Table of contents for An East Asian renaissance : ideas for economic growth / Indermit Gill and Homi Kharas ; together with Deepak Bhattasali ... [et al.].

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Table of Contents 
Acknowledgments ................................................................................................ xiii
Overview .................................................................................................................. 1
A Renaissance unfolds.................................................................................................................... 1 
A changing economic landscape..................................................................................................... 2 
A richer region with a growing middle class...................................................................... 3 
China is driving regionalization and regionalism ............................................................... 4 
A changing intellectual landscape .................................................................................................. 6 
New international trade....................................................................................................... 7 
New economic growth ........................................................................................................ 8 
New economic geography................................................................................................... 9 
Distributional consequences ............................................................................................. 11 
Avoiding the middle-income trap ................................................................................................. 12 
Trade and technology........................................................................................................ 15 
Ideas and innovation ......................................................................................................... 17 
Finance and risk ................................................................................................................ 20 
Cities and livability........................................................................................................... 22 
Cohesion and inequality.................................................................................................... 23 
Corruption........................................................................................................................ 25 
Growth, gravity, and friction in action.............................................................................. 27 
Towards a ¿third integration¿ ....................................................................................................... 28 
References.................................................................................................................................... 31 
1. Growth, Gravity and Friction...........................................................................35 
1.1 New challenges, fresh insights.......................................................................................... 35 
1.2 East Asia since the early nineties: Selected facts.............................................................. 38 
1.2.1 Growing to middle income status ......................................................................... 38 
1.2.2 Being pulled together by China ............................................................................ 42 
1.2.3 Looking for a middle path..................................................................................... 46 
1.3 Understanding economic growth: Recent advances ......................................................... 53 
1.3.1 Economies of scale ............................................................................................... 54 
1.3.2 Distribution of economic rents.............................................................................. 57 
1.3.3 Plan of this report.................................................................................................. 58 
References.................................................................................................................................... 61 
2. Trade ...................................................................................................................65 
2.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 65 
2.2 Trade patterns in East Asia ............................................................................................... 67 
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AN EAST ASIAN RENAISSANCE: IDEAS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH 
2.2.1 Shifts in the direction of trade............................................................................... 70 
2.2.2 Shifts in the commodity composition of trade...................................................... 72 
2.3 Responding to China......................................................................................................... 77 
2.4 Trade and growth .............................................................................................................. 84 
2.5 Institutional support for trade............................................................................................ 89 
2.6 The way forward............................................................................................................... 91 
References.................................................................................................................................... 92 
3. Innovation ...........................................................................................................97 
3.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 98 
3.2 Acquiring knowledge from abroad: technology transfers and spillovers ....................... 101 
3.2.1 Innovation outcomes: A broad perspective......................................................... 101 
3.2.3 Learning by exporting?....................................................................................... 106 
3.2.4 Technology transfer through imports.................................................................. 110 
3.2.5 Transfers and spillovers through foreign direct investment ............................... 111 
3.3 R&D efforts in East Asia ................................................................................................ 115 
3.3.1 R&D by sector of performance and funding....................................................... 119 
3.4 Advancing the global frontier: Patenting in East Asia.................................................... 122 
3.4.1 Patenting in East Asia ......................................................................................... 123 
