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CONTENTS Foreword Preface Acknowledgments About the Author Chapter 1 Introduction What is Software Estimation Ingredients of a Good Estimation Software Project Estimation Scope Environment Experience Tools Continuous Improvement Cycle Why Software Estimation Metrics Past, Present & Future Importance of Estimation Estimation Who & How Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 2 Role of Estimation in Software Projects Software Projects and Estimation Project Budget Approval Phase Project Contract Phase Project Execution Phase Estimation & Measurement Estimation & Measurement Complexities Modularized Estimation Case Study Modularized Estimation Step-1: Estimate Size Step-2: Evaluate Technology Alternatives Step-3: Assess Impact due to Project Execution Type Step-4: Evaluate Skills/Capability Available Step-5: Calculate Total Effort Large Application Systems Heterogeneous Portfolio of Application Systems Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 3 A Study of Function Point Analysis Why Estimation What is an Estimation Method? Function Points What is a Function Point? Function Point as a measuring Yardstick Uses & Benefits of Function Points Function Point Analysis FPA Objectives The FPA Model The FPA Process Identify Estimator Obtain Project Information Understand User View Determine Type of Count Scope & Boundary of Application Count Data Functions Count Transaction Functions Calculate the Value Adjustment Factor Conclusion References Chapter 4 Data Functions Introduction Definition of Files Data Functions defined by IFPUG ILFs & EIFs Embedded Terms Control Information User Identifiable Elementary Process Maintained Rules for Identification of ILFs and EIFs ILF Identification Rules EIF Identification Rules Determining Complexity of ILFs & EIFs DET RET Complexity & FP Count Contributions Step-by-Step FP contribution calculation process Tips to remember Case Study: Counting ILF/EIF of an Invoicing Application Conclusion Identifying ILF/EIF User View Vs Developer's View References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 5 Transactional Functions Introduction Definition of Transactions Case Study Ingredients of a Transaction Transactional Functions defined by IFPUG EI, EO & EQ External Input External Output External Inquiry Embedded Terms Elementary process Control Information User Identifiable Processing Logic Maintained Rules for Identification of EI, EO and EQ EI Identification Rules EO/EQ Identification Rules Determining Complexity of EI, EO & EQ Complexity & FP Count Contributions External Inputs External Outputs/External Inquiries Step-by-Step FP contribution calculation process Case Study: Counting EI/EO/EQ of an Invoicing Application CRUD Transactions Invoice System FP Counting Process Conclusion Identifying EI/EO/EQ User's View Vs Developer's View EI/EO/EQ those are generally included: EI/EO/EQ those are generally excluded: References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 6 General System Characteristics Introduction Functional and Non-Functional Requirements Functional Requirements Non-Functional Requirements General System Characteristics Degree of Influence (DI) Guidelines for General System Characteristics GSC-1: Data Communications GSC-2: Distributed Data Processing GSC-3: Performance GSC-4: Heavily Used Configuration GSC-5: Transaction Rate GSC-6: Online Data Entry GSC-7: End-User Efficiency GSC-8: Online Update GSC-9: Complex Processing GSC-10: Reusability GSC-11: Installation Ease GSC-12: Operational Ease GSC-13: Multiple Sites GSC-14: Facilitate Change GSC and NFR Layers Tiers Quality of Service (QoS) ISO/IEC 14143-1 - Definition of User Requirements Dinosaur era to Jet age era Relationship between GSC, NFR and Technology Platform Case Study Efficiency Requirements Data Requirements Environment Requirements Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 7 Size, Effort & Scheduling of Projects Importance of Size Key Inputs to Software Sizing Differentiate Functions from Production Effort/Costs Function Point Analysis Method Size The differentiator The Yardstick Inputs to Sizing Source of Inputs Accuracy of Requirements Role of Size in Software Development Lifecycle Impact of Delivery Rate Productivity Drivers Software Product Software Production Process Software Development Environment Productivity Measurement Measuring Inputs Productivity