Table of contents for Contemporary advertising / William F. Arens, Michael I. Weigold, Christian Arens.

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Detailed Contents
	Part One	Advertising Perspectives
	1	What Is Advertising Today? 4
What Is Advertising? 6
Communication: What Makes Advertising Unique, 8
The Human Communication Process, 8 Applying the Communication Process to 
Advertising, 9
Marketing: Determining the Type of Advertising to Use, 13
What Is Marketing? 14 Advertising and the Marketing Process, 14 Identifying 
Target Markets and Target Audiences, 14 Implementing 
Marketing Strategy, 18 Integrating Marketing Communications, 24
	2	The Evolution of Advertising, 28
Economics: The Growing Need for Advertising, 31
Principles of Free-Market Economics, 31 Functions and Effects of Advertising in 
a Free Economy, 31 The Evolution of Advertising as 
an Economic Tool, 35 The Global Interactive Age: Looking at the Twenty-First 
Century, 48
Society and Ethics: The Effects of Advertising, 50
	3	The Economic, Social, and Regulatory Aspects of Advertising, 54
The Many Controversies about Advertising, 56
The Economic Impact of Advertising, 58
Effect on the Value of Products, 59 Effect on Prices, 60 Effect on 
Competition, 60 Effect on Consumer Demand, 61 Effect on 
Consumer Choice, 61 Effect on the Business Cycle, 61 The Abundance Principle: 
The Economic Impact of Advertising in 
Perspective, 62
The Social Impact of Advertising, 62
Deception in Advertising, 63 The Subliminal Advertising Myth, 64 The Effect of 
Advertising on Our Value System, 64 The 
Proliferation of Advertising, 66 The Use of Stereotypes in Advertising, 68 
Offensiveness in Advertising, 69 The Social Impact of 
Advertising in Perspective, 70
Social Responsibility and Advertising Ethics, 71
Advertisers? Social Responsibility, 71 Ethics of Advertising, 73
How Government Regulates Advertising, 74
Government Restraints on International Advertisers, 75
Current Regulatory Issues Affecting U.S. Advertisers, 75
Freedom of Commercial Speech, 76 Consumer Privacy, 79
Federal Regulation of Advertising in North America, 80
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission, 81 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 
84 The Federal Communications Commission 
(FCC), 85 The Patent and Trademark Office and the Library of Congress, 86
State and Local Regulation, 86
Regulation by State Governments, 86 Regulation by Local Governments, 87
Nongovernment Regulation, 87
The Better Business Bureau (BBB), 87 The National Advertising Review Council 
(NARC), 88 Regulation by the Media, 89 Regulation 
by Consumer Groups, 91 Self-Regulation by Advertisers, 92 Self-Regulation by 
Ad Agencies and Associations, 92
The Ethical and Legal Aspects of Advertising in Perspective, 93
	4	The Scope of Advertising: From Local to Global, 96
The Advertising Industry, 98
The Organizations in Advertising, 98 The People in Advertising, 98
The Advertisers (The Clients), 99
Local Advertising: Where the Action Is, 99 Regional and National Advertisers, 
103 Transnational Advertisers, 106
The Advertising Agency, 108
The Role of the Advertising Agency, 109 Types of Agencies, 109 What People in 
an Agency Do, 113 How Agencies Are 
Structured, 117 How Agencies Are Compensated, 118 The In-House Agency, 120
The Client/Agency Relationship, 120
How Agencies Get Clients, 120 Stages in the Client/Agency Relationship, 122 
Factors Affecting the Client/Agency Relationship, 124
The Suppliers in Advertising, 126
Art Studios and Web Designers, 126 Printers and Related Specialists, 126 Film 
and Video Houses, 126 Research Companies, 126
The Media of Advertising, 127
Print Media, 127 Electronic Media, 128 Digital Interactive Media, 128 Out-of-
Home Media, 129 Direct Mail, 129 Other 
Media, 129 Media around the World, 130
	Part Two	Crafting Marketing and Advertising Strategies
	5	Marketing and Consumer Behavior: The Foundations of Advertising, 136
The Larger Marketing Context of Advertising, 139
The Relationship of Marketing to Advertising, 139 Customer Needs and Product 
Utility, 139 Exchanges, Perception, and 
Satisfaction, 140
The Key Participants in the Marketing Process, 143
Customers, 143 Markets, 143 Marketers, 145
Consumer Behavior: The Key to Advertising Strategy, 145