3.4.2 In which technologies is East Asia innovating? ................................................. 126 
3.4.3 How good is East Asian patenting? .................................................................... 127 
3.4.4. Knowledge flows to, from and within East Asia: Patent citations ..................... 128 
3.5 Policy considerations ...................................................................................................... 133 
3.5.1 Business environment for innovation ................................................................. 133 
3.5.2 Human capital development ............................................................................... 138 
3.5.3 Direct support for innovation activities .............................................................. 139 
References.................................................................................................................................. 145 
4. Finance ............................................................................................................. 153 
4.1 From breakdown to buildup............................................................................................ 154 
4.1.1 How finance supported production networks prior to the 1997-98 crisis........... 154 
4.2 The pattern of global and regional financial integration................................................. 157 
4.2.1 Foreign direct investment ................................................................................... 159 
4.2.2 Other capital flows.............................................................................................. 162 
4.2.3 Foreign exchange reserve accumulation............................................................. 165 
4.2.4 Regional financial cooperation ........................................................................... 171 
4.3 Towards more robust domestic financial markets .......................................................... 173 
4.3.1 Banking............................................................................................................... 175 
4.3.2 Securities markets ............................................................................................... 178 
4.4 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... 180 
4.4.1 Financial structure and firm performance........................................................... 180 
4.4.2 Financial markets must manage risk................................................................... 181 
iv 
Contents 
References.................................................................................................................................. 183 
5. Cities................................................................................................................. 189 
5.1 Scale economies, cities, and economic growth............................................................... 190 
5.2 Challenges confronting East Asia¿s cities....................................................................... 195 
5.2.1 The accelerating urbanization in East Asia......................................................... 195 
5.2.2 The growing congestion in large cities ............................................................... 197 
5.2.3 The growing importance of small and midsized cities ....................................... 198 
5.3 Economic geography: Illustrations from China.............................................................. 200 
5.3.1 Transport costs, international integration, and specialization............................. 201 
5.3.2 Economic geography and spatial income differentials ....................................... 203 
5.3.3 Space, industry, and policy in China .................................................................. 203 
5.4 Complementing international with domestic integration................................................ 207 
5.4.1 Keeping large cities livable and sustainable ....................................................... 211 
5.4.2 Connecting smaller cities.................................................................................... 215 
5.4.3 Financing livable and connected cities ............................................................... 217 
5.5 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... 220 
References.................................................................................................................................. 222 
6. Cohesion........................................................................................................... 223 
6.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................... 224 
6.2 The main trends............................................................................................................... 225 
6.2.1 Poverty ................................................................................................................ 225 
6.2.2 Inequality across and within countries................................................................ 227 
6.2.3 The rural-urban divide ........................................................................................ 229 
6.2.4 The regional and ethnic divide............................................................................ 231 
6.2.5 Vulnerability ....................................................................................................... 234 
6.3 Understanding disparities................................................................................................ 234 
6.3.1 ¿China price¿ is not just cheap unskilled labor................................................... 235 
6.3.2 Trade and globalization....................................................................................... 236 
6.3.3 Labor market reform........................................................................................... 239 
6.3.4 Agglomeration effects and clusters..................................................................... 241 
6.3.5 Fiscal decentralization ........................................................................................ 243 
6.3.6 Impediments to internal migration...................................................................... 245 
6.4 Should we care about disparities?................................................................................... 246 
6.5 Addressing spatial and social disparities ........................................................................ 249 
References.................................................................................................................................. 252 
7. Corruption ....................................................................................................... 259 
