Table of contents for Special education considerations for English language learners : delivering a continuum of service / Else Hamayan ... [et al.].

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Chapter One
The Framework within Which to Consider the Special Needs of English 
Language Learners
Reasons for the Misidentification of Special Needs among ELLs
	Assessment
Prevalence of a Medical Model
The Availability of Categorical Funding
The Need to Provide Relevant Services in a Timely Manner
Some Myths Regarding ELLs and Special Education
The Continuum of Services Framework
A Collaborative Model 
Information Gathering
Describing Before Diagnosing 
Providing Support: A Continuum of Services
The Seven Integral Factors
Chapter Two
A Collaborative Model of Information Gathering and Service Provision
Responsibilities of ECOS Teams
	Information Gathering 
	Interpreting Information 
	Suggesting Interventions
	Monitoring Progress 
Makeup of ECOS Teams 
	ESL/Bilingual Specialists
	Special Education Specialists 
	Other Professionals 
Building Professional Bridges across Specializations 
Characteristics of an Effective ECOS Teams 
	Clear and Congruent Principles 
	A Shared Language 
	Breaking Down Disciplinary Boundaries 
	Respectful Questioning 
	Effective Interpersonal and Communication Skills 
How to Form Effective ECOS Teams 
What ECOS Teams Can Accomplish
	Professional Reflection
	Capacity Building 
	Redefining Roles 
	Getting the Big Picture
	Catalysts for Change
An Innovative Approach
Chapter Three
Describing Before Diagnosing: Observation of Specific Difficulties that ELLs 
May Encounter
The Importance of Describing Before Diagnosing 
Similarity of Surface Behaviors 
	The Tendency to Choose Disability 
	The Nature of Second Language Acquisition
The Process of Data Collection and Explanation 
Stage One: Generating an Inventory of Specific Difficulties
	Generating an Independent Inventory of Difficulties
	Working with a Predetermined Inventory of Difficulties 
Explaining the Difficulties
	Benefits of Discussing Possible Causes 
	Working in a Timely Fashion 
	Remembering the Myths
Reframing the Issue: ELL +/- disability
Chapter Four
Delivering a Continuum of Services
Providing Support in a Timely Manner 
	Getting a Head Start
Response to Intervention 
	Potential Benefits of RTI for ELLs Experiencing Difficulties 
A Solution-Seeking Approach
	Seeking ELL Educators' Expertise to Generate ELL Interventions 
	Seeking Special Educators' Expertise to Generate Special Education Interventions 
Challenge to this Continuum of Services Framework
Shifting Practices 
Regulatory and Fiscal Constraints 
The Challenge of Inertial Concepts 
A Forum for Crafting Interventions
	Key Principles for Crafting Interventions for ELLs
Validating Difficulties and Intervening Across Contexts
	An Example of Validating the Source of Difficulties 
Home language and culture as a resource
	Bilingualism and Disabilities 
	Monolingual Educators in Multilingual Settings
A Sample Process
An Introduction to the Seven Integral Factors
Chapter Five
The Learning Environment Created for ELLs
Key Factors in the Learning Environment
Teachers
Resources Available 
Program Design 
Range of Services Offered
Role of the Native Language
Role of the Native Culture 
Characteristics of Instruction
Characteristics of Assessment 
Suggestions for Information Gathering and Evaluating the Adequacy of the Learning 
Environment
Suggestion for Systemic Interventions
Suggestions for Specific Interventions 
Questions for Discussion 
Chapter Six
Personal and Family Factors
Key Factors in Personal and Family Background
	Socioeconomic Status
	Family Dynamics
	Expectations
	Student Interests
	Student Motivation
	Experiential Background 
	Parental Involvement
Suggestions for Information Gathering 
Suggestions for Systemic Interventions
Suggestions for Specific Interventions 
Questions for Discussion 
Chapter Seven
Physical and Psychological Factors
Key Physical and Psychological Factors
	Disease or Medical Conditions 
	Impaired Vision or Hearing
	Malnutrition and Chronic Hunger
	Chronic Pain Due to Untreated Illness, Disease or Condition
	Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome/Disorder
	Fear 
	Current Psychological Stress
	Social and Emotional Development 
	Feelings of Belonging to School and Wider Community
Suggestions for Information Gathering 
Suggestions for Systemic Interventions
Suggestions for Specific Interventions 
Questions for Discussion 
Chapter Eight
Previous Schooling Factors
Key Factors in Previous Schooling
Amount of Formal Schooling in the First/Native Language 
Quality of Formal Schooling in the First/Native Language 
Amount of Formal English as a Second Language (ESL) Instruction
Quality of Formal English as a Second Language (ESL) Instruction
Congruence of Educational Approaches
Suggestions for Information Gathering and Evaluating the Adequacy of Previous 
Schooling 
Suggestions for Systemic Interventions
Suggestions for Specific Interventions 
Questions for Discussion 
Chapter Nine
Oral Language and Literacy Development Factors
Key Factors in Oral Language Development 
	First Language Acquisition
	Second Language Acquisition
Conversational Fluency and Academic Language Proficiency 
Evidence of Instruction in Oral Academic Language
Reinforcing Academic Language at Home 
Key Factors in Literacy Development
Literacy Development in L1 and L2
Social Language and Academic Language
Evidence of Appropriate Literacy Instruction in L1 and L2
Literacy in the Home
Understanding the Relationship Between Students' L1 and L2
Language Use Patterns
Suggestions for Information Gathering 
	What to Assess in Oral Language and Literacy
	How to Assess Oral Language and Literacy
	Comparison with Peers 
Suggestions for Interventions 
Questions for Discussion 
Chapter Ten
Academic Achievement Factors
Key Factors in Academic Achievement for ELLs
Taking into Account All Content Areas: Core Academic Areas, Special Classes, 
Electives
Language Proficiency Versus Knowledge of Concepts
Suggestions for Gathering Information on Academic Achievement
Standardized Norm-referenced Testing and Performance Assessment
Obtaining Information in L1 and L2 in All Language Domains
Comparisons with Peers
Current and Past Data
Evidence of Instruction
What Happens at Home 
Suggestions for Systemic and Specific Interventions
Questions for Discussion
Chapter Eleven
Cross Cultural Factors
Key Characteristics of Culture
	What Constitutes Culture 
	The Multiple Determinants of Culture 
	Culture as a Dynamic Process 
	Adaptation to a New Culture
	The Impact of Culture on Learning 
Suggestions for Information Gathering and Evaluating Cultural Difference Factors
	Assessing the Student's Ability to Function in the School Culture
Suggestions for Systemic Interventions
Suggestions for Specific Interventions 
Questions for Discussion 
Chapter Twelve
Putting It All Together: How Do We Know that What We are Doing Works?
Identification of ELLs with Difficulties at School
	Checking the Proportion of ELLs in Special Education 
	Investigate Misidentification
Anticipating and Addressing Predictable ELL Difficulties
	Identifying Exceptionalities in Diverse Settings
	Stop Perpetuation of Common Myths
	Internalizing Principles of how ELLs Learn
Creating an Enriched Environment for ELLs
	Teachers
	Expanding Professional Expertise 
	Resources 
	Programmatic and Instructional Issues 
	Adopting a Response to Intervention Approach
	Monitoring the Effectiveness of Interventions
Building Capacity to Anticipate New Difficulties
	Creating a Context for Assessment
	Benefits for All Learners
	Advocating to Change the System
Appendices
Glossary
References

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

English language -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching (Primary) -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching (Secondary) -- Foreign speakers.
English language -- Study and teaching (Elementary) -- Foreign speakers.
Special education -- English language.