The Importance of Knowing the Consumer, 145 The Consumer Decision Process: An 
Overview, 146
Personal Processes in Consumer Behavior, 147
The Consumer Perception Process, 147 Learning and Persuasion: How Consumers 
Process Information, 150 The Consumer Motivation 
Process, 154
Interpersonal Influences on Consumer Behavior, 157
Family Influence, 157 Societal Influence, 158 Cultural and Subcultural 
Influence, 160
Nonpersonal Influences on Consumer Behavior, 162
Time, 162 Place, 162 Environment, 162
The Purchase Decision and Postpurchase Evaluation, 163
	6	Market Segmentation and the Marketing Mix: Determinants of 
Advertising Strategy, 168
The Market Segmentation Process, 170
Segmenting the Consumer Market: Finding the Right Niche, 171 Segmenting 
Business and Government Markets: Understanding 
Organizational Buying Behavior, 179 Aggregating Market Segments, 182
The Target Marketing Process, 183
Target Market Selection, 184 The Marketing Mix: A Strategy for Matching 
Products to Markets, 184
Advertising and the Product Element, 186
Product Life Cycles, 186 Product Classifications, 188 Product Positioning, 189 
Product Differentiation, 189 Product 
Branding, 190 Product Packaging, 191
Advertising and the Price Element, 193
Key Factors Influencing Price, 193
Advertising and the Distribution (Place) Element, 194
Direct Distribution, 194 Indirect Distribution, 195 Vertical Marketing 
Systems: The Growth of Franchising, 196
Advertising and the Communication (Promotion) Element, 197
Personal Selling, 198 Advertising, 198 Direct Marketing, 199 Public 
Relations, 199 Collateral Materials, 199 Sales Promotion, 199
The Marketing Mix in Perspective, 200
	7	Research: Gathering Information for Advertising Planning, 204
The Need for Research in Marketing and Advertising, 206
What Is Marketing Research? 206 What Is Advertising Research? 208
Applying Research to Advertising Decision Making, 208
Advertising Strategy Research, 209 Developing Creative Concepts, 211 
Pretesting and Posttesting, 212
Steps in the Research Process, 214
Step 1: Analyzing the Situation and Defining the Problem, 214 Step 2: 
Conducting Informal (Exploratory) Research, 214 Step 3: 
Establishing Research Objectives, 216 Step 4: Conducting Formal Research, 217 
Step 5: Interpreting and Reporting the Findings, 223
Important Issues in Advertising Research, 224
Considerations in Conducting Formal Quantitative Research, 224 Collecting 
Primary Data in International Markets, 228
	8	Marketing and Advertising Planning: Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and IMC, 
The Marketing Plan, 235
The Importance of Marketing Planning, 235 The Effect of the Marketing Plan on 
Advertising, 235 Top-Down Marketing, 235 Bottom-
Up Marketing: How Small Companies Plan, 240
The New Marketing Mantra: Relationship Marketing, 241
The Importance of Relationships, 242 Levels of Relationships, 242
Using IMC to Make Relationships Work, 244
IMC: The Concept and the Process, 244 The Dimensions of IMC, 247 The IMC 
Approach to Marketing and Advertising 
Planning, 247 The Importance of IMC to the Study of Advertising, 249
The Advertising Plan, 249
Reviewing the Marketing Plan, 249 Setting Advertising Objectives, 249 
Advertising Strategy and the Creative Mix, 252 The Secret to 
Successful Planning, 255
Allocating Funds for Advertising, 255
Advertising: An Investment in Future Sales, 255 Methods of Allocating Funds, 
260 The Bottom 
Line, 263
	9	Planning Media Strategy: Finding Links to the Market, 266
Media Planning: Integrating Science with Creativity in Advertising, 269
The Challenge, 269 The Role of Media in the Marketing Framework, 276 The 
Media-Planning Framework, 278
Defining Media Objectives, 278
Audience Objectives, 278 Message-Distribution Objectives, 279 Optimizing 
Reach, Frequency, and Continuity: The Art of Media 
Planning, 283
Developing a Media Strategy: The Media Mix, 285
Elements of the Media Mix: The Five Ms, 285 Factors That Influence Media 
Strategy Decisions, 286 Stating the Media Strategy, 292
Media Tactics: Selecting and Scheduling Media Vehicles, 292
Criteria for Selecting Individual Media Vehicles, 292 Economics of Foreign 
Media, 295 The Synergy of Mixed Media, 295 Methods 
for Scheduling Media, 296 Computers in Media Selection and Scheduling, 297
	Part Three	Integrating Advertising with Other Elements of the 