7.1 From ¿rule of man¿ to ¿rule of law¿............................................................................... 260 
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AN EAST ASIAN RENAISSANCE: IDEAS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH 
7.2 Is there an East Asian level of corruption? ..................................................................... 261 
7.2.1 Defining corruption............................................................................................. 261 
7.2.2 The level of corruption........................................................................................ 262 
7.3 Is there an East Asian model of corruption?................................................................... 266 
7.3.1 The East Asian paradox ...................................................................................... 266 
7.4 Is East Asian tolerance of corruption declining? ............................................................ 278 
7.4.1 East Asian values and corruption........................................................................ 278 
7.4.2 The demand for new forms of governance ......................................................... 279 
7.5 Will political modernization reduce corruption? ............................................................ 283 
7.5.1 A longer-term view............................................................................................. 283 
7.5.2 Shorter-term dynamics........................................................................................ 286 
7.6 Conclusions.................................................................................................................... 290 
References.................................................................................................................................. 291 
Figures 
Overview 
Figure 1: East Asia has kept pace despite Japan¿s stagnation and the 1997-98 crisis.................... 3 
Figure 2: More than half of East Asia¿s trade is now within the region......................................... 6 
Figure 3: Economic growth in middle income countries................................................................ 7 
Figure 4: East Asian exports are growing in sectors with increasing returns to scale.................. 15 
Figure 5: Intra-industry trade has boomed in East Asia ............................................................... 17 
Figure 6: East Asia¿s R&D efforts have outpaced the rest of the world....................................... 19 
Figure 7: East Asia is less exposed to bank credit since the crisis and has a more diversified 
supply................................................................................................................................... 21 
Figure 8: Inequality is rising in East Asia despite regional convergence..................................... 24 
Figure 9: East Asia is falling behind in the control of corruption ................................................ 26 
Chapter 1 
Figure 1.1: Developing East Asia is the most diverse region (country per capita income as a 
multiple of respective regional average, 1991-2004) ........................................................... 40 
Figure 1.2: A second group of East Asian economies has caught up with Latin America (per 
capita income growth in East Asia and Latin America, 1900-2000).................................... 42 
Figure 1.3: China, South Korea, and Taiwan (China) are outspending their peers in R&D 
(gross expenditures on research and development, latest)................................................... 44 
Figure 1.4: FDI flows within East Asia have increased since the financial crisis (intra-regional 
FDI flows as a share of total flows, 1999-2003, percent) .................................................... 45 
Figure 1.5: Large East Asian cities are as livable as those in Latin America............................... 47 
Figure 1.6: Inequality has been rising since 1990 in much of East Asia (Theil Coefficients, 
1990 and 2002, versus per capita income) ........................................................................... 50 
Figure 1.7: East Asia and Latin America do equally poorly in controlling corruption 
(regional averages, control of corruption, percentiles)........................................................ 51 
Figure 1.8: Share of world GDP (PPP, constant 1990 international $)....................................... 52 
Chapter 2 
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Contents 
Figure 2.1: Freight costs among developing countries¿Asia is doing well ................................ 68 
Figure 2.2: Low protection (import-weighted average tariff) ...................................................... 68 
Figure 2.3: FDI played a key role in East Asia............................................................................. 69 
Figure 2.4: China¿s processing exports by foreign enterprises..................................................... 69 
Figure 2.5: Triangular trade index ................................................................................................ 71 
Figure 2.6: A complex international production network............................................................. 74 
Figure 2.7: Export similarity indices ............................................................................................ 75 
Figure 2.8: Intra-industry trade within East Asia.......................................................................... 76 
Figure 2.9: Share of parts and components in manufacturing exports ......................................... 76 
Figure 2.10: PRODY (4-digit trade-weighted average), 2000-04 ................................................ 79 
Figure 2.11: Change in export market shares of EA and China in various markets..................... 80 
Figure 2.12: Who is displaced and where? ................................................................................... 82 
Figure 2.13: Specialization and efficiency are growing in high-tech machinery exports ............ 85 
Figure 2.14: Partial regression plot of TFP against export variety............................................... 86 
Figure 2.15: Comparative export varieties over time ................................................................... 87 
Figure 2.16: High-tech trade in percent of total trade by category of firm................................... 88 
Figure 2.17: China¿s export by type of firm¿foreign firm export more high-tech 
products, 2003....................................................................................................................... 88 
Figure 2.18: If this is not complicated enough¿. ........................................................................ 90 
Chapter 3 
Map 3: Intra-Asian Telecommunications Traffic Flows, 2004 .................................................... 97 
