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Contents Dedication Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1: Scholarship at a Crossroads Introduction Content and Connectivity An Opportune Moment Scholarship in Social and Technical Context The Data Deluge: Push and Pull Problems of Scale Influences on Scholarship and Learning Networks of Data, Information, and People Chapter 2: Building the Scholarly Infrastructure Introduction Technologies of Information Infrastructure The Internet The World Wide Web The Grid Digital Libraries Information Infrastructure for Scholarship Terminology National and International Initiatives on Scholarly Infrastructure United Kingdom Infrastructure Initiatives United States Infrastructure Initiatives International Initiatives Exemplar Projects and Programs Where Can the Greatest Benefits be Realized? Big Science, Little Science, Non-Science What¿s New about e-Research? Conclusions Chapter 3: Embedded Everywhere Introduction Theory and Policy Frameworks Basic, Applied, and Use-Inspired Research Open Science Mertonian Norms Socio-Technical Systems Taking an Information Perspective Information Information Systems Data vs. Information Infrastructure of or for Information Infrastructure of Information Infrastructure for Information Setting a Research Agenda Chapter 4: The Continuity of Scholarly Communication Introduction The Many Forms of Scholarly Communication Public and Private, Formal and Informal The Role of Preprints The Role of Conferences Informal and Formal Purposes of Conferences Conflicts between Informal and Formal Purposes Uses of Technology in Scholarly Conferences Scholarly Communication as a Socio-Technical System Process vs. Structure Quality Control Quality Control of Scholarly Content Problems with Peer Review Publication Indicators as Proxies for Quality The Functions of Scholarly Communication Legitimization Dissemination Access, Preservation, and Curation Author Roles and Functions Authors as Writers Authors as Citers and Linkers Authors as Submitters Authors as Collaborators Summary Chapter 5: The Discontinuity of Scholarly Publishing Introduction New Technologies, New Tensions The Pull of New Technologies The Push of Institutional Restructuring Stakeholder Roles in Print Publishing Legitimatization in Print Dissemination in Print Access, Preservation, and Curation of Print Stakeholder Roles in Internet Access to Scholarly Documents Legitimatization in Digital Form Whom do you trust? Registration and Certification Legitimacy via Selection Dissemination in Digital Form Access, Preservation, and Curation in Digital Form A Bit of Digital History Searching, Discovering, and Retrieving Following the Scholarly Trail What will be saved, and by whom? Convergence and Collision What Constitutes a ¿Publication¿? Open Repositories, Open Archives, Open Access Definitions of Open Access Motivations for Open Access Technology and Services for Open Access Intellectual Property Copyright and Rights Management Copyright and the Public Domain Fair Use and Orphan Works Commons-Based Approaches Economics and Business Models Economics of Scholarly Publishing Business Models for Scholarly Publishing Chapter 6: Data: Input and Output of Scholarship Introduction The Value Chain of Scholarship Value of Data Definitions of Data Levels of Data Sources of Data Policies to Encourage Data Sharing Generation of New Forms of Data Data Collections Growth of Data Interpreting Data The Role of Data in Scholarly Communication Legitimization of Data Trust in Data Registration of Data Certification of Data Dissemination of Data Access, Preservation, and Curation of Data Some History Searching and Finding Permanent Access Weak Links in the Value Chain Reuse of Data Technology and Services Intellectual Property and Economics Profit vs. Value Public Domain for Data Open Access, Open Data Chapter 7: Building an Infrastructure for Information Introduction Scholarly Disciplines Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity Disciplines, Communities, and Cultures Boundaries, Barriers, and Bridges Professional Identity Scholarly Practices Seeking and Using Information Information-seeking behavior Temporal factors Scholarly Artifacts Forms and genres Reading between the lines Constructing Knowledge Representing knowledge Tacit knowledge Making knowledge mobile Collaboration and Social Networks Characteristics of collaboration Distributed collaboration Information in collaboration Sharing information artifacts Chapter 8: Disciplines, Documents, and Data Introduction Sciences Information Artifacts in the Sciences Scientific Documents Scientific Data Description and organization in the sciences Information Practices in the Sciences Practices associated with scientific documents Practices associated with scientific data Incentives and Disincentives to Build the Content Layer for the Sciences Incentives for scientists to share information Disincentives for scientists to share information Social Sciences Information Artifacts in the Social Sciences Social scientific documents Social scientific data Description and organization in the social sciences Information Practices in the Social Sciences Practices associated with social scientific documents Practices associated with social scientific data Incentives and Disincentives to Build the Content Layer for the Social Sciences Incentives for social scientists to share information Disincentives for social scientists to share information Humanities Information Artifacts in the Humanities Humanistic and cultural documents Humanistic and cultural data Description and organization in the humanities Information Practices in the Humanities Practices associated with humanistic and cultural documents Practices associated with humanistic and cultural data Incentives and Disincentives to Build the Content Layer for the Humanities Incentives for humanities scholars to share information Disincentives for humanities scholars to share information Conclusions Chapter 9: The View from Here Introduction Content and Context The Socio-Technical Nature of Information Malleable, Mutable, and Mobile Building the Content Layer Information Institutions Organization and Business Models Publishers Universities Funding agencies Information Commons Some Solutions and Some Questions Legacy Content: Past, Present, and Future The new becomes the old Investing in digital content Digital surrogates as insurance Capacity building for the content layer Rights to preserve Balancing the Local and the Global Flexible infrastructure design Personal digital libraries Personalizing discovery Separating Content, Services, and Tools Distributed, heterogeneous content Rethinking resource description Coherence and Control Generic and specialized tools Searching, discovery, retrieval, and navigation Maintaining coherence Trust in content Conclusions References Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Communication in learning and scholarship -- Technological innovations -- United States.
Scholarly electronic publishing -- United States.
Information technology -- United States.
Learning and scholarship -- Social aspects -- United States.