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TABLE OF CONTENTS for: Herring (and Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children): TACHDJIAN¿S PEDIACTRIC ORTHOPAEDICS, 4e ______________________________________________________________________________ SECTIONS AND CHAPTERS AUTHOR(S) INTRODUCTION (Description of history and scope of pediatric orthopaedics) J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD SECTION I: DISCIPLINES 1 - Growth and Development John G. Birch, MD Normal Growth and Development Disorders of Normal Growth and Development Evolution of Proportionate Body Size Physical Growth Developmental Milestones 2 - The Orthopaedic History John G. Birch, MD Chief Complaint History of Present Illness Family History Birth History Growth and Development: The Key Questions 3 - The Orthopaedic Examination: A Comprehensive John G. Birch, MD Overview Recognizing Deformities Joint Range of Motion Muscle Strength Neurologic Assessment 4 - The Orthopaedic Examination: Clinical John G. Birch, MD Application Screening Examinations The Focused Examination The Art of Examining the Pediatric Patient 5 - Gait Analysis Lori A. Karol, MD Phases of Gait Temporal Parameters Neurologic Control of Gait Function of Gait Gait Energy Kinematics Muscle Activity Kinetics Pedobarography Pathologic Gait Gait Analysis Laboratories 6 - The Limping Child Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD Abnormal Gait Patterns in Children and Lawson A.B. Copley, MD Special Considerations Based on Age Group Differential Diagnosis of Limping in Children 7 - Back Pain John A. Herring, MD History Physical Examination Diagnostic Studies Differential Diagnoses 8 - Anesthesiology Fay Z. Safavi, MBBS, FFARCS Preoperative Evaluation of Children Sedation for the Pediatric Patient by Nonanesthesiologists Acute Pain Management Regional Analgesia Intravenous Regional Anesthesia Strategies to Reduce Blood Transfusions Latex Allergy Malignant Hyperthermia 9 - Management of the Child with Developmental Disabilities Richard C. Adams, M.D. Introduction Nancy N. Dodge, M.D. Overview of Pre-Operative Issues Specific Developmental Disabilities Systemic Approach to Identification and Planning for Perioperative Issues Intervention by the In-Patient Interdisciplinary Team Pain Management Family Culture and Support Prescribing Therapies 10 - Imaging Studies Molly Dempsey, MD, David Wilkes, Conventional Radiographic Procedures? MD, and Marilyn Moody, MD Normal Radiographic Variants of the Immature Skeleton? Radiographic Technique? Computed Tomography in Pediatric Orthopaedics? Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Orthopaedics? Ultrasonography? Nuclear Imaging? SECTION II: ANATOMIC DISORDERS 11 - Disorders of the Neck Charles E. Johnston II, MD Overview Lawson A.B. Copley, MD Developmental Anatomy Unique Characteristics Cervical Deformity without Pain Congenital Torticollis Klippel Feil Syndrome Cervical Deformity with Pain Acquired Torticollis Cervical Kyphosis Cervical Instability Os Odontoideum Down Syndrome 12 - Scoliosis Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD and Sucato: A. Idiopathic Scoliosis 1. Screws in scoliosis (1) Introduction 2. Complications of new ops (2) Adolescent (Delete p 259) (3) Infantile 3. Anterior (p259, delete 261) (4) Juvenile Thoracic. Richards to do Thoraco- B. Congenital Deformities Lumbar and lumbar C. Other Causes of Scoliosis - neurofibromatosis, 4. Help with decision making and Marfan¿s, thoracogenic, post-laminectomy, Level selection irradiation, etc. Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD D. Early onset scoliosis Charles E. Johnston II, MD 13 - Kyphosis Charles E. Johnston II, MD A. Introduction B. Postural Kyphosis C. Scheuermann=s Disease 14 - Other Anatomic Disorders of the Spine Charles E. Johnston II, MD Spondylolisthesis Lumbar Disk Herniation Slipped Vertebral Apophysis Transitional Vertebra (Bertolotti¿s) Syndrome 15 - Disorders of the Upper Extremity Marybeth Ezaki, MD; Peter R. Introduction Carter, MD; Amy Lake, OTR,CHT; Principles of Dressing and Splinting Scott Noboru Oishi, MD, FACS Principles of Acute Care Principles of Reconstruction Congenital Anomalies Juvenile Arthritis and Other Noninfectious Inflammatory Conditions Infections Traumatic Disorders Tumors of the Upper Limb Microsurgery 16 - Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip