Table of contents for The biology of mangroves and seagrasses / Peter Hogarth.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

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Contents
Preface v
1 Mangroves and seagrasses 1
1.1 Mangroves 2
1.2 Seagrasses 4
2 Mangrove trees and their environment 8
2.1 Adaptations to waterlogged soil 8
2.2 Coping with salt 17
2.3 The cost of survival 21
2.4 Inorganic nutrients 24
2.4.1 Nitrogen 25
2.4.2 Phosphorus 26
2.4.3 Nutrient recycling 26
2.4.4 Does nutrient availability limit growth? 27
2.5 Reproductive adaptations 29
2.5.1 Pollination 29
2.5.2 Propagules 30
2.5.3 Fecundity and parental investment 33
2.5.4 Dispersal 34
2.5.5 Why vivipary? 36
2.6 Why are mangroves tropical? 38
3 Seagrasses and their environment 39
3.1 Growth and structure 39
3.2 Photosynthesis and respiration 41
3.3 Salinity 42
3.4 Nutrients 44
3.5 Reproduction 46
3.6 Propagule dispersal 47
3.7 Seagrasses change their environment 48
4 Community structure and dynamics 49
4.1 Mangroves: form of the forest 49
4.1.1 Species zonation 52
4.1.1.1 Propagule sorting 54
4.1.1.2 Physical gradients 55
4.1.1.3 Geomorphological change 59
4.1.1.4 Plant succession 59
4.1.2 How different are mangroves from other forests? 62
4.1.3 Do mangroves make mud? 64
4.2 Seagrass meadows 67
5 The mangrove community: terrestrial components 71
5.1 Mangrove-associated plants 71
5.2 Animals from the land 73
5.2.1 Insects 73
5.2.1.1 Insect herbivory 73
5.2.1.2 Termites 77
5.2.1.3 Ants 77
5.2.1.4 Mosquitoes and other biting insects 80
5.2.1.5 Synchronously flashing fireflies 80
5.2.1.6 Other insects 82
5.2.2 Spiders 82
5.2.3 Vertebrates 83
5.2.3.1 Amphibians 83
5.2.3.2 Reptiles 85
5.2.3.3 Birds 89
5.2.3.4 Mammals 93
The mangrove community: marine components 98
6.1 Algae 98
6.2 Fauna of mangrove roots 99
6.3 Invertebrates 101
6.3.1 Crustaceans 102
6.3.1.1 Crabs 102
Leaf eating by crabs 104
Are crabs selective feeders? 107
Seedlings 110
How important are herbivorous crabs? 112
Tree-climbing crabs 113
Fiddler crabs 114
Reproductive adaptations 118
Fiddler patterns in time and space 119
The physiology of living in mud 119
How stressful is a crab's life? 123
6.3.1.2 Other mangrove crustacea 124
6.3.1.3 Crustaceans as ecosystem engineers 125
6.3.2 Molluscs 127
6.3.2.1 Snails 127
6.3.2.2 Bivalves 130
6.4 Meiofauna 130
6.5 Fish 133
7 Seagrass communities 137
7.1 Epiphytes 137
7.2 Molluscs 139
7.3 Crustaceans 140
7.4 Echinoderms 140
7.5 Fish 141
7.6 Turtles 143
7.7 Dugongs and manatees 144
7.8 Birds 145
8 Measuring and modelling 147
8.1 Mangroves 147
8.1.1 How to measure a tree 148
8.1.2 Biomass 148
8.1.3 Estimating production 151
8.1.4 What happens to mangrove production? 154
8.1.4.1 Microbial breakdown 154
8.1.4.2 Crabs and snails 157
8.1.4.3 Wood 158
8.1.4.4 The role of sediment bacteria 159
8.1.4.5 The fate of organic particles 159
8.1.4.6 Predators 160
8.1.5 Putting the model together 161
8.2 Seagrasses 163
9 Comparisons and connections 166
9.1 How distinctive are mangrove and seagrass communities? 166
9.2 Mangroves and salt marshes 168
9.3 Interactions 169
9.4 Outwelling 170
9.5 The fate of mangrove exports 172
9.6 Larval dispersal and return 174
9.7 Mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs 175
9.8 Commuting and other movement 177
9.9 Mangroves, seagrasses, and fisheries 178
9.9.1 Shrimps 178
9.9.2 Fish 182
10 Biodiversity and biogeography 183
10.1 What, if anything, is biodiversity? 183
10.2 Mangroves 184
10.2.1 Regional diversity 184
10.2.2 Origins 188
10.2.3 Local diversity 192
10.2.4 Genetic diversity 196
10.2.5 Diversity of the mangrove fauna 197
10.3 Seagrass biogeography and biodiversity 200
10.4 Diversity and ecosystem function 202
11 Impacts 206
11.1 Mangroves 206
11.1.1 Uses of mangroves 208
11.1.1.1 Direct uses 208
11.1.1.2 Indirect uses 209
11.1.1.3 Coastal protection 210
11.1.1.4 Ecotourism 211
11.1.2 Sustainable management: the case of the Matang 211
11.1.3 Shrimps versus mangroves? 213
11.1.4 Mangroves and pollution 216
11.1.5 Hurricanes and typhoons 219
11.1.6 Mangrove rehabilitation 221
11.1.7 Mangroves of the Indus Delta: a case study 222
11.2 Seagrasses: benefits and threats 228
11.3 Global climate change 229
11.3.1 Rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide 229
11.3.2 Global warming 230
11.3.3 Sea-level rise 232
11.4 What are mangroves and seagrasses worth? 233
11.5 Have mangroves and seagrasses a future? 236
Further reading 238
Reference 240
Index 000

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Mangrove forests.
Seagrasses.