspirators B. Interrogation of the Conspirators C. The General Assembly Rewards John Berkenhead D. The General Assembly Declares a Thanksgiving Day 16. The Middlesex County Conspiracy, 1687 Chapter Six. Bound Labor: Slavery The Arrival of Africans in Virginia, 1619 1. John Rolfe to Sir Edwin Sandys, January 1619/20 The Free African Virginian 2. Anthony Johnson's Servant, 1655 3. Francis Paine's Will, 1673 4. Philip Mongom Is Accused of Stealing Hogs, 1659/60 5. John Francisco Maintains a Bastard Child, 1668 6. An Example of Intermarriage, 1671 7. John Francisco's Suit in Chancery, 1673/4 8. Susannah's Case, 1677 9. The Suit against Mary Williams, 1688 Problems Created by the Use of Slave Labor 10. Runaways A. Theoderick Bland Tries to Recapture Two Runaways, 1662 B. Punishment of a Runaway Slave, 1689 11. Slave Insurrections A. A Rising on William Pierce's Plantation, 1640 B. A Rising on the Northern Neck, 1687 C. The Trial of Tom Cary, 1693 12. The Difficulty in Maintaining Racial Separation A. Hugh Davis's Case, 1630 B. William Watts's and Mary's Case, 1649 C. William's Case, 1681 D. Katherine Watkins's Case, 1681 E. Rebecca Corney's Bastard, 1689 The Paths to Freedom 13. Mihill Gowen Is Set Free by His Master's Will, 1657/8 14. Antonio to Gain Freedom after Ten Years' Service, 1678 15. John and Isabell Daule Purchase Their Freedom, 1670 16. The Courts as an Avenue to Freedom A. The Case of Elizabeth Key, 1655/6 B. Fernando Appeals His Suit to the General Court, 1667 C. Jack Petitions Governor Berkeley and the General Court for His Freedom, 1665 D. The General Court Sets Andrew Moore Free, 1673 E. John Towe's Case, 1686 The Evolution of Slavery's Definition in the Law 17. Acts of the General Assembly, 1640@-1700 A. An Act Preventing Blacks from Bearing Arms, 1640 B. An Act Taxing Black Women, March 1642/3 C. An Act Defining the Status of Mulatto Bastards, December 1662 D. An Act Declaring That Baptism Does Not Bring Freedom, September 1667 E. An Act Declaring How Blacks Belonging to Intestates Shall Be Disposed of, September 1671 F. An Act for Preventing Insurrections among Slaves, June 1680 G. An Act for Suppressing Outlying Slaves, April 1691 H. An Act for the More Speedy Prosecution of Slaves Accused of Capitall Crimes, April 1692 Chapter Seven. Tobacco and Trade The Production of Tobacco 1. How to Plant Tobacco, 1615 The Tobacco Trade 2. The Sale of Tobacco, 1651 3. A Bill of Exchange, 1668 4. Captain Yardley Buys Five Africans, 1648 5. Correspondence between Merchants and Planters A. William Scopes to Thomas Willoughby, Lemuel Mason, and John Holmes, 1653 B. James Gilbert to William Carver, 1667 C. Abraham Wheelock to John Bowery, 1676 D. Douglas Newport to Argoll Yeardley, 1643 6. A Power of Attorney, 1657 7. A Bill of Lading and an Invoice of Goods Bound for Virginia, 1661 8. Correspondence between James Barton and Thomas Wilke, 1680 9. A Virginia Merchant's Stock 10. Jonathan Newell's Accounts, 1677 11. Agricultural Diversity, 1649 12. Sir William Berkeley's Scheme for Diversifying the Economy, 1662 13. Sericulture, 1666 14. Robert Beverley's Explanation for Governor Berkeley's Failure, 1705 Chapter Eight. Indians and Whites: The Conflict of Cultures 1. John Smith's Description of the Indian Way, 1612 2. William Strachey's Profile of Powhatan, 1612 3. John Rolfe Requests Permission to Marry Pocahontas, 1614 4. The Outbreak of the Anglo-Indian War of 1622@-1632 5. John Martin's Scheme for Defeating the Indians, 1622 6. The Governor and Council Threaten Reprisals against the Indians, 1629 7. Lower Norfolk County Sends Its Militia against the Nanticokes, 1639 8. Indian Chiefs Seek Pardon for John Burton, 1640 9. The Anglo-Indian War of 1644@-1646 10. The Peace Treaty That Ended the Anglo-Indian War of 1644@-1646 11. The English Formulate an Indian Policy A. An Act Outlawing the Killing of Indians, October 1649 B. An Act Preventing the Kidnapping of Indian Children, October 1649 C. An Act Granting Land to the Indians, October 1649 12. Sources of Potential Trouble between the Indians and the English, 1661@-1675 A. Indians Fined for Hog Stealing, 1660/1 B. Indians Accused of Beating an Englishman, 1663/4 C. Stafford Court Forbids Indians to Hunt in Settled Areas, 1664 D. Indians Lose Suit to Recover Land, 1665/6 