John A Herring and Daniel J. Sucato Definition History Incidence Etiology Associated Conditions Pathophysiology Natural History Clinical Presentation Imaging Studies Screening Criteria Treatment of the Neonate Treatment of the Young Child (Ages 1 to 6 Months) Treatment of the Child (Ages 6 Months to 2 Years) Treatment of the Older Child (Ages 2 Years and Older) Complications and Pitfalls Reconstructive Procedures for Dysplasia Teratologic Dislocation of the Hip 17 - Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease John A. Herring and Daniel J. Sucato Definition History Etiology Pathology Clinical Presentation Imaging Studies Classification Systems Based on Radiographic Findings Differential Diagnosis Treatment Long-Term Prognosis 18 - Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis John G. Birch, MD Introduction Incidence and Epidemiology Classification Etiology Pathology Clinical Picture Imaging Studies Treatment Complications Long-Term Outcome for Patients with Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis 19 - Developmental Coxa Vara John G. Birch, MD Incidence Heredity Clinical Features Radiographic Findings Pathophysiology Biomechanics Treatment 20 - Disorders of the Femur J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD A. Femoral Anteversion B. Intoeing 21 - Disorders of the Knee Karl E. Rathjen, MD and Philip L.Wilson, MD A. Congenital Dislocation B. Genu Recurvatum C. Patellar Problems (absence, bipartite) D. Osgood-Schlater E. OCD F. Popliteal Cyst 22 - Disorders of the Leg Charles E. Johnston II, MD A. Congenital Posteromedial Bow of the Tibia B. Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia and/or Fibula C. Genu Varum D. Knock Knees E. Tibial Torsion 23 - Disorders of the Foot John A Herring, Lori A. Karol, B. Stephens Introduction Richards, and Charles E. Johnston Normal Variations Osteochondroses Congenital Deformities Neurogenic Abnormalities Toe Deformities 24 - Limb Length Discrepancy John G. Birch, MD Leg Length Inequality Principles of Angular Deformity Correction in Children SECTION III: NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS 25 - Disorders of the Brain Lori A. Karol, MD A. Cerebral Palsy B. Ataxia Syndromes (including Friedrich=s) C. Basal Ganglion Syndromes D. Rhett=s E. Metachromatic Leukodystrophy F. Brain Tumors G. Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis H. Upper limb Marybeth Ezaki, MD 26 - Disorders of the Spinal Cord A. Myelomeningocele Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD B. Dystraphic Syndromes Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD C. Sacral Agenesis Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD D. SMA Daniel J. Sucato, MD, MS E. Spinal Cord Tumors Daniel J. Sucato, MD, MS 27 - Poliomyelitis J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD 28 - Disorders of the Peripheral Nervous System A. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (or HSM=s) Lori A. Karol, MD B. Guillian-Barre C. Sciatic Nerve Palsy D. Peroneal Nerve Palsy 29 - Muscle Diseases Lori A. Karol, MD A. Muscular Dystrophies B. Congenital Myotonia C. Myotonic Dystrophy D. Myesthenia Gravis E. Miscellaneous Muscle Diseases SECTION IV: ORTHOPAEDIC DISORDERS 30 - Skeletal Dysplasias Lori A. Karol, MD A. Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED) B. Diastrophic Dysplasia C. Mucopolysaccharidoses (Morquio¿s syndrome, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, etc) Need succint overview of D. SED, Trevor¿s, Conradi¿s, Melorheostosis?? MED/SEDs E. Achondroplasia and Hypochondroplasia F. Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia G. Pseudoachondroplastic Sponlylometaphyseal Dysplasia H. Fibrous Dysplasia - TO BE IN BONE TUMOR CHAPTER I. Diaphyseal Dysplasia (Engelmann¿s disease) J. Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis, Osteopetrosis, Idiopathic Osteolysis, Progressive Diaphyseal Dysplasia, Cleidocranial Dysostosis, Osteopathia Striata, Osteopoikilosis, Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis, Sanfilippo Type C Syndrome, Hunter Syndrome, Hurley Syndrome?? 31 - Orthopaedic Related Syndromes A. Marfan¿s John G. Birch, MD B. Stickler¿s John G. Birch, MD C. Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly Charles E. Johnston II, MD D. Homocystinuria John G. Birch, MD E. Nail-Patella Lori A. Karol, MD F. Larsen¿s Syndrome Charles E. Johnston II, MD G. Apert¿s Syndrome Peter R. Carter, MD H. Down¿s Syndrome Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD I. Neurofibromatosis Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD J. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD K. Ehler¿s Danlos J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD L. Gaucher¿s Disease Lori A. Karol, MD M. Arthrogryposis Mulitplex Congenita Charles E. Johnston II, MD N. Freeman-Sheldon Lori A. Karol, MD O. Cornelia de Lange Lori A. Karol, MD P. Rubinstein-Taybi J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD Q. Otopalatal Digital J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD R. Proteus John G. Birch, MD S. Klippel-Trenauney John G. Birch, MD T. Metatrophic Dwarfism Charles E. Johnston II, MD U. Camptomelic J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD V. Ellis-Van Creveld Lori A. Karol, MD W. Jeune¿s Disease J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD 32 - Metabolic Bone Diseases Karl E. Rathjen, MD A. Nutritional Rickets B. Neonatal Rickets C. Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets D. Miscellaneous Forms of Rickets E. Renal Osteodystrophy F. Hyperparathyroidism, Scurvy, Hypervitaminosis A, D, Hypothyroidism, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypophosphatasia, Pseudohypoparathyroidism G. Osteogenesis Imperfecta John G. Birch, MD 33 - Limb Deficiencies J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD, Marybeth Ezaki, MD, Peter R. Carter, MD, and Don Cummings 34- Arthritis J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD Joints Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Spondyloarthropathies Acute Transient Synovitis of the Hip Neuropathic Arthropathies Tuberculous Arthritis Tuberculosis of the Spine Gonococcal Arthritis 35 - Bone and Joint Infection Lawson A.B. Copley, MD A. Acute Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis B. Complications (1) Osteonecrosis of the Proximal Femur (2) Chronic Osteomyelitis C. Special Considerations 36 - Hematologic Disorders J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD Hemophilia Sickle Cell Disease SECTION V: MUSCULOSKELETAL TUMORS 37- General Principles of Tumor Management J.A. (Tony) Herring, MD 38 - Benign Musculoskeletal Tumors Benjamin Stephens Richards, MD Simple Bone Cysts (Solitary Bone Cyst, Unicameral Bone Cyst) Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Fibrous Dysplasia Osteofibrous Dysplasia of the Tibia and Fibula (Campanacci¿s Disease) Solitary Osteochondroma Hereditary Multiple Exostoses Solitary Enchondroma Multiple Enchondromatosis (Ollier¿s Disease) and Maffucci¿s Syndrome Chondroblastoma Chondromyxoid Fibroma Osteoid Osteoma Osteoblastoma Histiocytosis X (Langerhans¿ Cell Histiocytosis) Nonossifying Fibroma and Fibrous Cortical Defect Primary Synovial Chondromatosis Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis and Giant- Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath Dysplasia Epiphysealis Hemimelica (Trevor¿s Disease) 39 - Malignant Musculoskeletal Tumors Dr. Gebhardt A. Osteogenic Sarcoma B. Parosteal Sarcoma C. Chondrosarcoma D. Ewing=s Sarcoma E. Fibrosarcoma F. Muscle Sarcoma G. Metastatic Tumors (Neuroblastoma, Wilm=s) H. Synovial Sarcoma SECTION VI: INJURIES 40 - General Principles of Orthopaedic Injuries Karl E. Rathjen, MD Introduction Unique Properties of the Immature Skeleton Care of the Multiply Injured Child Open Fractures Compartment Syndrome Vascular Injuries Casts Child Abuse Summary 41 - Spinal Injuries Karl E. Rathjen, MD & Daniel J. Sucato, MD, MS A. Cervical Spine KR B. Thoracic Spine DS C. Lumbar Spine DS D. Sacrum DS 42 - Upper Extremity Injuries Karl E. Rathjen, MD, Marybeth Ezaki, MD, Peter R. Carter, MD & David Alexander Podeszwa, M.D. A. The Clavicle B. The AC joint C. The Scapula D. The Proximal Humerus E. The Shaft of Humerus F. The Elbow (supracondylar, intercondylar, lateral condyle, medial epicondyle, olecranon, dislocation, proximal radius) G. The Forearm (Monteggia, radius & ulna, isolated radius & ulna, distal radius & ulna) H. The Carpals I. The Metacarpals J. The Phalanges 43 - Lower Extremity Injuries David Alexander Podeszwa, M.D and Philip L.Wilson, MD A. The Pelvis DP B. The Hip DP C. The Femur DP D. The Knee PW E. The Tibia PW F. The Ankle PW G. The Foot PW
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