Figure 3.1: Machinery & transport equipment imports* (% of GDP) and per capita GDP ....... 105 
Figure 3.2: Royalty payments (% of GDP) and per capita GDP (PPP)...................................... 105 
Figure 3.3: Machinery & transport equipment imports* (% of GDP) and per capita GDP ....... 107 
Figure 3.4: Inward FDI stock (% of GDP) and land area (2003) ............................................... 112 
Figure 3.5: Sectoral composition of FDI stock in 2002.............................................................. 112 
Figure 3.6: Relative TFP trajectory for FDI recipients............................................................... 113 
Figure 3.7: R&D intensity and per capita GDP (mid-1970s to early/mid 2000s)....................... 117 
Figure 3.8: R&D performed by business sector in 2002 versus GDP per capita (PPP) ............. 121 
Figure 3.9: Patents per 100,000 population and per capita income ............................................ 124 
Figure 3.10: Patents per 100,000 population and per capita income .......................................... 125 
Figure 3.11: Technology certification (adjusted Herfindahl index) ........................................... 127 
Figure 3.12: Patenting revealed comparative advantage (RCA) ................................................ 127 
Figure 3.13: Patent originality index 2000-04 (as ratio to U.S.) ............................................... 128 
Figure 3.14: Patent generality index 2000-04 (as ratio to U.S.)................................................ 128 
Figure 3.15: Average patent citation shares for Seven East Asian economies........................... 129 
Figure 3.16: Patent citation shares 1992-94 and 2003-04........................................................... 130 
Figure 3.17: Patent citation frequencies electrical and electronics............................................. 131 
Figure 3.18: Post-secondary education and GDP per capita (5-year intervals between 
1975 and 2000) ................................................................................................................... 139 
Chapter 4 
Figure 4.1: FDI Is important in China, Vietnam, and Malaysia: FDI flows to East Asia, 
1990-2005 (as % of GDP) .................................................................................................. 159 
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AN EAST ASIAN RENAISSANCE: IDEAS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH 
Figure 4.2: Policy uncertainty, macro instability, corruption, and cost of finance are the most 
cited constraints to firms (% of firms identifying problem as "major" or "very severe" 
obstacle)............................................................................................................................. 161 
Figure 4.3: Access to finance is a problem for exporters and non-exporters ............................. 162 
Figure 4.4: Return volatility explained by regional, Japan, and U.S. news................................ 165 
Figure 4.5: Foreign exchange reserves have grown after the crises, especially in China and 
Japan (US$ billion, 1/1997¿6/2006) ................................................................................... 166 
Figure 4.6: Exchange rate volatility before and after the crisis has remained unchanged (30-day 
rolling standard deviation on growth of daily nominal exchange rates to US$)............... 168 
Figure 4.7: Effective exchange rates had fluctuated considerably during the last decade: 
Real effective exchange rates in East Asia, 1994-2006...................................................... 169 
Figure 4.8: East Asian holdings of foreign assets are not usually high: International foreign 
asset holdings and GDP per capita, 2004............................................................................ 172 
Figure 4.9: Non-performing loans have shrunk since 1997........................................................ 176 
Figure 4.10: Capital adequacy has also strengthened ................................................................. 176 
Figure 4.11: Corporate leverage has declined since the mid-1990s ........................................... 177 
Figure 4.12: Equity market efficiency can be improved............................................................. 179 
Chapter 5 
Map 5: Population in East Asian Cities ...................................................................................... 189 
Figure 5.1: Rapid urbanization lies ahead for East Asian countries, while it has already 
happened in other middle income regions .......................................................................... 196 
Figure 5.2: Urbanites in China¿s coastal cities are twice as rich as those in the interior............ 204 
Figure 5.3: China openness is gradually extending westward.................................................... 205 
Figure 5.4: Today, East Asia¿s large cities are as livable as those in other middle-income 
regions................................................................................................................................ 212 
Figure 5.5: A third of East Asia¿s city-dwellers live in slums.................................................... 215 
Figure 5.6: East Asia¿s infrastructure needs are increasing........................................................ 217 
Chapter 6 
Map 6: Poverty in East Asia ....................................................................................................... 223 
Figure 6.1: Human Development Indices in East Asia, 1990-2003 ........................................... 226 
Figure 6.2: Changes in inequality in China: A decomposition of Theil indices, 1990-2002 ..... 228 
Figure 6.3: Urban-rural consumption and poverty disparities in four countries, 1990-2000 ..... 229 
Figure 6.4: The rural-urban divide in education and health........................................................ 230 
Figure 6.5: Provincial disparities: Human Development Indices in East Asia........................... 232 
Figure 6.6: Average incidence of poverty (headcount index) and vulnerability (share of poor 
in at least one of three years) in rural China, 2001-04, using dollar-a-day line and 
per capita consumption as a measure of welfare ................................................................ 235 
Figure 6.7: Skill premia in the labor market: China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Thailand........... 237 
Figure 6.8: Regional concentration of foreign direct investment in China and Vietnam........... 242 
Figure 6.9: Share of coastal provinces in trade, FDI, GDP and population in China, 
1989-2004 ........................................................................................................................... 242 