Communications Mix
	10	Relationship Building: Direct Marketing, Personal Selling, and Sales 
Promotion, 304
The Importance of Relationship Marketing and IMC, 307
Understanding Direct Marketing, 307
The Role of Direct Marketing in IMC, 309
The Evolution of Direct Marketing, 309 The Impact of Databases on Direct 
Marketing, 310 The Importance of Direct Marketing to 
IMC, 311 Drawbacks to Direct Marketing, 313
Types of Direct Marketing Activities, 314
Direct Sales, 314 Direct-Response Advertising, 315
Personal Selling: The Human Medium, 318
Types of Personal Selling, 319 Advantages of Personal Selling, 320 Drawbacks 
of Personal Selling, 320
The Role of Personal Selling in IMC, 321
Gathering Information, 321 Providing Information, 321 Fulfilling Orders, 321 
Building Relationships, 322
The Role of Sales Promotion in IMC, 323
The Positive Effect of Sales Promotion on Brand Volume, 324 The Negative Effect 
of Sales Promotion on Brand Value, 324
Sales Promotion Strategies and Tactics, 325
Giving Brands a Push with Trade Promotions, 326 Using Consumer Promotions to 
Pull Brands Through, 328
	11	Relationship Building: Public Relations, Sponsorship, and Corporate 
Advertising, 336
The Role of Public Relations, 338
The Difference between Advertising and Public Relations, 339 Advertising and PR 
in the Eyes of Practitioners, 340
The Public Relations Job, 342
PR Planning and Research, 342 Reputation Management, 342 Other Public 
Relations Activities, 345 Public Relations Tools, 347
Sponsorships and Events, 349
The Growth of Sponsorship, 350 Benefits of Sponsorship, 351 Drawbacks of 
Sponsorship, 352 Types of Sponsorship, 352 Methods of 
Sponsorship, 356 Measuring Sponsorship Results, 357
Corporate Advertising, 358
Public Relations Advertising, 358 Corporate/Institutional Advertising, 358 
Corporate Identity Advertising, 364 Recruitment 
Advertising, 364
	Part Four	Creating Advertisements and Commercials
	12	Creative Strategy and the Creative Process, 370
The Creative Team: The Authors and Encoders of Advertising, 373
What Makes Great Advertising? 373
The Resonance Dimension, 374 The Relevance Dimension, 375
Formulating Advertising Strategy: The Key to Great Creative, 375
Writing the Creative Brief (Copy Platform), 376 Elements of Message Strategy, 
How Creativity Enhances Advertising, 379
What Is Creativity? 379 The Role of Creativity in Advertising, 379 
Understanding Creative Thinking, 382
The Creative Process, 384
The Explorer Role: Gathering Information, 384
Develop an Insight Outlook, 385 Know the Objective, 385 Brainstorm, 385
The Artist Role: Developing and Implementing the Big Idea, 385
Task 1: Develop the Big Idea, 385 Task 2: Implement the Big Idea, 390 The 
Creative Pyramid: A Guide to Formulating Copy and 
Art, 391
The Judge Role: Decision Time, 394
The Warrior Role: Overcoming Setbacks and Obstacles, 396
	13	Creative Execution: Art and Copy, 404
Delivering on the Big Idea: The Visual and the Verbal, 406
The Art of Creating Print Advertising, 406
Designing the Print Ad, 406 The Use of Layouts, 407 Advertising Design and 
Production: The Creative and Approval 
Process, 408 Effect of Computers on Graphic Design, 410 Principles of Design: 
Which Design Formats Work Best, 410 The Use of 
Visuals in Print Advertising, 411
Copywriting and Formats for Print Advertising, 417
Headlines, 417 Subheads, 421 Body Copy, 421 Slogans, 424 Seals, Logos, and 
Signatures, 424
Copywriting for Electronic Media, 424
Writing Radio Copy, 424 Writing Television Copy, 425
The Role of Art in Radio and TV Advertising, 426
Developing the Artistic Concept for Commercials, 427 Formats for Radio and TV 
Commercials, 427 Basic Mechanics of Storyboard 
Development, 431
Writing for the Web, 432
Creating Ads for International Markets, 433
Translating Copy, 433 Art Direction for International Markets, 435 Legal 
Restraints on International Advertisers, 435
	14	Producing Ads for Print, Electronic, and Digital Media, 438
Managing the Advertising Production Process, 440
The Role of the Production Manager or Producer, 440 Managing Production Costs, 
The Print Production Process, 444
The Preproduction Phase: Planning the Project, 445 The Production Phase: 
Creating the Artwork, 448 The Prepress Phase: Stripping, 
