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CONTENTS Summary Findings Conclusions Recommendations Universities Professional societies and higher education organizations Federal funding agencies and foundations Federal agencies Congress Call to action Chapter 1 Introduction Recognizing obstacles Defining the issues Chapter 2 Learning and Performance Chapter highlights Findings Recommendation Research approaches Cognition Mathematical and spatial performance Verbal and written performance Longitudinal manifestation of cognitive differences Biology Brain structure and function Hormonal influences on cognitive performance Psychological development in infancy Evolutional psychology Society and Culture Socialization of infants and children Education Social effects on women¿s cognitive performance Conclusion Chapter 3 Examining Persistence and Attrition Chapter highlights Findings Recommendations Course selection in high school College-going and majors Undergraduate persistence to degree Social factors influencing undergraduate attrition College to graduate school Graduate school Graduate school attrition Postgraduate career plans Postdoctoral appointments Professional development and productivity Funding source Faculty positions Hiring new doctorates for faculty positions The ¿pool¿ Faculty mobility Exiting the tenure track Tenure Promotion Faculty retention Departments vs centers Economic impact of faculty attrition Case study: Chemistry Conclusion Chapter 4 Success and its Evaluation in Science and Engineering Chapter highlights Findings Recommendations Building a career Productivity Sex differences in publication productivity Recognition Leadership positions Grants and contracts Evaluation of leaders Evaluation of success Gender bias in evaluation Understanding discrimination Subtle, implicit, or unexamined bias The case for diversity: ¿There goes the neighborhood¿ Accountability and evaluation Beyond bias Conclusion Chapter 5 Institutional Constraints Chapter highlights Findings Recommendations The ¿ideal¿ scientist or engineer Recruitment Institutional interactions Family responsibilities and the bias against caregivers The maternal wall Glass ceilings Pioneers and tipping points The legal landscape Bringing institutional change Small win experiments Identifying barriers to success in science and engineering Establishing an inclusive work environment Integrating work into one¿s whole life Service obligations Breaking the conspiracy of silence: Minority-group women faculty Funding-agency driven institutional transformation Conclusion Chapter 6 Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Root causes of disparities Why change is necessary What must be done: A blueprint for action Change institutional processes to combat bias Create new institutional structures Create methods for evaluation and accountability Continuous evaluation Federal standards and compliance issues Sanctions Possible unintended consequences Call to Action Appendix A Committee Biographies Appendix B Charge to the Committee Appendix C Theories of Discrimination Appendix D References FIGURES, TABLES, AND BOXES FIGURES 1-1 Percentage of science and engineering PhDs awarded to women, 1974-2004. 1-2 Comparison of the proportion of women in PhD pools with those in tenure-track or tenured professor positions in 2003, by field. 2-4 Teaching about stereotype threat inoculates against its effects. 3-1 Occupations of science and engineering PhDs, by sector, 2002 3-2 Proportion of women CAREER and PECASE awardees, 1995-2004. 3-3 Number of women faculty in the School of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1963-2006. 3-4 Biological and health sciences applicant pool and faculty positions at the University of California, Berkeley, 2001-2004. 3-5 Physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering applicant pool and faculty positions at the University of California, Berkeley, 2001-2004. 3-6 Advancing through the ranks: University of California Berkeley faculty, by sex and field. 3-7 Comparison of the number of men and women chemistry faculty members at R1 institutions. 4-1 Individual and perceived institutional value of student mentoring , by rank and sex. 4-2 University of California faculty, aged 30-50, self-reported hours per week engaged in professional work, housework, and care-giving. 4-3 Average NIH research grant award to women and men by budget category, FY 2004. 5-1 Percent of women and men doctoral scientists and engineers in tenured or tenure-track positions, by sex, marital status, and presence of children, 2003. 