Effort & Schedule Deriving Effort Scheduling Resource Loading Costing Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 8 Estimation Flavors Change Forever Development Projects Functional Decomposition of Modules Case Study Invoicing Application Development - Function Point Analysis Method Re-engineering Projects Re-engineering - Function Point Analysis Method Migration Projects Maintenance Projects Request for Service Estimating Maintenance Requests Function Point Analysis Case Study Maintenance Request Complexity in Estimation of Request for Service Ratio between Enhancement and Application Size Conclusion References Chapter 9 Sense of Where You Are On Right Track, On Time Pervasive Estimations The Rippling Effect Agile Software Projects Agility at Project Execution Milestones Case Study Estimation Maturity Mentor & Monitor Estimation Methods Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 10 Tips, Tricks & Traps Introduction Setting the context Tips Estimate Invisible Overheads Tip-1: Project Team Size Tip-2: Lifecycle Model Tip-3: Warranty Support Tip-4: Prototype Tip-5: Proof-of-Concept Tricks Trick-1: Manipulating Project Costs Trick-2: The Balancing Effect Trick-3: User vs. Developer View Trick-4: Accuracy of Inputs to Estimation Traps Trap-1: Estimation Tools Trap-2: Arbitrary Guesstimate Trap-3: GSC The Killer Trap-4: Application Size and Delivery Schedule Trap-5: Caution while Counting FP of Existing Applications References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 11 In-Sourcing vs. Out-Sourcing Introduction Environment The Differentiator The In-Sourcing IT Organization Organization Structure IT Applications Hardware Technology Platform People Skills Quality Processes The Out-Sourcing IT Organization The Organization Structure The IT Applications Hardware Technology Platform People Skills Quality Processes Estimation Approach In-sourcing Estimation Outsourcing Estimation Estimation Process Domain Maintenance Projects Customer In-Sourcing vs. Out-Sourcing: Pros & Cons Strategic Financial Technical Operations Conclusion References Chapter 12 Key Factors in Software Contracts Introduction Types of Contracts The Fixed Price Contract The Time & Material Contract Application Maintenance Contracts Case Study The Flexible Contract Undefined Project Scope Limited Project Budget Tight Delivery Schedule Project Execution Methods Lifecycle Models Product Quality Project Specific Overheads Truncated/Partial Projects Integration Projects Conclusion References Chapter 13 Project Estimation and Costing Introduction Ingredients of Project Costs Project Lifecycle Phases and Cost Requirements Phase Design Phase Build & Test Phase Lifecycle Model Resource Allocations Develop a Cost Matrix Estimation and TCO Estimating TCO Costs Conclusion References Chapter 14 Other Estimation Methods Introduction Estimation Methods Estimation Approaches Heuristic Approach Top-Down Estimation Approach Work-Breakdown Structure Estimation Method (WBS) Wideband Delphi Estimation Method The Bottom-up Approach Simple, Medium, Complex Method (SMC) Parametric Approach COCOMO II Model COSMIC-FFP Method Estimation Models Pros & Cons Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 15 Estimation Tools Why Use Tools Evolution of Estimation Tools Ingredients of a good Estimation Tool Deploying Estimation Tools in IT Organization List of Tools Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Chapter 16 Estimation Case Study Introduction Basic Assumptions Step-by-Step FP Counting Process (Development Projects) Case Study: 1 - Invoicing System Invoice Module Step 1: Identify Stakeholders Steps 2 & 3: Identify Category of Information & Data Items Step 4 & 5: Identify Data Functions (Data Files: ILF/EIF) Step 6: Identify Transaction Functions (EI/EQ/EO) Step 7: Aggregate Data & Transaction Function (Unadjusted) FP Counts Step 8: Obtain GSC Values for Invoice Application Step 9: Transform the Adjusted FP count into Total Effort Step 10: Transform the Total Effort into Delivery Schedule Step 11: Map the Resource loading to meet the Delivery Schedule Case Study: 2 - Invoicing System - Enhancement Step-by-Step FP Counting Process (Enhancement Projects) Conclusion References Other Interesting Reading Material Appendix A Appendix B Bibliography Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Computer software -- Development.
Computer software -- Development -- Estimates.