Figure 6.10: Rising share of sub-national government expenditure in total government 
expenditure during the 1990s in East Asia ......................................................................... 243 
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Contents 
Figure 6.11: Coefficient of variation in provincial per capita revenues before and after 
transfers.............................................................................................................................. 244 
Figure 6.12: Richer provinces spend more per capita than poorer provinces, China 2004 ........ 245 
Figure 6.13: Political stability tends to decline with rising inequality (sample of 44 countries 
during 1996-2002) .............................................................................................................. 249 
Chapter 7 
Map 7: Rule of Law .................................................................................................................... 259 
Figure 7.1: Indices of corruption vary widely across countries in East Asia ............................. 264 
Figure 7.2: Richer countries have lower corruption indices (global with East Asian 
countries highlighted) ......................................................................................................... 265 
Figure 7.3: Is corruption a major constraint to business? No single answer for East Asia ........ 269 
Figure 7.4: Corruption indices and comparator governance indicators (global percentiles, 
with East Asian countries highlighted, 2004)..................................................................... 274 
Figure 7.5: Corruption indices and the human development index (global with East Asian 
countries highlighted) ......................................................................................................... 274 
Figure 7.6: Informal payments and gifts (as a percentage of contract value) and per capita 
GDP (global with East Asian countries highlighted) ......................................................... 275 
Figure 7.7: The spread of political rights and civil liberties in East Asia, 1976¿2004............... 280 
Figure 7.8: Subnational expenditure as a share of total public spending (various East Asian 
countries and years, percent).............................................................................................. 281 
Figure 7.9: Impact of decentralization in Indonesia ................................................................... 287 
Figure 7.10: Trends in control of corruption 1996¿2004 (East Asia and selected countries).... 289 
Tables 
Overview 
Table 1: Facts and implications .................................................................................................... 27 
Table 2: The growing complexity of development: Economies of scale...................................... 28 
Table 3: The growing complexity of development: Distribution of economic rents.................... 30 
Chapter 1 
Table 1.1: East Asia has been growing faster than all other regions (GDP Growth, 
1980-2004)........................................................................................................................... 38 
Table 1.2: East Asian growth has been strong and steady (Per capita GDP growth rates, 
1966-2004)........................................................................................................................... 39 
Table 1.3: Share of intra-regional trade rose to about 50 percent in high & middle-income 
countries, China¿s share of intra-regional exports fell (share of intra-regional trade, 
1995-2004, percent)............................................................................................................. 43 
Table 1.4: Parts and components have become more important in East Asia¿s trade since 
1990 (share of total trade, 1990 and 2003, percent) ............................................................ 43 
Table 1.5: Regional FDI patterns have changed over the last two decades (intra-regional 
FDI as share of total, selected countries, 1985-2004) ......................................................... 45 
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AN EAST ASIAN RENAISSANCE: IDEAS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH 
Table 1.6: East Asia¿s urban population will increase by more than 500 million over 
the next 25 years (current share and level of urban population and projected growth, 
2005-2030)........................................................................................................................... 48 
Table 1.7: The number of East Asians living on less than 2 dollars a day fell by 500 million 
since 1990 (mean consumption and headcount poverty, 1990, 2000, and 2005)................. 49 
Table 1.8: Recognizing the importance of scale economies: Recent advances............................ 55 
Table 1.9: Economic growth and distribution: Recent advances.................................................. 57 
Chapter 2 
Table 2.1: Emerging East Asia is a trade powerhouse.................................................................. 67 
Table 2.2: East Asian intra-regional exports have been growing thanks to China (share of 
export to trading partner in total export) ............................................................................. 70 
Table 2.3: Commodity composition of foreign trade for East Asian economies (percentage 
share of total)........................................................................................................................ 72 
Table 2.4: Share of export in world market (%) ........................................................................... 74 
Table 2.5: Intra-Asian trade in parts and components in 2004 (%) and changes between 1993 
and 2004 (percentage points) (exports in row, imports in column)...................................... 76 
Table 2.6: Average wage of exports (trade-weighted average PRODY)...................................... 78 
Table 2.7: Is China displacing other EAP countries¿ exports? ..................................................... 81 
Table 2.8: China threat industries ................................................................................................. 82 
Chapter 3 
Table 3.1. Indicators of firm dynamism (proportion of firms in sample)................................... 102 
Table 3.2: Most important source of technological innovation (% of firms).............................. 103 
Table 3.3: Top 5 electronic contract manufacturers 1994 and 2004 (revenues in 
US$ millions) ...................................................................................................................... 109 
Table 3.4. Research and development expenditures................................................................... 116 
Table 3.5: R&D by sector of performance and funding * .......................................................... 120 
