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table of contents Contents List of Figures List of Tables Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1 ¿ Introduction Healthy People Initiatives Sociodemographic Trends Population Growth Over Age 65 The Baby Boomers The Older Old Chronic Conditions and Disability Centenarians Life Expectancy Hospital Stays and Physician Visits Medications Health Habits Perceptions of Health Volunteering and Work Educational Status Political Power Internet Access Poverty Racial and Ethnic Composition Definitions of Healthy Aging The Federal Government Extraordinary Accomplishment Prevention Wellness Anti-Old and Anti-Aging Compression of Morbidity Health Perspectives and Aging Health Expectancy versus Life Expectancy Physical Versus Emotional Aspects of Aging Health Care Medicare Medicaid Societal Health Care Costs Health Care versus Medical Care A Health Promotion and Aging Model The Aging Component The Health Component: Communication and Collaboration Health Education Health Behavior Change Community Health Diversity Advocacy Questions for Discussion Chapter 2 ¿ Health Professionals and Older Clients Collaboration Willingness to Collaborate Client Empowerment Versus the Passive Patient How to Collaborate Should Medical Encounters include Health Promotion? Changing Medical Encounters into Health Encounters An Office System for Implementing a Health Promotion Practice Health Education Materials Put Prevention Into Practice Referrals to Community Health Education Programs Personality Characteristics of a Health Professional ¿Collaborator¿ Communication Communication Skills Interpersonal Effectiveness Informational Processing Social and Behavioral Support Cruising the Net A Case Study in Web Deception: drkoop.com Web Sites Government Wellness Professional Organizations Specific Health Content Areas Older Consumers Electronic Newsletters Miscellaneous Communications Selected Communication Issues Cross-Cultural Communication End-of-Life Communication Communicating to Client Companions Communication Barriers Between Health Professionals and Older Clients Jargon Four Common Reasons for Health Professionals Not Communicating About Health with Older Clients Questions for Discussion Chapter 3 ¿ Clinical Preventive Services Medical Screenings and Prophylaxis: Considerable Controversy Guide to Clinical Preventive Services Accuracy, Reliability, and Effectiveness of Screening Tests Breast Cancer The 2001¿2002 Mammogram Controversy Menopause Women¿s Health Initiative 2006 Update: Controversy Continues Blood Pressure Osteoporosis Cholesterol Statins Cervical Cancer Colorectal Cancer Prostate Cancer Hearing and Vision Oral Health Diabetes Depression Other Medical (and Dog) Screenings Immunizations Aspirin Prophylaxis The Polypill Medicare Prevention A Final Word Questions for Discussion Chapter 4 ¿ Health Behavior Health Behavior Assessments and Interventions Health Risk Appraisals A Reflective Health Assessment Stages of Change Health Contracts PRECEDE Ten Tips for Changing Health Behaviors Health Behavior Theories Behavioral and Cognitive Management Healthy Pleasures Social Cognitive Theory Self-Efficacy Health Locus of Control Health Belief Model Other Theories A Final Note Questions for Discussion Chapter 5 ¿ Exercise 1996 Surgeon General¿s Report on Physical Activity and Health The Most Popular Activity of All: Walking Exercise for Disease Prevention and Functional Improvement Cardiovascular Disease Cancer Diabetes Depression Cognition Bone Density Fall Prevention Arthritis Sleep Other Conditions Caution The Four Components of My Exercise Class The Aerobics Component The Muscular Strength or Endurance Component The Flexibility and Balance Component The Health Education Component Other Exercises Different Strokes for Different Folks The Activity Pyramid Arthritis: A Barrier to Exercise and Activity Other Barriers and Cautions Selected Topics How to Respond to an Excuse Benefits Health Club, Home, or Religious Setting Personal Trainer The Role of the Health Professional Questions for Discussion Chapter 6¿Nutrition The Food Guide Pyramid Modified Food Guide Pyramid for Adults Aged 70 and Over MyPyramid The Personalized Nutrition Bull¿s-Eye Good Nutritional Habits Basic Nutrients Fats Not All Fats Are Created Equal Calculating Fat Content Cholesterol National Cholesterol Education Program Guidelines: 2004 Carbohydrates and Fiber Sugar Protein Water Vitamins and Minerals Sodium and High Blood Pressure Calcium and Osteoporosis Nutrition Labels Malnutrition Selected Topics Organic Foods Enriched and Fortified Foods Chocolate Junk Food and Fast Food Contaminated Foods Sugary Liquids Coffee Sensory Decline Professional Involvement Quackery Socioeconomic and Cultural Sensitivity Food Films Advocacy Newsletters Web Sites Questions for Discussion Chapter 7 ¿ Weight Management Trends in Weight Gain Obesity and Overweight Morbidity and Mortality Genetics, Lifestyle, and Environment Genetics Lifestyle Environment Environmental Change for Obese Americans Should We Gain Weight With Age? Body Composition Exercise Low-Carbohydrate and High-Protein Diets Other Weight Loss Programs Bariatric Surgery Caloric Input and Expenditure Portion Control Meat and Milk Holiday Gain Ten Tips for Weight Loss or Maintenance Selected Weight Management Topics Diet Drugs Emotional Distress Competitive Eating and Implications for Advocacy Surfing for Slimness Questions for Discussion Chapter 8 ¿ Complementary and Alternative Medicine National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Prevalence