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Contents Chapter One The Framework within Which to Consider the Special Needs of English Language Learners Reasons for the Misidentification of Special Needs among ELLs Assessment Prevalence of a Medical Model The Availability of Categorical Funding The Need to Provide Relevant Services in a Timely Manner Some Myths Regarding ELLs and Special Education The Continuum of Services Framework A Collaborative Model Information Gathering Describing Before Diagnosing Providing Support: A Continuum of Services The Seven Integral Factors Chapter Two A Collaborative Model of Information Gathering and Service Provision Responsibilities of ECOS Teams Information Gathering Interpreting Information Suggesting Interventions Monitoring Progress Makeup of ECOS Teams ESL/Bilingual Specialists Special Education Specialists Other Professionals Building Professional Bridges across Specializations Characteristics of an Effective ECOS Teams Clear and Congruent Principles A Shared Language Breaking Down Disciplinary Boundaries Respectful Questioning Effective Interpersonal and Communication Skills How to Form Effective ECOS Teams What ECOS Teams Can Accomplish Professional Reflection Capacity Building Redefining Roles Getting the Big Picture Catalysts for Change An Innovative Approach Chapter Three Describing Before Diagnosing: Observation of Specific Difficulties that ELLs May Encounter The Importance of Describing Before Diagnosing Similarity of Surface Behaviors The Tendency to Choose Disability The Nature of Second Language Acquisition The Process of Data Collection and Explanation Stage One: Generating an Inventory of Specific Difficulties Generating an Independent Inventory of Difficulties Working with a Predetermined Inventory of Difficulties Explaining the Difficulties Benefits of Discussing Possible Causes Working in a Timely Fashion Remembering the Myths Reframing the Issue: ELL +/- disability Chapter Four Delivering a Continuum of Services Providing Support in a Timely Manner Getting a Head Start Response to Intervention Potential Benefits of RTI for ELLs Experiencing Difficulties A Solution-Seeking Approach Seeking ELL Educators' Expertise to Generate ELL Interventions Seeking Special Educators' Expertise to Generate Special Education Interventions Challenge to this Continuum of Services Framework Shifting Practices Regulatory and Fiscal Constraints The Challenge of Inertial Concepts A Forum for Crafting Interventions Key Principles for Crafting Interventions for ELLs Validating Difficulties and Intervening Across Contexts An Example of Validating the Source of Difficulties Home language and culture as a resource Bilingualism and Disabilities Monolingual Educators in Multilingual Settings A Sample Process An Introduction to the Seven Integral Factors Chapter Five The Learning Environment Created for ELLs Key Factors in the Learning Environment Teachers Resources Available Program Design Range of Services Offered Role of the Native Language Role of the Native Culture Characteristics of Instruction Characteristics of Assessment Suggestions for Information Gathering and Evaluating the Adequacy of the Learning Environment Suggestion for Systemic Interventions Suggestions for Specific Interventions Questions for Discussion Chapter Six Personal and Family Factors Key Factors in Personal and Family Background Socioeconomic Status Family Dynamics Expectations Student Interests Student Motivation Experiential Background Parental Involvement Suggestions for Information Gathering Suggestions for Systemic Interventions Suggestions for Specific Interventions Questions for Discussion Chapter Seven Physical and Psychological Factors Key Physical and Psychological Factors Disease or Medical Conditions Impaired Vision or Hearing Malnutrition and Chronic Hunger Chronic Pain Due to Untreated Illness, Disease or Condition Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome/Disorder Fear Current Psychological Stress Social and Emotional Development Feelings of Belonging to School and Wider Community Suggestions for Information Gathering Suggestions for Systemic Interventions Suggestions for Specific Interventions Questions for Discussion Chapter Eight Previous Schooling Factors Key Factors in Previous Schooling Amount of Formal Schooling in the First/Native Language Quality of Formal Schooling in the First/Native Language Amount of Formal English as a Second Language (ESL) Instruction Quality of Formal English as a Second Language (ESL) Instruction Congruence of Educational Approaches Suggestions for Information Gathering and Evaluating the Adequacy of Previous Schooling Suggestions for Systemic Interventions Suggestions for Specific Interventions Questions for Discussion Chapter Nine Oral Language and Literacy Development Factors Key Factors in Oral Language Development First Language Acquisition Second Language Acquisition Conversational Fluency and Academic Language Proficiency Evidence of Instruction in Oral Academic Language Reinforcing Academic Language at Home Key Factors in Literacy Development Literacy Development in L1 and L2 Social Language and Academic Language Evidence of Appropriate Literacy Instruction in L1 and L2 Literacy in the Home Understanding the Relationship Between Students' L1 and L2 Language Use Patterns Suggestions for Information Gathering What to Assess in Oral Language and Literacy How to Assess Oral Language and Literacy Comparison with Peers Suggestions for Interventions Questions for Discussion Chapter Ten Academic Achievement Factors Key Factors in Academic Achievement for ELLs Taking into Account All Content Areas: Core Academic Areas, Special Classes, Electives Language Proficiency Versus Knowledge of Concepts Suggestions for Gathering Information on Academic Achievement Standardized Norm-referenced Testing and Performance Assessment Obtaining Information in L1 and L2 in All Language Domains Comparisons with Peers Current and Past Data Evidence of Instruction What Happens at Home Suggestions for Systemic and Specific Interventions Questions for Discussion Chapter Eleven Cross Cultural Factors Key Characteristics of Culture What Constitutes Culture The Multiple Determinants of Culture Culture as a Dynamic Process Adaptation to a New Culture The Impact of Culture on Learning Suggestions for Information Gathering and Evaluating Cultural Difference Factors Assessing the Student's Ability to Function in the School Culture Suggestions for Systemic Interventions Suggestions for Specific Interventions Questions for Discussion Chapter Twelve Putting It All Together: How Do We Know that What We are Doing Works? Identification of ELLs with Difficulties at School Checking the Proportion of ELLs in Special Education Investigate Misidentification Anticipating and Addressing Predictable ELL Difficulties Identifying Exceptionalities in Diverse Settings Stop Perpetuation of Common Myths Internalizing Principles of how ELLs Learn Creating an Enriched Environment for ELLs Teachers Expanding Professional Expertise Resources Programmatic and Instructional Issues Adopting a Response to Intervention Approach Monitoring the Effectiveness of Interventions Building Capacity to Anticipate New Difficulties Creating a Context for Assessment Benefits for All Learners Advocating to Change the System Appendices Glossary References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
English language -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching (Primary) -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching (Secondary) -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- Foreign speakers.
Special education -- English language.