5-2 Spousal employment of science and engineering PhDs, 30-44 years old in 1999: Married PhDs. 5-3 Employment expertise of spouses of science and engineering PhDs, 30-44 years old in 1999: Married PhDs with employed spouses BOXES Controversies 2-3 The Evolution of Motivation 3-1 Models of Faculty Representation Defining the Issues 1-1 Diversity among Women 1-2 Building Engineering and Science Talent: The CAWMSET and BEST Projects 2-2 The Variability Hypothesis 3-3 Academic Medicine 3-5 Factors Affecting Faculty Attrition 5-1 Universities Reaffirm Pledge for Gender Equity 5-3 A Primer on Antidiscrimination Laws 5-4 Types of Discrimination Banned under the Antidiscrimination Laws 5-8 Creating Flexibility in Tenure-Track Faculty Careers 5-10 Women¿s Initiative, Duke University 6-2 The Harvard University Task Force on Women in Science and Engineering 6-10 Title IX Focus on Research 1-3 Committee on Women in Science and Engineering: Gender Differences in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty 2-1 Meta-Analysis 2-4 Stereotype Threat 4-5 Blinded Peer Review 4-7 Making Diversity Work 4-9 Top Research Articles on the Effects of Bias on Evaluation 5-2 Workplace Pioneers: ¿Men in Skirts¿ 6-1 Benefits of Presumed Competence Experiments and Strategies 3-2 Carnegie Mellon¿s Women in Computer Science Program 3-6 Task Force on the Retention and Promotion of Junior Faculty, Yale Women Faculty Forum 3-7 The University of Washington Faculty Retention Toolkit 4-1 Speaker Representation at Scientific and Professional Society Meetings 4-2 Pioneer Award 4-3 Breaking through the ¿Polycarbonate Ceiling¿: The Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists (COACh) 4-4 Center for Research on Learning and Teaching (CRLT) Theater Program: NSF ADVANCE at the University of Michigan 4-6 Searching for Excellence and Diversity: Workshops for Search Committee Chairs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison 4-8 Specific Steps for Overcoming Bias 5-5 National Science Foundation ADVANCE Program 5-7 Deloitte and Touche: Leadership in Industry Case Study 5-9 Women in Cell Biology 6-3 Improving the Retention of Junior Faculty Case Study: Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine Task Force 6-4 Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute: Climate Workshops for Department Chairs 6-5 Building Strong Academic Chemistry Departments through Gender Equity 6-6 Stanford University¿s Childbirth Policy for Female Graduate Students 6-7 Financial Support for Dependent Care Tracking and Evaluation 3-4 The Association of American Medical Colleges¿ Faculty Roster, the American Chemical Society Directory of Graduate Research, and the American Institute of Physics Academic Workforce Survey 5-6 The Alfred P. Sloan Awards for Faculty Career Flexibility 6-8 Scorecard for Evaluating How Well Research Universities Serve Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering TABLES ES-1 Evidence Refuting Commonly Held Beliefs About Women in Science and Engineering. 2-1 The Magnitude (¿d¿) of Sex Differences in Mathematics Performance, by Age and Test Cognitive Level 3-1 Percentage of High School Graduates Completing Advanced Coursework in Mathematics and Science, by Sex and Year of Graduation 3-2 Percentages of First-Year College Students Intending to Major in Science and Engineering, By Sex and Race or Ethnicity, 2004 3-3 Number of Bachelor¿s Degrees in Science and Engineering, by Sex and Race or Ethnicity, 2001 3-4 Top Reasons for Leaving Science, Engineering, or Mathematics Undergraduate Degree Program, by Sex 3-5 Number of PhD Degrees Awarded In Science and Engineering, by Race or Ethnicity and Sex, 2003 3-6 Primary Source of Support (Percent) for US Citizen and Permanent Resident Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Sex and Race or Ethnicity, 1999-2003 3-7 Top 10 US Baccalaureate Institutions of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, 1999-2003 3-8 Location and Type of Planned Postgraduate Study for US Citizens and Permanent Resident Science and Engineering PhD Recipients, by Sex, 2003 3-9 Bachelor¿s Degree Recipients Compared with Faculty, by Sex and Field, 2002 3-10 Reasons for Job Change by Sex, all Faculty Ranks, All Fields, 1995-2003 3-11 Average Startup Packages for Assistant Professors in Selected Fields Starting in 2000-2001 at Public Research I Universities 3-12 Start-up Costs Associated with New Professors 3-13 2001 Chemistry Faculty Members, by Country of Doctorate 3-14 Chemistry Faculty, by Sex and Rank, 2001 3-15 Proportion of Chemistry Doctorates Who Obtain Chemistry Faculty Positions at Research I Institutions, by Sex and Year of PhD 3-16 Institutions Training the Greatest Number of Chemistry Faculty at Research I Institutions, by Sex and Year of PhD 3-17 Number of Faculty Hired at Selected Research I Institutions, by Sex, 1988-97 3-18 Women PhD Chemists Working Full-Time at PhD-Granting Institutions, by Rank and Sex, 1990-2005 4-1 Percentage of Women Nominated to an Honorific Society or for a Prestigious Award and the Percentage of Women Nominees Elected or Awarded, 1996-2005 4-2 Percentage of Women Chief Editors at Top-Ranked Journals, by Field 4-3 Department of Energy National Laboratories Leadership Positions 4-4 National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center Leadership Positions 4-5 National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center Leadership Positions
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Women in science -- United States.
Women in engineering -- United States.
Science -- Study and teaching -- United States.
Engineering -- Study and teaching -- United States.
Women -- Education -- United States.
Vocational interests -- United States.