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Contents ]fo[List of Plates ix List of Figures xi List of Maps xvii Abbreviations of References Listed in Suggested Readings xix Preface xx Acknowledgments xxii 1 Introduction to Egyptian Archaeology 1 1.1 Introduction: Ancient Egyptian Civilization and its Prehistoric Predecessors 1.2 Egyptian Archaeology 1.3 Egyptology 1.4 History of Egyptology and Egyptian Archaeology 1.5 Archaeological Methods 1.6 Archaeological Theory 1.7 Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Archaeologists in Fiction and Films 2 Hieroglyphs, Language, and Pharaonic Chronology 29 2.1 Language of the Ancient Egyptians 2.2 Origins and Development of Egyptian Writing 2.3 Scripts and Media of Writing 2.4 Signs, Structure, and Grammar 2.5 Literacy in Ancient Egypt 2.6 Textual Studies 2.7 Use of Texts in Egyptian Archaeology 2.8 Historical Outline of Pharaonic Egypt 2.9 The Egyptian Civil Calendar, King Lists, and Calculation of Pharaonic Chronology 3 The Environmental Background to Pharaonic Civilization: Geography, Environment, Agriculture, and Natural Resources 51 3.1 Geography: Terms and Place Names 3.2 Environmental Setting 3.3 Environmental and Other Problems for Archaeology in Egypt 3.4 The Seasons and the Agricultural System 3.5 The Ancient Egyptian Diet 3.6 Other Useful Animals and Plants 3.7 Building Materials 3.8 Other Resources: Clays, Stones, Minerals 3.9 Imported Materials 4 Egyptian Prehistory: The Paleolithic and Neolithic 75 Paleolithic 4.1 Paleolithic Cultures in Egypt 4.2 Lower Paleolithic 4.3 Middle Paleolithic 4.4 Upper Paleolithic 4.5 Late Paleolithic 4.6 Epipaleolithic Neolithic 4.7 Saharan Neolithic 4.8 Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Faiyum A and Lower Egypt 4.9 Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Middle and Upper Egypt 5 The Rise of Complex Society and Early Civilization 98 Predynastic Egypt 5.1 The Predynastic Period: Egypt in the 4th Millennium BC 5.2 Lower Egypt: Buto-Ma?adi Culture 5.3 Upper Egypt: Naqada Culture 5.4 Lower Nubia: A-Group Culture 5.5 State Formation and Unification The Early Dynastic State 5.6 Organization and Institutions of the Early Dynastic State 5.7 Early Writing and Formal Art 5.8 The Expanding State 5.9 Who Were the Ancient Egyptians? Physical Anthropology 6 Pyramids and Power: The Old Kingdom and State Fragmentation of the First Intermediate Period 133 6.1 The Old Kingdom: Overview The Early Old Kingdom 6.2 The 3rd Dynasty: Djoser?s Step Pyramid at Saqqara 6.3 The 4th Dynasty?s First King, Sneferu, and his Three Pyramids 6.4 Khufu?s Great Pyramid at Giza 6.5 The Great Sphinx and Khafra?s Pyramid Complex 6.6 Menkaura?s Giza Pyramid and its Remarkable Valley Temple Finds 6.7 Giza Pyramid Towns 6.8 Giza Mastabas, Queen Hetepheres? Hidden Tomb, and the Workmen?s Cemetery The Later Old Kingdom 6.9 Sun Temples of the 5th Dynasty 6.10 Later Old Kingdom Pyramids and the Pyramid Texts 6.11 An Expanding Bureaucracy: Private Tombs in the 5th and 6th Dynasties 6.12 Egypt Abroad The First Intermediate Period 6.13 The End of the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period: Causes of State Collapse 7 The Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period 185 The Middle Kingdom 7.1 The Middle Kingdom: Overview 7.2 Pre-Unification 11th Dynasty: Saff Tombs at Thebes 7.3 Mentuhotep II?s Complex at Deir el-Bahri 7.4 Model Workers and the Deir el-Bahri Tomb of Meketra 7.5 12th-Dynasty Temples 7.6 12th- and 13th-Dynasty Pyramids 7.7 Towns and Domestic Architecture: Kahun and South Abydos 7.8 Nomarchs in Middle Egypt: The Beni Hasan Tombs 7.9 Mining in the Sinai and a Galena Mine in the Eastern Desert 7.10 Egyptian Forts in Nubia and Indigenous Peoples There The Second Intermediate Period 7.11 Second Intermediate Period: The Hyksos Kingdom in the North 7.12 The Kerma Kingdom in Upper Nubia 7.13 The Theban State During the Second Intermediate Period 8 The New Kingdom 232 8.1 The New Kingdom: Overview The Early New Kingdom 8.2 Early New Kingdom Architecture: Ahmose?s Abydos Pyramid Complex, and the Theban Mortuary Temples of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III 8.3 Amenhotep III?s Malkata Palace 8.4 Tell el-Amarna and the Amarna Period 8.5 The Amarna Aftermath and Tutankhamen?s Tomb New Kingdom Temples 8.6 Restoration of the Traditional Gods: Sety I?s Abydos Temple 8.7 The Temples of Karnak and Luxor in the New Kingdom 8.8 Ramessid Mortuary Temples Royal and Elite Tombs 8.9 Royal Tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens 8.10 Elite Tombs at Thebes and Saqqara State Towns and Settlements 8.11 The Workmen?s Village and Tombs at Deir el-Medina 8.12 Nubian Temple Towns 9 The Third Intermediate Period and Late Period 290 9.1 The Third Intermediate Period: Overview 9.2 The Late Period: Overview 9.3 Tanis: A New City with Royal Tombs 9.4 Napata/Gebel Barkal and Sanam 9.5 el-Kurru and Nuri: The Kushite Royal Tombs 9.6 Saqqara: The Serapeum and Animal Cults 9.7 Some High Status Tombs of the Third Intermediate Period and Late Period 9.8 Tell el-Maskhuta and Tell el-Herr 10 The Greco-Roman Period 319 Greco-Roman Egypt 10.1 The Ptolemaic Period: Overview 10.2 The Roman Period: Overview 10.3 Alexandria 10.4 Greco-Roman Settlements in the Faiyum 10.5 Two Greco-Roman Temple Complexes in Upper Egypt: Dendera and Philae Sites Outside the Nile Valley 10.6 The Western Desert: Bahariya and Dakhla Oases 10.7 The Eastern Desert: Roman Ports, Forts, Roads, and Quarrying Sites Nubia 10.8 Qasr Ibrim 10.9 Meroe: The Kushite Capital and Royal Cemeteries 11 The Study of Ancient Egypt 367 Glossary of Terms 373 Suggested Readings 378 Appendix: Additional Readings in French, German, and Italian 462 Chapter Summaries and Discussion Questions 481 Index 000
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Egypt -- Antiquities.
Egypt -- Civilization -- To 332 B.C.
Egypt -- Civilization -- 332 B.C.-638 A.D.