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CONTENTS Preface Chapter 1 Discovery, Structure, and Origin of HIV I. Discovery of the AIDS Viruses II. The HIV Virion III. Virus Heterogeneity IV. Origin of HIV Chapter 2 Features of HIV Transmission I. HIV in Blood II. HIV in Genital Fluids III. HIV in Milk, Saliva, and Other Body Fluids IV. HIV Transmission by Blood and Blood Products V. Sexual Transmission of HIV VI. Maternal-Child Transmission of HIV Chapter 3 Steps Involved in HIV:Cell Interaction and Virus Entry I. CD4 Receptor II. Post-Binding Steps in Virus Entry III. Virus:CD4+Cell Fusion IV. Other Potential HIV:Cell Surface Interactions Involved in Virus Entry into CD4+ Cells V. Down-modulation of the CD4 Protein VI. Infection of Cells Lacking CD4 Expression VII. Other Possible HIV-Cell Surface Interactions VIII. Other Possible Mechanisms Involved in Virus Entry IX. Cell-to-Cell Transfer of HIV X. Overview of Early Steps in HIV Infection Chapter 4 Acute HIV Infection and Cells Susceptible to HIV Infection I. Acute HIV Infection II. Cells and Tissues Infected by HIV III. Differences in Cellular Host Range among HIV Isolates IV. Superinfection V. Recombination Chapter 5 Intracellular Control of HIV Replication I. Early Intracellular Events in HIV Infection II. Natural Intracellular Resistance to HIV Replication III. Interaction of Cytokines and Viral Proteins with Cellular Factors IV. Virus Infection of Quiescent Cells IV. Latency Chapter 6 Cytopathic Properties of HIV I. HIV Induction of Cell:Cell Fusion II. Accumulation of Extrachromosomal Viral DNA and Cell Death III. Direct Cellular Toxicity of HIV and Viral Proteins IV. Apoptosis V. Activation VI. Role of Superantigens Chapter 7 Viral Proteins Determining Biologic Features of HIV I. Envelope Region and Cell Tropism II. The Influence of Accessory Proteins on HIV Replication III. Envelope Region and Cytopathicity, CD4 Protein Modulation, and sCD4 Neutralization IV. Conclusions Chapter 8 Effect of HIV on Various Tissues and Organ Systems in the Host I. Hematopoietic System II. Induction of Cytokines and their Effect on Immune Function and HIV Replication III. Central Nervous System IV. Gastrointestinal System V. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) VI. Heart VII. Other Organ Systems CHAPTER 9 INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSES in HIV INFECTION I. Introduction II. Characteristics of Innate Immunity III. Dendritic Cells III. Other Cellular Components of the Innate Immune System IV. Soluble Innate Factors V. Conclusions Chapter 10 Humoral Immune Responses to HIV Infection I. Detection of AntiHIV Antibodies II. Neutralizing Antibodies III. Enhancing Antibodies IV. AntibodyDependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) and AntibodyDependent V. ComplementFixing Antiviral Antibodies VI. Autoimmunity Chapter 11 T Lymphocyte Immune Responses in HIV Infection I. Introduction II. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes III. Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome IV. CD8+ Cell Noncytotoxic Anti-HIV Activity IV. T Regulatory Cells Chapter 12 HIV Infection and Development of Cancer I. Introduction II. Kaposi's sarcoma III. BCell Lymphomas IV. Anal Carcinoma V. Cervical Carcinoma VI. Summary Chapter 13 Overall Features of HIV Pathogenesis: Prognosis for LongTerm Survival I. Cofactors in HIV Infection and Disease Progression II. Features of HIV Pathogenesis III. Prognosis IV. Differences in Clinical Outcome V. Factors Involved In Long-term Survival VI. Differences in Clinical Course in SIV Infection VII. HighRisk HIV-Exposed Seronegative Individuals VIII. Diversity of Viruses Involved in Transmission and Infection IX. Relation of HIV Heterogeneity to Pathogenesis in Specific Tissues X. Conclusions: Viral and Immunologic Features of HIV Pathogenesis Chapter 14 Antiviral Therapies I. Introduction II. Anti-HIV Therapies III. Drug Resistance IV. Cellular reservoirs of HIV during Antiviral Therapy V. Drug Toxicities VI. Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Immune System VII. Immune system-based therapies VIII. Immune-System Restoration IX. Post-Infection Immunization X. Passive Immunotherapy and Use of Antibody-Based Approaches XI. Structured Treatment Interruption (STI) XII. Summary Chapter 15 Vaccine Development I. Introduction II. Background III. Ideal Properties of an Effective Vaccine IV. Inactivated and Attenuated Viruses V. Vaccines Using Purified Envelope gp120 Alone or in Association with an Expression Vector VI. Viral Cores as Vaccines VII. Viral DNA Inoculation VIII. Other Strategies IX. Induction of Mucosal Immunity X. Adjuvants XI. Potential Problems Involved in Vaccination XII. Human Vaccine Trials XIII. Other AntiHIV Prevention Approaches XIV. Summary and Conclusions Conclusions Appendix I: 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded AIDS Surveillance Case Definition for Adolescents and Adults Appendix II: Clinical Categories Appendix III: Conditions Included in the 1993 AIDS Surveillance Case Definition Appendix IV: Other Definitions in HIV Infection: CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Categories References Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
HIV infections -- Pathogenesis.
HIV Infections -- etiology.
HIV Infections -- physiopathology.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- etiology.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- physiopathology.