of CAM Types of CAM Popular CAM Techniques Diaphragmatic Breathing Progressive Muscle Relaxation Visualization Relaxation Response and Meditation Acupuncture Therapeutic Massage Chiropractic Hypnosis Biofeedback Magnet Therapy Aroma Therapy Laughter CAM and Medical Education Naturopathic Medical Colleges Selected CAM Topics and Resources CAM Insurance Weil and Chopra CAM Organizations CAM Journals Dietary Supplements Cautions Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Multivitamin Calcium and Vitamin D Vitamin B12 Vitamin E Vitamin C Antioxidant Cocktail Herbs Ginkgo Biloba The Other Gs St. John¿s Wort Saw Palmetto Echinacea Black Cohosh and other Herbs for Menopausal Symptoms Hormone Supplements Growth Hormone Melatonin Other Dietary Supplements Glucosamine and Chondroitin Nutritional drinks ConsumerLab.com and Dietary Supplement Verification Program Nutraceuticals or Functional Foods and Drinks Questions for Discussion Chapter 9 ¿ Selected Health Education Topics Smoking Prevalence Associated Diseases Quit Ratio Age Gender Physician, Nurse, and Telephone Interventions The Patch Combining Interventions Taxes Secondhand Smoke and Attacking the Tobacco Industry Smoking Bans Bloody Mouths Medicare Smoking Cessation Coverage Additional Programs and Materials Alcohol Definition Types Assessment Prevalence Associated Diseases and Problems Intervention and Referral Treatment Alternatives Positive Effects Resources Medication Usage Misuse Prevention Advice From Pharmacists A Physician¿s Experience Advertising Resources Injury Prevention Fall Prevention Motor Vehicle Safety Pedestrian Safety Resources Sleep Interventions Resources Questions for Discussion Chapter 10 ¿ Social Support Definition of Social Support Family, Friends, Church, and Others Lay Support Online Support Pet Support The Eden Alternative and Green House Other Pet Support Options Religious or Spiritual Support And Now for the Rest of the Story Aging and Spirituality Resources Caregiving, Sexuality, and Other Types of Intimate Support Terminally Ill Hospice Support Peer Support Empowerment Theories Age-Related Peer Support Groups Health Professionals and Peer Support Peer Support Organizations Intergenerational Support Physician Support Questions for Discussion Chapter 11 ¿ Mental Health Mental Health and Mental Illness Depression Treatments for Depression The Life Review Process Alzheimer¿s Disease Cognitive Fitness Caregiving for Dementia Other Mental Disorders Insurance Coverage Chronic Stress Measurement Perspectives Psychoneuroimmunology Stress Management A Positive Attitude The Placebo Effect The Botox Alternative Mental Health and Aging Resources Questions for Discussion Chapter 12 ¿ Community Health Community Organizations Senior Centers Religious Institutions The Shepherd¿s Centers of America Other National Resources with a Focus on Religion and Aging Worksite Wellness Hospitals Educational Programs Shopping Mall-Based Programs Computer Education Model Health Promotion Programs The National Council on the Aging¿s (NCOA) Center for Healthy Aging Healthwise Chronic Disease Self-Management Program Project Enhance (formerly Senior Wellness Project) Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease Benson¿s Mind/Body Medical Institute Strong for Life The American Geriatrics Society/Foundation for Health in Aging Community-Oriented Primary Care A Model Health Program in a Chinese Community Professional Associations Community Volunteering Federal Volunteeerism AARP Cyber Volunteering Community Health Advocacy Gray Panthers Environmental Advocacy Red Hat Society Granny Peace Brigade The Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program Benefits CheckUp Questions for Discussion Chapter 13 ¿ Diversity Age Gender Race and Ethnicity Definition Racial Disparities in Health Care Racial and Ethnic Distribution African American Elders Hispanic American Elders Asian and Pacific Islander Elders Native American Elders National Organizations with an Emphasis on Minority Aging Culture Socioeconomic Status Rural Aging Rural Resources Global Aging and the International Cinema Questions for Discussion Chapter 14 ¿ Public Health Wellness General of the United States Wellness Junk Food Tax Strengthen Wellness Research The National Center on Wellness United States Preventive Services Task Force Increase Wellness Utilization Healthy People 2010 HEDIS Wellness Coverage Advisory Committee Wellness General Reports Wellness in Managed Care State Mandates Linking Medical Clinics and Community Health An Opposing Point of View (Sort of) And Now for the Rest of the Wellness General¿s Platform Universal Health Care Coverage Managed Care is not the Problem or the Answer Medicare Part D: A Critical Analysis Patented versus Generic Drugs Long Term Care Other Public Health Policy Issues Questions for Discussion Chapter 15 ¿ Glimpse into the Future Retirement Institutional Change Government and Foundations Education Conclusion Creative Career Opportunity: Reengagement Counselor Physical Health Creative Career Opportunity: Chronic Disease Management Coordinator Mental Health Creative Career Opportunity: Life Review Specialist Supportive Housing Elder Cohousing Green House Miscellaneous Creative Care Opportunity: Supportive Housing Specialist Conclusion References
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Preventive health services for older people -- United States.
Health promotion -- United States.
Older people -- Health and hygiene.
Primary Prevention -- methods.
Health Education -- methods.
Health Promotion -- methods.