Negs, and Plates, 451 The Duplication and Distribution Phase: Printing, 
Binding, and Shipping, 452
Quality Control in Print Production, 452
Production Phase Quality Issues, 452 Prepress Quality Issues, 452
The Radio Commercial Production Process, 460
Preproduction, 460 Production: Cutting the Spot, 461 Postproduction: Finishing 
the Spot, 462
The Television Commercial Production Process, 462
The Role of the Commercial Producer, 462 The Preproduction Phase, 463 
Production: The Shoot, 465 Postproduction, 467
Producing Advertising for Digital Media, 469
The Emergence of Digital Media, 469 The Role of Digital Media in Advertising, 
471 The People Who Produce Digital Media 
Advertising, 472 The Production Process, 472
	Part Five	Using Advertising Media
15	Using Print Media, 478
The Role of the Print Media Buyer, 480
Using Magazines in the Creative Mix, 481
The Pros and Cons of Magazine Advertising, 481 Special Possibilities with 
Magazines, 482 How Magazines Are Categorized, 484
Buying Magazine Space, 490
Understanding Magazine Circulation, 490 Reading Rate Cards, 492 Software for 
Buying Print Media, 493
Using Newspapers in the Creative Mix, 494
Who Uses Newspapers? 494 The Pros and Cons of Newspaper Advertising, 494 How 
Newspapers Are Categorized, 495 Types of 
Newspaper Advertising, 497
How Advertisers Buy Newspaper Space, 498
Understanding Readership and Circulation, 498 Co-ops and Networks, 501 
Insertion Orders and Tearsheets, 502
Print: A Worldwide Medium, 502
Print Media and New Technologies, 504
Sources of Print Media Information, 504
16	Using Electronic Media: Television and Radio, 508
The Medium of Television, 510
Broadcast TV, 510 Cable TV, 511 TV Audience Trends, 512 The Use of Television 
in IMC, 515 Types of TV Advertising, 515
TV Audience Measurement, 521
Rating Services: The Book, 521 Cable Ratings, 521 Defining Television Markets, 
522 Dayparts, 524 Audience Measures, 524 Gross 
Rating Points, 524
Buying Television Time, 525
Requesting Avails, 525 Selecting Programs for Buys, 525 Negotiating Prices and 
Contracts, 526 Electronic Media Buying 
Software, 527
Other Forms of Television, 527
Advertising on Video Rentals, 527
The Medium of Radio, 528
Who Uses Radio? 528 The Use of Radio in IMC, 528 Radio Programming and 
Audiences, 529
Buying Radio Time, 531
Types of Radio Advertising, 531 Radio Terminology, 532 The Seven Steps in 
Preparing a Radio Schedule, 534
17	Using Digital Interactive Media and Direct Mail, 538
Digital Interactive Media, 540
The Internet as a Medium, 543
The Evolution of the Internet, 543 The Internet Audience, 550 How People 
Access the Net, 552 Types of Internet 
Advertising, 553 Problems with the Internet as an Advertising Medium, 557 
Using the Internet in IMC, 557
Measuring the Internet Audience, 559
Seeking Standardization, 559 The Promise of Enhanced Tracking, 560
Buying Time and Space on the Internet, 561
Pricing Methods, 561 The Cost of Targeting, 562 Stretching Out the Dollars, 
The Global Impact of the Internet, 564
Other Interactive Media, 565
CD-ROM Catalogs and Magazines, 565 Kiosks, 565 Interactive TV, 565
Direct-Mail Advertising: The Addressable Medium, 566
Growth of Direct Mail, 568 Types of Direct-Mail Advertising, 568 Using Direct 
Mail in the Media Mix, 569 Buying Direct-Mail 
Advertising, 570
18	Using Out-of-Home, Exhibitive, and Supplementary Media, 576
Out-of-Home Media, 578
Outdoor Advertising, 579
Standardization of the Outdoor Advertising Business, 579 Types of Outdoor 
Advertising, 580 Buying Outdoor 
Advertising, 582 Regulation of Outdoor Advertising, 589
Transit Advertising, 589
Types of Transit Advertising, 590 Buying Transit Advertising, 592
Other Out-of-Home Media, 594
Mobile Billboards, 594 Electronic Signs and Display Panels, 594 Parking Meters 
and Public Phones, 594
Exhibitive Media, 594
Product Packaging, 594 Trade-Show Booths and Exhibits, 596
Supplementary Media, 598
Specialty Advertising, 598 Directories and Yellow Pages, 599 Emerging Media, 
Epilogue	Re-Positioning a Brand: MasterCard?s ?Priceless? Campaign, 604
Appendix A	Marketing Plan Outline, A1
Appendix B	Advertising Plan Outline, B
Important Terms, IT
End Notes, EN1
Credits and Acknowledgments, CR1
Name Index, IN1
Company and Brand Index, IN5
Subject Index, IN12

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