E. Governor Berkeley's Formula for Quieting the Northern Indians, 1666 F. Indians Suspected of Kidnapping a Servant Girl, 1668 G. Indians Break into Robert Jones's House, 1669 H. Accomack Court Orders Indians Whipped, 1671 I. Whites Convicted of Stealing from the Indians, 1675 13. The Anglo-Indian War of 1675@-1677 A. The Incident That Led to War, 1675 B. The Governor and Council Act to Prevent War, 1675 C. An Account of the Attack on the Susquehannock Stronghold, 1675 D. Pr¿cis of the Peace Treaty That Ended the Anglo-Indian War of 1675@-1677 14. Robert Beverley's Estimate of the Indian Population, circa 1705 Chapter Nine. Upheaval and Rebellion The Thrusting out of Sir John Harvey, 1635 1. The Mutineers' Complaints against Harvey: Samuel Mathews to Sir John Wolstenholme 2. Harvey's Account of His Troubles 3. Sir William Berkeley Explains to Charles II the Surrender of Virginia, May 1652 The Lawne's Creek Rising, December 1673 4. The Causes of Discontent A. The Dutch Burn the Tobacco Fleet, July 1673: The Problem of Defending Virginia against Attack B. Dissatisfaction with Sir William Berkeley's Leadership: The Council of State Defends the Governor against Complaints of Mismanagement, October 1673 5. The Prosecution of the Lawne's Creek Dissidents, January 1673/4 A. The Warrants for the Arrest of the Dissidents, January 3, 1673/4 B. Francis Taylor's Evidence, January 1673/4 C. The Surry County Court's Verdict, January 6, 1673/4 D. The General Court Confirms the Surry Court's Verdict, April 1674 E. Governor Berkeley Cancels the Dissidents' Fines, September 1674 Bacon's Rebellion, 1676 6. The Causes of Discontent A. Frontier Planters Petition Governor Berkeley to Commission Volunteers against the Indians, circa Spring 1676 B. Nathaniel Bacon's Victory over the Indians, April 1676 7. Berkeley Attempts to Regain His Popularity A. Berkeley's Election Proclamation, May 10, 1676 B. Berkeley's <"Declaration and Remonstrance," May 29, 1676 8. Berkeley Asks to Be Replaced 9. Bacon Is Elected Burgess for Henrico 10. Bacon's Submission 11. The June Assembly A. A Pr¿cis of the June Laws B. William Sherwood's Account of the Assembly's Proceedings 12. Bacon's <"Manifesto" 13. Postrebellion Grievances The Plant-Cutter Riots, 1681@-1683 14. Two Accounts of the Riots A. Sir Henry Chicheley to Secretary Leoline Jenkins, May 1682 B. Nicholas Spencer to Secretary Leoline Jenkins, May 1682 15. Governor Culpeper's Handling of the Plant Cutters, January 1681/2 Ten. Life in Seventeenth-Century Virginia The Voyage to Virginia 1. Henry Norwood's Passage to Virginia, 1649 This New Land, Virginia 2. Samuel Purchas's Description of Virginia, 1613 3. Two Views of Virginia's Promise A. John Pory Describes the Possibilities for Advancement, 1619 B. Richard Frethorne's Account from Martin's Hundred of His Plight in Virginia, 1623 Houses and Household Property 4. Types of Houses A. A Contract for a Frame House B. A Frenchman's Description of Housing in Virginia, 1687 5. John Waroe's Estate, 1650 Family Matters 6. Correspondence A. Francis Howard, Baron Howard of Effingham, to Philadelphia Pelham, Baroness Howard of Effingham, 1684 B. Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley Ludwell to Sir Apstrupus Danby, 1695 C. William Fitzhugh to Mary King Fitzhugh in England, 1698 D. William Byrd to William Byrd II, 1685 E. Governor-General Effingham to William Blathwayt, 1685 7. Tensions in the Household A. Mary Bibby's Orphans, 1638 B. Child Care, 1643 C. Child Given up for Adoption, 1644 D. Child Abuse, 1643 E. Spousal Abuse, 1665 Religious Life 8. The Church A. The Creation of Christ Church Parish, 1666 B. Petsworth Parish Builds a Church, 1677 C. Recruiting a Minister, 1656 D. The Vestryman's Oath, 1664 E. Minister Promises Monthly Celebrations of Holy Communion, 1684 Leisure Pursuits 9. Amusements, Games, and Sports A. Horse Racing, 1674 B. Ninepins, 1681 C. Dicing, 1685 D. Putt, 1685 E. Hunting, 1680 F. Middlesex Court Acts to Conserve the County's Fish Population, 1678 G. Accomack Court Forbids a Company of Players from Performing The Bear and the Cub, 1663 Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Virginia -- History -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775 -- Sources.
Civilization, Modern -- 17th century -- Sources.