Table of contents for Tundra / Peter D. Moore ; illustrations by Richard Garratt.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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CONTENTS
Preface											xiii
Acknowledgments										xvi
Introduction											xvii
What Is Tundra?										xviii
Where Is the Tundra?										xx
Why Is the Tundra Important?								xxii
Chapter 1: CLIMATE OF THE TUNDRA						1
Patterns of Tundra Distribution								1
Latitude											2
Global Climate Patterns 									7
Albedo												10
The Atmosphere and Climate									14
The Oceans and Climate									16
The Oceanic Conveyor Belt									19
Arctic Climate 										20
A Year in the Arctic										27
Aurora												29
Antarctic Climate										30
Microclimate 											33
Aspect and Microclimate									35
Humidity											38
Alpine Climate										41
Lapse Rate											42
Timberlines											45
Conclusions											53
Chapter 2: GEOLOGY OF THE TUNDRA						56
The Rock Cycle										57
Plate Tectonics										58
Tectonic History of the Tundra Lands							65
Polar Rocks											69
Alpine Rocks											71
Snow and Ice											73
Ice Sheets, Ice Shelves, and Sea Ice								75
Nunataks											77
Ice Caps and Glaciers										81
Crevasses											86
Glacial Debris and its Deposition								88
Sorting by Water and Wind									94
Particle Size											95
Geology and Rock Weathering								100	
Acidity and pH										103
Soil Formation and Maturation								106
The Soil Profile of a Podzol									109
Periglacial Features										114
Conclusions											118
Chapter 3: TYPES OF TUNDRA								121		
Tundra Forms											121
Vegetation Structure										123
Polar Desert											124	
Dwarf Shrub Tundra										129	
Tall Shrub Tundra										136	
Forest Tundra											138	
Coastal Tundra										144 Tundra Wetlands										146	
Antarctic Tundra										152	
Alpine Tundra											156	
Tropical Alpine Habitats									163	
Conclusions											168
		
Chapter 4: THE TUNDRA ECOSYSTEM						172
What is an Ecosystem?									173
Energy												174
Primary Productivity in the Tundra								178
Resource Allocation										180
Food Webs in the Tundra									187
Element Cycling in the Tundra								191	
Nitrogen Fixation										199
Decomposition in the Tundra									201
Nitrification											207	
The Concept of Stability									210
Productivity and Population Cycles in the Tundra						 211
Alpine Tundra Ecosystems	`								213
Conclusions											216
Chapter 5: BIOLOGY OF THE TUNDRA						220	
Wrapping up in the Freezer									220
Hair												225
Cold Stress											229
Plant Forms in the Tundra									233
Plant Life Forms										234
Biological Spectrum										238
Body Size in the Tundra									242
Color in the Tundra										246
Why be an Evergreen?									247	
Drought in the Tundra										253
Transpiration, Water Potential, and Wilt							255
Waterlogging and Oxygen Shortage								258
Reproduction and Dispersal in the Tundra							264
r- and K-selection										266
Pollination											272
Grazing in the Tundra										280
Behavioral Adaptations: Hibernation or Migration?						283
Conclusions											291
Chapter 6: BIODIVERSITY OF THE TUNDRA					297	
The Meaning of Biodiversity									297
Patterns of Biodiversity									300
Biodiversity in Succession									303
Succession											304
Microbes in the Tundra									309
Cyanobacteria											311
Tundra Lichens										314	
Lichens											315
Tundra Mosses and Liverworts								319	
The Tundra Soil Fauna									325	
Vascular Plants in the Tundra									330	
Tundra Arthropods										335	
Birds of the Northern Tundra									342	
Ross's Gull											345	
Alpine Tundra Birds										358	
Condors											361	
Birds of the Southern Tundra									363	
Polar Tundra Mammals									367	
Alpine Tundra Mammals									378	
Conclusions											382	
Chapter 7: GEOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE TUNDRA	387
Glacial History of the Earth									387
The Pleistocene Glaciations									390
Uniformitarianism										392
Radiocarbon Dating										397
Oxygen Isotopes										399
Glaciation and Sea Level Change								403
Causes of Glaciation										405
Stratigraphy and Recent History of Tundra							409
Pollen Analysis										412
The End of the Ice Age									418	
After the Ice											422
Conclusions											428
Chapter 8: PEOPLE IN THE TUNDRA							433	
The Emergence of Modern Humans								433
Early Tundra People and the Megafauna							437
Mammoths											440
Early Tundra Art										445
Modern Tundra People									449	
Arctic Exploration										453
Antarctic Exploration										459
Alpine Tundra Exploration									462
Conclusions											465
Chapter 9: THE VALUE OF THE TUNDRA						468	
The Problem of Evaluation									468
Hunting and Trapping										470
Mineral Reserves										475
Ecotourism and Recreation									479	
Tundra and the Carbon Cycle									484
Carbon Cycle and the Greenhouse Effect							486	
Conclusions											488
Chapter 10: THE FUTURE OF THE TUNDRA						490	
The Threat of Climate Change								490	
Biological Responses to Climate Change							493
Ozone Holes											497
History of the Ozone Holes									499
Pollution of the Tundra									501
Tundra Conservation										506
Albatrosses											510
Conclusions											513
Chapter 11: GENERAL CONCLUSION							515	
Glossary											522
Further Reading										546
Index												554

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Tundra ecology -- Juvenile literature.
Tundras -- Juvenile literature.