Table 3.6: USPTO patents granted * .......................................................................................... 123 
Table 3.7: Citation frequencies:* Estimated country-pair fixed effects ..................................... 133 
Table 3.8: National innovation systems and business environment: Selected variables ............ 134 
Chapter 4 
Table 4.1: Trends in capital flows to emerging East Asia, 1990-2005 (US$ billion)................. 158 
Table 4.2: East Asia NIEs have replaced Japan as the regional source of portfolio 
finance (%).......................................................................................................................... 164 
Table 4.3: Since the crisis, NIEs have become the most important portfolio investors in 
developing East Asia portfolio investment into developing East Asia, 1997 and 2002, 
US$ billion......................................................................................................................... 164 
Table 4.4: Current and capital account surpluses, 2002-2005, US$ billion ............................... 170 
Table 4.5: Financial markets, especially securities markets, have surged since 1997................ 174 
Chapter 5 
Table 5.1: Urban populations have grown at twice the rate of total population in East Asia..... 193 
Table 5.2: East Asian metropolises consist of four types: mega, primate, capital and 
gateway cities...................................................................................................................... 194 
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Contents 
Table 5.3: Chinese cities compare unfavorably with G-7 cities in terms of grime and time 
costs.................................................................................................................................... 197 
Table 5.4: Almost 60 percent of East Asia¿s urban population lives in cities of less than a 
million (population by city size, in millions) ...................................................................... 198 
Table 5.5: Geography influences the returns to labor in China .................................................. 201 
Table 5.6: China¿representative factor and transport costs for typical city-pairs, 
2005 (RMB)........................................................................................................................ 202 
Table 5.7: Kuala Lumpur has the lowest density indicators among East Asian metropolises: 
Urban density indicators, 2000-2001.................................................................................. 213 
Table 5.8: Urban transport and road safety indicators................................................................ 214 
Table 5.9: Hong Kong (China) leads the region in sustainable city development ..................... 214 
Table 5.10: China, Thailand, and Vietnam have increased infrastructure spending .................. 220 
Chapter 6 
Table 6.1: East Asia¿s progress in poverty reduction since 1990 (those below $1/ 
person/day) ......................................................................................................................... 225 
Table 6.2: Challenge of reducing poverty for those below $2/person/day¿progress 
since 1990 ........................................................................................................................... 227 
Table 6.3: Evolution of inequality in East Asia, 1990-2002....................................................... 227 
Table 6.4: The ethnic dimension of disparities in some East Asian countries ........................... 233 
Chapter 7 
Table 7.1: Corruption can be a severe constraint for enterprise in East Asia............................. 268 
Table 7.2: Potential links between decentralization and corruption........................................... 286 
Boxes 
Overview 
Box 1: Renaissance, then and now ................................................................................................. 2 
Box 2: Growth, gravity, and friction in the Pearl River Delta: The story of Dongguan, 
China.................................................................................................................................... 13 
Chapter 1 
Box 1.1: Once every four years: World Bank regional studies in East Asia................................ 36 
Box 1.2: ¿The East Asia Project¿: Achieving historically high shares in the world economy..... 52 
Box 1.3. Middle income: A time for big changes......................................................................... 56 
Chapter 3 
Box 3.1. Non-excludability and non-rivalness of ideas.............................................................. 100 
Box 3.2: Channels for acquiring technology from abroad.......................................................... 104 
Box 3.3: Scale economies and the original equipment, design, and brand manufacturing 
sequence............................................................................................................................. 108 
Box 3.4: Technology from abroad and domestic innovation as mutually supporting elements 
in development.................................................................................................................... 119 
Box 3.4: Geography and knowledge spillovers .......................................................................... 132 
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AN EAST ASIAN RENAISSANCE: IDEAS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH 
Chapter 5 
Box 5.1. Agglomeration economies............................................................................................ 191 
Box 5.2. Optimal urban concentration? ...................................................................................... 199 
Box 5.3. Differentials in city performance in China................................................................... 208 
Box 5.4: Human capital externalities in cities ............................................................................ 210 
Box 5.4: The costs of failure....................................................................................................... 218 
Chapter 7 
Box 7.1: Singapore and civil service ......................................................................................... 271 
Box 7.2: Corrupt governments as ¿joint monopolists¿.............................................................. 273 
Box 7.3: ¿Competitive corruption¿ in Cambodia ...................................................................... 276 
Box 7.4: The history of corruption in the United States............................................................ 285 
xii 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

East Asia -- Economic policy.
East Asia -- Economic conditions.